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one substance, would form an uniform place till he was removed to Rome ir series of coloured lines, without any his twelfth year, where he studied under space between them.

Palæmon the grammarian, and Virginius It appears, from what I have stated Flaccus the rhetorician. lle imbibed before, that it might be possible, by the those austere principles of the stoje method here proposed; to exhibit even which are so frequently displayed in his the difference of the 60,000th part of an writings, from Cornuius, his friend and iuch, on a scale; but for ordinary use, l master in philosophy. Ile is said to have believe from one hundred to one or two written many things in very early youth; thousand are sufficient; and this, I can but it was by reading the tenth book of venture to say, a scale formed on this Lucilius that he was led to the pursoit principle will give with the utmost per- of satire. He was the intimate friend of spicuity, without the use of a vernier, Lucan, and shared with that young and but which, when minuter divisions are re- interessitg poet a just detestation of the quired, might be conveniently adapted to it. arrogance and tyranny of Nero. The

Ilaving given an account of my expe. character of Persius appears to have riments on this subject, which were made been very amiable. Contrary to what merely for the sake of putting my plan might be expected from the harsh style, to some kind of practical test, I shall sarcastic severity, and the indecent al leare it to others to determine on the lusions, which too frequently occur in his practicability and utility of it in general Satires, he was mild in his mannere application,

warmly attached to his family and friends, RICHARD WALKER. and of a dispasition so reserved and Queen-street, Orford.

modest as to excite the wonder of his April 5, 1810.

licentious contemporaries. Ilis state of P. $. I first contrived this new mode of health was generally weak, and he died division for the purpose of measuring small of a complaint in his chest (vitio ste variations in the barometer, to which instru. machi*) before he had attained his thirment it seems particularly applicable. tieth year.

- Six Satires are all that remain of this LYCÆUM OF ANCIENT LITERA. young and rigid poet. They appear to TURE.-No. XXVIII.

have been well received in his own time,

and admired by those whose serious PERSIUS. CAVING already in a late num- terpers and virtuous dispositions inber trespassed so largely upon

of the field of satire, we hasten to close a contempt for pleasure. That they tlris part of our subject with an account

were not calculated to please the greater of Persius, the only remaining poetical part of his countrymen, may be eadily satirist of antiquity. Upon his merits it supposed. The fastidious Romans, will not be necessary to descant much at among whom vice and corruption were large; his life was short, and his remains completely naturalized, might be laughed are unusually scanty.

into decency by the delicate raillery of There is a life of A. Persius Flaccns, Horace, but they turned with fear and supposed to bave been written by Probus, disgust from the keen invectives and which, though abounding in errors ac.

harsh pictures of Persias. Severity was cording to Casaubon, yet seems to be foreign to Horace; he disclaimeti'it al the source from which every account of together.. Jlis sharpest touches were him has been taken. lle was born in comparatively innocent. Admissus cir. the 22d year of Tiberius, and of Rome cum præcordia ludit. He endeavoured 787, while Fabius Persicus and Lucius to laugh men out of their vices; and, to Vitellius were consuls. The place of his use a liomely expression of Creechit le birth has been contested; some assigning did not lance or cauterize the sores, but Volaterra, a town of Etruria ; and nthers, tickled till he healed. But the stern the province of Liguria, but apparently maxims of Persius, lis rigid virtue, his upon no other authority' than these lines, insulting sneers, and cutting reproaches, which occur in the sixth of his Satires:

'alarmed without correcting, and provoked

instead of amending. And if he sailed mihi nunc Ligus ora

as a moralist, still less was he likely to Intepet, hibernatque meum bare, quâ latus please as a poet. Superior to Ilorace,

ingens Dant scopuli, et multâ litus se valle receptat.

. See Casaubon in Vit. Pers. At all events, he continued in the former + Creech, Pref. to Hor.


and perhaps to Juvenni, in virtue and while he expounded the doctrines of the learning, he was inferior to both in ele- stoics to his friend Cornutus, or expagance and wit. His style, which is some. tiated to the poet Bassus on the true times noble, figurative, and poetical, was use of riches. ' In answer to this last suited to the dignity of his sentiments ; objection, the common arguinent may which have all the grandeur that the be used, that what is obscure or unin. philosophy of the stoics, when judiciously telligible now, was not so at the time in applied, could give them.* But he was which he wrote, particularly to the equally a stranger to the delicacy of Ho- learned persons to whom his satires are race, and the majesty of Juvenal. It addressed. Many allusions, and hints of was seldom indeed that he permitted circumstances then universally known, himself to unbend the severity of his are lost to us. Though'satirical writings muse, and he is always unsuccessful in his may be preserved from the injuries of atteinpts to assume a lighter style.f time, and be read in after-ages, their Energy, acuteness, and spirit, are his views were present, and intended for the characteristic features : though his lan. age in which they were written. While guage is rude and uncourb, tiis sense is therefore we admit the charge of obscualways manly and bold. These qualities rity, we do not allow it that weight made him a favourite with the few whose which it might have in other cases. virtue and learning rendered them su. We may as well complain of the rust perior to the prevailing follies of the age. upon an ancient coin, as of the obscurity Considering the very scanty efforts of of an ancient satirist. The brevity of his pen, he obtained a greater share of style which Persius affected, and' bis applause than many others whose works close philosophical turn of thought, may were more numerous. Quintilian and have contributed to his obscurity; and Martial have borne testiinony to his there was perhaps a melancholy in his merit, and to the reputation he enjoyed.t temper that infected his writings, and

Módern critics have however censured made them want the spirit, though they him for defects of composition, from abounded in the gall, of satire. which it is not easy to defend him. Even Considered merely as a poet, it must Casaubon, his fondest admirer and best be confessed that Persius has little claim interpreter, admits that his style is ob upon the admiration of posterity. His scure. But if any apology can be made verse is unpolished, his comparisons are for this first sin against good writing, it coarse, his allusions indecent and low. is in the case of a satirist, and above all His ungraceful transitions froin one subu of one who dared to reprobate the follies ject to another, belray his contempt or of a tyrant. If Persius be obscure (and his ignorance of elegant composition. we ackgowledge that he is), let it be re- His great merit is in the zeal, the car. meinbered that he wrote in the time of nestness,* with which he inculcates maxNero. It has been remarked indeed that ims of virtue, and discovers his abhor. this author is not inerely obscure when herence of rice.

For this he seems to lashes and exposes the Roman emperor. have willingly sacrificed all the graces It was very well, say the critics, to em- and fastidious delicacy upon which the ploy hints and half sentences while he reputation of poets is too often founded, censured the vices of a cruel and luxu. His poetry is a strong and rapid torrent rious despot; but there could be no oc. which pours in its infracted course over casion to envelope himself in obscurity, rocks and precipices; and which occa

sionally, like the waters of the Rhone, Scoicam denique professionem nunquam disappears from our view, and loses obliviscitur, adeò exactè et doctè aliq. itself under ground.+ Swini wv, ut ne Zeno quidem ipse aut Chry

Persius is therefore no favourite with sippus porticum illam melius fuerit fulsurus. the critics of the sixteenth and seven-Cas Prolog. in Pers.

teenth centuries. Scaliger is vehement + Sed Persius jam tum in illâ suâ adoles

in his condemnation, attributing his obcentiâ gravis, totusque ad severitatem factus, Xenocratis quàm Menippo familior, Gratiis scurity to the silly affectation of choosing rarà litavit. Ibid.

to convey by hints what he did not think 1 Multum et veræ gloriæ quamvis uno libro Persius meruit. Quinst. --Sæpids in libro * Scias verò cùm Persium legas, sentire memoratur Persius uno. Mart.

illum quæ dixit ; et quod Græci aiunt, havu Sed Poetæ, says Casaubon, facilè ignosco, εκ διαθεσεως γραφειν, και απο των δογμάτων ουνε cùm cogito crudelissimi et portAwTatev tye axo twv 7811 v.-Prulog. in Pers. janni.- Prolog. in Pers.

† Preface to Drummond's Pers. MONTHLY Mao, No, 198



proper to unfold at large. Bayle ascribes and this was not a transitory salute in it to a defective taste; and tlrat singular the street; but the poor and dependants turn of mind which delighted in enige were accustomed to resort to the houses inatical figures, even when it was ne- of the great men to wish them a good cessary only to propound a moral maxim. day, and make a tender of their persons Vossius contends that he knew nothing and services. These were called amici of the common rules of satire; and Va communes, and crowded the halls and outvassor censures his Latinity, which he ward chambers. But Juvenal, in his says is unworthy the age in which he third satire, speaks of the highest magis, flourished. The elder Casaubon, on the trates hurrying along to a much baser atother hand, is as warm in his praise,* tendance: and boldly places him in the saine line Quod porrò officium (ne nobis blandiar) aut with Horace and Juvenal: Cum autem

quod trium Romanæ satira poetarum, Ho- Pauperis hic meritum ; si curet nocte rogatus rati, Persii, et Juvenalis, idem sit props. Currere, cùm prætor lictorem impellat, et its situm, idem scopus, quem antè diximus; Præcipitem jubeat dudum vigilantibus orbis, magna tamen inter ipsos differentia; Ne prior Albinam, aut Modiam collega ss omnes esse eximios, omnes lectu dignissimos, lutet ? et qui diversis virtutibus tandem propè In vain we poor to levies early run : parem sint consecuti.t

The grandee has long since been up and gone. Juvenal and Persius are generally The prætor bids his lictors mend their pace, printed together. The first edition is, But his colleague outstrips him in the race; Juvenal and Persius, fol. Romæ per Uldalric The childless matrons are long since awake, cum Gallum, no year.

And for affronts the tardy visits take. fol. Brixiæ, 1473, very rare.

These legacy-hunters could stoop to fol. Romæ. 1474.

make their bows at the houses of widows, Venet. apud Ald. 1501.

and of such as had no heirs; and these Paris. Steph. 154 1.

salutations, being usually paid at or before Delp. Paris. Sto. 1684.

the dawn of day, were termed officia ante Persius alone. H. Casaubon, 12mo. Par. 1607. lucana. The servile crowd, till their Lond. 12mo. 1617. Edit. Opt,

idol appeared, amused themselves in the For the Monthly Magazine.

court or adjoining chambers, which front

thence were called cubicula salutatoria. Of ATTENDANCE ON GREAT MEX among But in the houses of the eininent persons the ROMANS.

there was a distinction of chambers acPLATTERY and servility came into power; and though a generous spirit who probably wanted relief and assist

going into the anti-chamber, whilst those may refuse compliance with them, yet auce remained below. they have obtained among all ranks in all nations, and with greater success than the house, the apartment rang with salve

At the appearance of the master of any thing else that can be named. It or ave: at first the title of dominus was is difficult to express to what a degree considered sufficient, but afterward that they were carried by the poor, the can- of rex was more generally used. Then, didates for offices, the clients, and the in turns, and with the most respectful dependants

, among the Romans ; that gestures, they offered him their persons people so celebrated for magnanimity. and services; their compliments generally The modern ceremonies of courts, the respect of vassals for their lords, are their

patron, who sometimes condescend

meeting with favourable answers from familiarity and neglect, compared with ed to bestow a kiss upon those of a their assiduity and debasement. Attendance among the Romans was the court, withdrew. When any one

higher order; and, after taking a turn in expressed by the word assectatio:, and had fallen under the patron's displeasure, included three parts

, called salutatio, he was denied admittance, or made to deductio, and assiduitus; all three indis- wait, or answered only with a nod, of pensable duties to be paid to those froin

was altogether unnoticed. From this whom any thing was expected. The first first visit, some hastened away to pay > of these ceremonies was the salutatio; similar homage to other men in power,

Seethe animated note, where, addressing from whom also they had or fancied they "himself to Scaliger, be exclaime, Pax! vit had expectations; others staid to attend incomparabilis, &c.

their patron when he went abroad. # Ibid.

The second way of paying court was


the deductio; the accompanying great nent orator, to whom the youth attached men to the forum or senate, and back himself, paying bis court at his house, again to their houses. The most re waiting upon him every where, and esa spectable attendants, or those who were pecially attending his pleadings. What most in favour with the patron, were glory can be compared to that of orators? nearest his person, himself either walk. It is not only the men designed for buing, or carried in a litter; the others siness who value and respect them, but going before or after him. Thus Martial every youth who has any hopes or ex. inforins us, he had attended one Bassus, pectations to indulge. The fathers are when he waited on widows, to prevail on daily sounding their praises to their chilthem to leave bin a legacy. The same dren; the very populace pride theinpoet also mentions no less a person than selves upon knowing their persons, and Paulus, a consul, as extremely assiduous pointing to them in the streets. The in these early morning-visits, and even first desire of a countryman or foreigner, dangling after litters : so low was the upon his arrival in Rome, is to see those consular dignity sunk under the empe- men of whoin he has heard so much.". rors! Those who led the van in these Thus the custom originally was not a bad processions went by the derisory name one; but it was soon corrupted by ambiof anteambulones, and shewed their zealtion and by avarice.

0. for their patron by clearing the way. The third method of insinuating them

For the Monthly Magazine. selves into favour was the assiduilas, Farther Observations on the Term 18 the very extreme of officiousness and

TERVAL, as used in MUSIC. wervility; not returning home after the meroine salutation, bue waiting on their I received hence ofien private letter It is true they were generally of the in- lingly retract my definition of an Intera digent class who thus loitered away their pul,

given in the present volume of the time. A knight or a senator seldom Monthly Magazine, in a paper On cercondescended so far, unless they were tain Musical Terms used by the Ancandidati for some employment, and cients," page 122, line 5 from the botthen only to some person of distinguished tom; defimag an interval, “ the differjuterest. The assiduitas might be per

ence between two sounds, as to the forned by proxy. The train of these at number of vibrations, or pulses, in * tendants at length becoming inconvenient given time;" and calling an interval "the in the streets, the custom was introduced pitch-difference of two sounds," instead of reducing them to a stated number, ac of which, read, the "pitch-ratio. ** cording to the rank of the patron. Butihis

The judicious practice was over-ruled by the 'tribunes of the people, who delighted pitch in Dr. Rees's Cyclopædia) that the pre

Experiments have shewn, (sec Concertin having a mob at their heels, huzzaing sent practice of usicians is, to pitch C of the as they went along. The compensations tenor cliff-not susuch a degree of acuteness which the great made to their followers of sound as is excited by a stretched string after these servilities, to the poor were or other songrous body, making 240 complete provisions, and sometimes money; to vibrations in one second of time; while be, others their interest in obtaining pro. E, and F, when tuned a true minor third motions. This custom, however, was (without beatings), a true major third, and a not without its use to the young nobility; true minor fourth respectively, above such C, st was chiefly introduced, that they who make 288, 300, and 320 complote vibrations aspired to the chief posts under the respectively, in the same short space of time : government, might not only make inter their pitcb-ratios therefore are 4, 195, and est among the leading men, but, by fre- Ho, which not being in their lowest cerms, quenting them, acquire their eloquence, and the last by 80, and obtain 1, $, and , their politics, their virtues, or their manner. The dialogue de causis corruptæ for the pitch-ratios of these three concords of eloquentia, supposed to have been write intervals respectively. These are the same as ten by Cicero or Quintilian, has the fol authors, have assigned to them, in lengths of

experiments, and the writings of all correct lowing observations upon this subject: strings or string-ratios; only that the frace " It was formerly a custom for the father tions are each of them reversed, owing to er relations of any young man of rank vibrations increasing in quickness as the length and education, who was designed to of the sounding-string is decreased. In like bold some distinguished place in the re. minner, 360, 384, 400, and 480, have been public, to recommend laiin to sonte emi. ascertained as the number of complete vi. The fate of earl Stanhope and M. Be- opinion, seemed on a review less plausible; metzrieder, owing to their not attending and in the end, I still retain my convicto the distinction between difference and tion, that Linné is the naine which good ratio, loudly calls upon me to beware manners require us, both in writing and of adding to the confusion which has speaking, to give to the illustrious knight already arisen on this simple subject. It of the polar star. is probable, that in the course of a I admit that the curious, and to me twelvemonth, results will be published, as new fact, mentioned by Dr. Smith, relato the different schemes of the tempera- tive to the assumption of surnaines by ment of the musical scale propused by the Swedes, refutes, as to the letter, my various authors, and the mode of work argument built on the assertion which I ing these calculations rendered intelligi- have seen in some work whose title I ble to those who merely understand the cannot now recal, that in Sweden, the common rules of arithmetic. If any termination aus is deemed a mark of experienced organ-tuner would have the plebeian origin ; yet I inust contend goodness to transmit to the writer of this ihat Dr. Smith's subsequent adipission article, the number of beats in fifteen proves the validity of the argument as to seconds, made by the fifths and other its spirit. For if, at the time of ennobling intervals which do not beat too rapidly Linné, it were the fashion in Sweden to be counted, such a communication for the nobles to have a French termiwould confer an obligation on one who nation to their names, it follows irresistiis engaged in a work, in which the great. bly, that not to have this mark of disest deference will be paid to experiment; tinction was proof of plebeian blood; and indeed, much greater than to the aytho- consequently that in Sweden, no man rity of writers; who appear not sufficie who did not mean to irsult his learned ently to have attended to the distinc. countryman, would think of calling him tion of a temperament bearable on the Linnæus, after his new dignity was once piano-forte, yet intolerable on the announced. Accordingly, the Swedes organ. It is highly probable, that in lay. then, and ever since, have called him by ing the temperament on an organ, as is his new name Linné. Now it does not commonly done, the tuner is influenced appear to me that we can excuse our. neither by professional policy, professi. selves from following their example, as onal prejudice, nor mathematical igno- Dr. Smith seems to think, because the sance, but by the sound maxims of utility. fashion which led to this change of deNorwich,

brations namen

C. I. SMYTH. signation was absurd or teinporary. As April 9, 1810.

well might we object to give his name to

the learned bishop of Carlisle, because To the Edilor of the Monthly Magazine, probably his ancestors assumed the name SIR,

of Goodenough from some anti-puriILI

F I had supposed that the basty hints tanical fashion, as absurd as the contrary

I threw out on the subject of the fashion introduced by the members of proper designation of the Swedish Pliny the Long Parliament. As well might we. would have been honoured with the resolve to call Dillevius, Dill, because potice of the learned president of the his German ancestors were so called. Linnean society, I should have endea. Nor have we any thing to do with the voured to give to my argument more ex. barbarisms of a Gothic or Latin prefix tension and precision. The defect of to a French termination. It is enough these I now wish to supply, by adverting for us that the fashion did exist, and that to the argoments of Dr. Śmiib; which, the Swedes have not seen reason to though so strongly put, that at the first abrogate the change of name to which it glance almost, they persuaded me to his gave rise. Even if all other countries brations made by G, 6 A, A, and C, next tion, I do not think

their practice would

persisted in retaining the old denoininaabove the foregoing notes, their several be any rule for us ;for I conceive it ought Fiiches when tuned a fifth, minor sixth, major sixth, and octave, above the tenor.cliffc,

to be a fixed axiom in every case wbere each being a true or perfect concord respec.

the prescription of centuries has nos tively, therefore Hi, a do, and 146

made the change impossible, to revert to or in their lowest termss and are

the precise pames which foreigners gire the pitch-ratios of these four concoids or inter

to themselves, and to their towns, when vals, as is well known to be the case by expe- these can be accurately ascertained. Not rimenters on the lengths of vibracing to do this, is to adinit the propriety of prings.

ibe barbarous manglings of the proper

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