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top of which may be seen an elevation tion on every rood of land.connected on the Portsmouth coast;) and to the with the spot where the last sword was right the dwelling and lands of a farmer drawn with a view of preventing the inwho lately served the office of sheriff for terference of William in the political the county. As mere extent of prospect affairs of England. scarcely compensates the fatigue of If any instance of unusual gratiende, climbing a hill; and the contemplation of or liberality of feeling, (though united those lucky chances which sometimes aid with the founding of a chapel) lie in the industry, and enable men to found perainbulator's way, he is to blame if he houses, is not likely to produce much do not stop and pick it up. On one of amusement to any other than the person the most 'cold and dreary nights of a who reaps benefit from thein; 1 pass winter, towards the middle of the 17th both these objects, and conduct the century, a child was found, half-famishert reader across several level inclosures of and half-frozen, at the door of a humble rich and well-cultivated land, to the vil. cottage in Twyford. About his neck was lage of Twyford. All here is life and tied a label, in which the writer ima bustle. We are now on the great Bath plored pity on the unguarded foreliead road; and high-crested Folly, and droop- of the poor babe, and stated the name ing suppliant Sickness, press with equal by which he might be called, should he speed to the teinple of Bladud; each survive. The child's look was more leaving a lesson of instruction as he eloquent than the periods of this writer; passes.

the cottager sheltered the foundTwyford is chiefly memorable for a ling, and caused him to be instructed in skirmish between a detachment of Irish those rudimental parts of learning which dragoons, and a few of the soldiers be-, are found, by experience, to impart quite longing to the prince of Orange, in 1688. sufficient erudition for the purpose of k may be remembered, that the only making a fortune. Fated, as it would military opposition of any moment made seen, to an eccentric lot, the boy quitted to the approaches of the protestant Wil Twyford, and, after various rambles, ser liam, occurred at Reading. A serious tled in London, where he amassed a con. conflict there took place between some siderable property. Abandoned by those Scottish and Irish troops, and an ad- who should have possessed a claim on vanced party of the prince's horse. But his heart, he knew no home except the the royalists were speedily routed. In. village which had protected his perilous deed, if the complaint preferred by the infancy; and, in commemoration of the partizans of James be founded on truth, humanity of his benefactor, and under it is no wonder that they were compelled the hope of exciting a similar compasto fly; for it was asserted by the adherents sionate feeling in the breasts of others, he of the court, that the townspeople of built a chapel of ease at Twyford, and Reading fired from the house-windows on founded a charity-school for ten children the backs of the Irish soldiers, while the on the spot where he had once been prince's cavalry charged them in front. exposed, forlorn, and friendless, to the It is certain that Jaines was very unpo- inclemency of a December's night. pular at Reading; and a song was com Ruscomb, a little rural parish, which posed in memory of this fight, adapted you are sure to be told contains neither to the tune of lillibullero.

shop for public house, adjoins the village A few of the vanquished party rallied at Twyford, and faced their pursuers on a little hill contiguous to the village; in the register of the parish for that period.

above, no entry respecting their burial occurs but they were again compelled to take It appears probable therefore, that the in: Aight, and the greater part succeeded in habitants of Twyford contemptuously threw joining their friends at Colnbrook. On the bodies of friend and foe into smallow this little mound, the traveller must in. graves on the field of action, eritably pause, and gaze with satisfac On searching the registers of Ruscomb

parish, I noticed the following entry, whiiche Lord Ogilvie fought at the head of the appears to prove that no seclusion of resiScottish regiment, though he was then more dence was a preservative from that dreadful than eighty years of age.

pestilence which so frequently half-depopu+ Many human bones, and one entire ske-' lated the metropolis : "1616, Edward Pol. leton, have been found by the followers of lentine, and Sve of his children, which died the plough, carelessly deposited in the soil of the plague in Twyford, with some others of this hill; and, though several soldiers who died of that disease, were buried on and were certainly slain in the conflict described about May 17."


of Twyford. The nent and secluded air tion, in tủe meanest possible style of the of the cottages which are occasionally present time! How much it is to be discovered in this parish, interests the vi- regretted that men descended from ansitor in its favour; and he forms much cient families, and inhabiting the houses expectation concerning its natural attrac- of their forefathers, do not perceive that teons, when he finds there is a lake within they are treating the meinory of the dead its preciucts, that takes a name from the with disrespect, while they disgust the parish. Ruscomb certainly does pos- eye of the living, by thus placing the sess many beauties, for which it is in- prim formality of modern days beside debted entirely to nature; and the lake the wild irregular beauties of a llenry's may, without doubt, be a choice object or an Elizabeth's venerable era ! in the eyes of the inhabitants; but the The natöre of my excursion will not surprise of the traveller is not totally un- allow me to disdain minute particulars, mixed with indignation, when he finds I do not walk amid the sublimities of that the district 512 entitled is, in fact, a nature, or the refinements of art, No vast expanse of low pasture-ground, Alps on Alps arise to crowd my page with which in winter may perhaps assume

a cluster of wonders; nor can I call the some faint reseinblapce of a lake, when painter or the statuary to impart a grace the neighbouring rivers overflow, but to ny descriptions. Thus circumwhich, for at least ten months out of the stanced, I cannot afford to let pass ulitwelve, is covered with the fucks and told the local anecdote or family-legend; herds of the thriving Ruscounb husband and I therefore point the reader's attenmen.

tion to a varrow lane, with rugged lau. It appears that cardinal Pole was thorns and ancient pollards on each made " prebendary of Roscomb, in the side, and which is directly opposite to church of Salisbury," in 1517. But the the principal entrance of Staulake park, visitor is inore interested when he finds This rural avenue is termed Buckingthat the seat now tenanted by Mr. ham's Lane, and it derives its naine from Comyns, but which is the property of the perpetration of an honorable murde: ; Jady Eyre, was formerly the residence of for lionourable certainly we must call the William Penn," who is supposed to have deatl-wound of sir Owen Buckingham, here written bis prefatory observations since he received it in the practice of to George Fox's Journal. This primitive duelliug. supporter of the society of Friends, seems About fifty years back, sir Owen Buck.

to have been popular in the vicinity of ingham dined with Mr. the his retireinent; for his name at entire opulent resident at Siaplake-house; and length, or compound words allusive to nothing could exceed the hospitality of his American possessions, frequently oc. the entertainer, or the derripient of the cur in the parishi-register of that period, visitors. The glass circulated briskly i as the appellations bestowed on their and sir Owen, in the unguarded hour of children by his rustic neighbours. wine and mirth, spoke, it is believed,

An agreeable walk through the with levity concerning the conduct of grounds formerly belonging to William a lady whose health was proposed by the Penn, (several points of which command master of the house. Blood alone could rich views over the lake, and the adjacent expiate the offence; and, frantic with counţry,) ushers the pedestrian io the wine and rage, both parties proceeded to small park dependent on Stanlake-house, the lane on the outer side of the gate, once the seat of the Aldworths, the re- and decided the question with their presentative of which family now pos. swords. The moon lent a dubious liglot sesses the title of Lord Braybrooke. The to the barbarous scene, and the conflict chief part of this house appears to have was for a time maintained with mutur ! been built in the early part of Elizabeth's obstinacy; but sir Owen stumbled, and reign, and is strongly marked with all the sword of his adversary evlered his the architectural peculiarities usual at breast. Several servants had wituessed that period. A contemptible perver- the combat, and they now supported the sion of taste has caused some improver. wounded man to the house; but he died of the edifice to construct a large addi- on the staircase, as they were endea

vouring to convey him to a chamber. A The house was cased over, ana large countryınan shiewed me the spot on additional offices were built, by the late lord which sir Owen fell; and spoke, in his çhiet-justice Eyre.

way, a şitire on duelling, by observing,

" that

" that it was a pity gentlemen could not much reflection, on the privileges of the take pattern froin their inferiors, and end poor. Whatever may have produced their quarrels without bloodshed.” the alteration, the English peasant is

Let us quit this polluted dell, (which, certainly not in so eligihle a situation as if pastoral deities ever inhabited it, they that possessed by luis forefather. If he must have long since forsaken in disgust,) be, what causes his frequent attendance and proceed on our walk. A shaded on the alıns giving table of the parisha lane, on whose hedges the wild honey. officer?- Three-fourths of our country suckle hangs in grateful profusion, while labourers cannot, I hope, be termed the song of the husbandman (his bosom indolent, deceptive, and vicious; yet happily a stranger to that refinement of three-fourths (or perhaps a larger prosentiment which leads to deliberate portion) are pensioners of the overseer. slaughter) chears the traveller as he I helieve that, on candid investigation, pursues his path, conducts us to the an. it would be found that the wages of the cient seat of the Comptons, now the peasant have not increased in a due enviable residence of calidour, urbanity, ratio with the price of every article and science. The agricultural records necded by his frugal household. At any of the county bear testimony to the suc- rate, it is obvious, that the farmers have cess of the present proprietor of Ilinton. grown rich, while their servants have buuse, in experimental farming® ; his become poor. philosophical acquirements are known But it'the labourers have really sunk in to the few, who consider them of the self-cstimation, and are indolent and highest description; his philanthropy deceitful on principle, hon inuch it is to and good sense are familiar to the whole be lamented that men of large landed neighbourhood, and possess the singular estates do not endeavour to rouse the felicity of being venerated by all classes. spirit of the inferior classes, by proposing

Directly before the gates of Hinton periodical rewards for industry, and prohouse lie spread the rich lands, lately priety of deportment! Surely the idea inclosed, which formerly belonged, in is neither romantic nor visionary. The right of commonage, to the parishioners peasants are not altogether insensible to of llurst. So much has been said by honorary distinctions; for they will able investigators respecting the pro wrestle with ardor at a wake for the rii. priety of inclosures, that I forbear to bon, or laced bat, that is named as the suggest those objections which once had. barren recompence of their valour or skill. much weight with my mind, but which it Still less can it be supposed, that they is possible arose from too narrow and would look with indifference on the confined a view of the subject. Yet I solid remuneration of such valuables or cannot help believing that the common- privileges as it might be desirable for the Tights of the ancient Englishman were country-gentleman to hold forthi, for the a source of comfort to bis humble family, encouragement of frugality, and a perseand served to endear to him the laws and verance in laborious habits. well-being of his natire soil. It is cer Although local induence and excrtion tain that no positive good can be attain. are chiefly calculated for the undertaed without an alloy of attendant evil. king, it appears that government might, I do not seek to deny that society may, with entire safety to the agricultural inderire some real benefits from the cul- terest, do much towards the amelioration tiration of fresh lands; but I must of the peasant's destiny. I will briefly Cink that the inclosures which now so mention one instance, in which it appears Bunerally prevail, inflict an injury equally that ihe legislature might interfere, with

dubitable, by destroying much of that marked advantage to the labouring counindependent spirit, and fervid simplicity tryman. The duties on malt absolutely of character, which have been accus- prevent the inhabitant of the cottage tomed to invigorate the British peasant, froin retaining our wholesome national and to render him invincible when armed liqwr as a part of his family.alipient, in the cause of his country.

Tea, (or rather streanis of warın water This is not a time to encroach, without coloured with indigenous herbs, apd dig. Dr. Mavor, in his “View of the Agri of beer in his impoverished household;

nified with that name,) supplies the place culture of Berkshire,” bestows a jest eulogy and undermines his own vigour, while it on the spirit and ingenuity of Dr. Nicholls ; and there gives a skeich of the " Hinton more hastily enervates the little race phough and scuffiet," implements ievented by expected to till the ground for a succeed. that gettleman

ing generation..


It appears that the revenue would be every pool where danger is apprebended, very slightly affected, by government or every two or three hundred yards of allowing a quantity of inalt, proportioned river or canal, which may pass through to the number of his family, to be issued a populous neighbourhood, is required to to the peasant, free from those duties have its boat, where shall the ardour be which it is now judged expechent to found to promote the design?. Another make it pay. The parish-officer, with objection which strikes me forcibly, is coinparatively little trouble, might su- the probability of its becoming from its perintend the distribution; and render weight so entangled with the broken ice, an account to the exciseinan, or person as to render it difficult, if not impractinamed for that purpose, of the receipts cable, for the operator to return without and issues of malt taken from the adja- assistance, but which could not always cent malt-house, for the use of the poor. be calculated upon; added to this must The same money, or less than the sun, be the difficulty which the distressed now paid by the labourer for what the sufferer would have to contend with, in country dealer thinks proper to name grappling any thing so unsteady or so tea, would enable hiin to purchase quite much out of his reach as the edge of the sufficient malt for the use of his family, boat, and the danger also of so small a if free from the enormous duties to boat being upset by lifting an almost wbich it is subject. It is alınost needless helpless creature into it from the water. to remark that the health, the comfort, All these difficulties would, I conceive, and the manners, of the peasant, (as the be effectually removed, and every secupossession of beer at home night, at rity given, by the simple expedient of length, wean him from the habit of using a common ladder, which might visiting the ale-house of the village,) be procured at a very inconsiderable would be benefited by this indulgence. expense, or which, from its easy care

When a certain senator projected riage, almost any neighbourhood might plans for ameliorating the state of the quickly supply. Its length would give poor, I publicly submitted to him this security, by furnishing so long a bearing idea, in a more detailed form. He on the ice : it may be slided across the thought it futile, for he paid no attention hole so as for the sufferer to grasp some to it. Possibly the reader may think so of its rounds; and any person may walk

I. N. B. on his hands and feet close up to, and Hurst, Berks.

even over the spot, with as little hazard

as can well be imagined. It would To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. instantly become an easy and safe deSIR,

posit for the body, and the operator N the cause of humanity, no effort might drag his charge to a distance from

is lost; for whatever excites public the hole; or, if time and opportunity attention, inust eventually contribute its should serve, a rope might be attached share towards the improvement of the to one or to each end of the ladder, for public mind. On this principle I was the spectators to lend a hand, and it pleased with the saggestion of T. C. would then become an effectual and communicated by last January's Magas expeditious sledge. zine, on the advantages of an ice life- I was once unfortunately a witness to boat, which certainly on first considera- a scene where I was instantly struck tion appears a plausible and praise-wor. with the idea, how readily a life might thiy invention. There are however some have been preserved by the mode here objections which I fear will overthrow its recommended; and have since procured proposed utility, but which I would not a ladder for the spot, made lighter than attempt to bring forward without stating for common use, with the uprights the what I think to be a more simple and same strength throughout, and the cross practicable expedient. In the first bars two or three inches longer : and to instance, however perfect the thing may. this I can conceive neither objection nor be in itself to answer the desired purpose, improvement. is it likely that such an expensive appa- Birmingham.

J. L. ratus should be prepared at every place where bumanity might wish the precaution, considering the great uncertainty To the Edilor of the Monthly Magusira of its ever being wanted ? Its size and SIR, weight would render it too unwieldy to AVING frequently experienced the

HAN serve for an extensive district; and if inconvenience and even difficulty


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of reading off minute divisions on the the purpose of subdividing otirer divisions tables of philosophical iustruments, a me by means of a moveable scale; hence it tkod presented itself to me, by which might commence where divisions in the apparently the present way of graduating present way are found to become irke instruments might be much improved some to reckon, viz. at the hundred in The method I mean, and which, as far the inch, dividing in this instance any as I know, is perfectly new, is, instead tenth of an inch into ten, thus giving of engraved or black lines with spaces hundredths; any hundredth of an inch between them, to use lines of the di- into ten, giving thousandths; and so on mensions required, of different colours, to any required or possible extent.* in contact with each other : thus the It will be apparent, that having prespaces, which in the present way occupy viously assigned a specific number to room, without forming a part of the cale every different colour, which after a little culation, would be entirely done away, practice would be recollected, but which and every set of divisions upon an equal might at all times be instantly known by scale would be comprized in at least half referring to a similar scheme upon a the compass.

scale of convenient size ready for the The divisions in present use, are to the purpose, the trouble or irksomeness of tenth, twentieth, or fiftieth of an inch: reckoning minute divisions would be ena greater minuteness than this quickly tirely obviated; the line of colour pointed becomes irksome in practice.

2, indicating at once the number of subThe divisions above-mentioned, are division. afterwards subdivided by means of a In descending to extremely minute divernier, so as to extend to the hundredth, visions, the moveable scale, instead of thousandth, and even ten-thousandth of containing ten lines of colour, might have an inch, by means of a good magnifier; one-half only, in coloured lines; which and here the difficulty I have alluded to, would be sufficient for indicating any of calculation, is increased.

number of the ten, the blank space of Diy method is, to use ten lines, each of the scale indicating five occasionallyt. a different colour, contrasted in the best This mode of division admits in course manner, each being as strongly tinted as the use of the vernier, consisting in possible, and placed in contact with each this instance of coloured lines, as well other. The order of the colours I have as in the usual method, and with at least adopted, is represented in the following equal advantage. sketch:

A scale of division consisting of 10,000 in the inch, is sometimes required in practice; and doubtless minuter divi. sions still might be desirable, were they

made so as to be seen and reckoned with 10. 9. 8. 7. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. facility; which, I flatter myself, the methe whole running in the order here ex- thod here proposed will be found per. hibited; and assigning the number spe- fectly adequate to. cificd, respectively to each of the several In my experiments I made use of card, colours, so that each colour shall signify paper, and tin-foil, as I have mentioned of express that number.

above, merely by way of trial; and having Having found some difficulty in pro- found them answer, I should recommend curing such lines of colour, drawn with the use of laminze of brass, copper, or the required exactness, I succeeded com- silver, which, compacted together into pletely to my wish, by placing together lamina of card, paper, or tin-foil, com. I am info med from unquestionable au. pressed together, as it were, into one suh. thority, that microscopes are made for sale stance, the edge of each lamina having which magnify the diameter of an object 600 been previoasly prepared with the pro.times: hence it will follow that such diper colour.

visions as I have mentioned, might be exBy this method, experience has proved tended to the number of 60,000 in the length to me that divisions to the number of a of an inch, provided coloured lamine sutti Hundred in an inch can be casily read off çiently thin could be procured, or an artise

had dexterity enough to draw such coloured by an ordinary eye, unassisted by a mag. lines. nifier; and to two thousand by a mag + Whenever five colours only are used, nifier of ordinary power.

perhaps the following arrangement might be It will be obvious that this method by the best: 1 white; 2 blue ; 3 red; 4 yel. coloured lines, is applicable chiefly to low; 5 black.

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