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the shining quality which so much destroys more efficacious, for the purposes mentioned the effect of drawings in Indian ink, the in- in my letter, than the process which he reformation would greatly oblige

commends. A CONSTANT READER. Simplicity in undertakings upon a large

scale is, at all times, most desirable; and in To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

those for the purposes of general health, is

most peculiarly so. It would have been as SIR,

well it your correspondent had affixed his real A PUNCTUAL peruser of your widely: cire mame to his letter; we should then have had

culated miscellany, earnestly solicits of the an opportunity of judging how far he was in. i correspondents who combine to fill its inter- fuenced in his remarks, by a soreness of feel.

esting pages, a satisfactory communication ing on some other subjects to which I have on the subject of encased phosphorus, pre- occasionally adverted. pared for instant use in procuring flame as a

Anonymous remarks are hardly fair upon substitute for che common tinder-box. I had those who fearlessly avow their sertiments purchased one of the usual make, the light and their names. from which was to be obtained by suddenlyim

Unawed by the letter of E. T. I, I take merging a common match ; but upon the first the liberty of communicating another fact, trial, though done with care, the phosphorus not indeed of as much consequence as acetic became instantaneously ignited, and the ope- acid may be: but it is, at any rate, singular; rator was severely scalded.

and such as perhaps few of your chemical He shall be obliged to any philosophical readers have had an opportunity of witnessgentleman who will not contemptuously ing. It is, that having occasion to try some smile at his query, but briefly inform him experiments upon blood, in order to the of the most portable and prudent construc- making of Prussian blue, seventeen years tion of these light-procurers, and the best ago. I put by about four ounces of dried or method of extinguishing the fame, and blood in a dry place, not having immediate healing the burn, of phosphorus.

occasion for it; and this same blood I now

have completely dry and unaltered. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,

JAMES JENNING. SIR, IT is frequently asserted, that the body of

dissenting clergymen in London, as well To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. as the corporation of London, and the two

SIR, Universities, enjoy the right of presenting ABOUT twenty years ago I subscribed for addresses to his majesty in person. As I

a print to be engraved after the picture have not heard of the exercise of this right, of the Siege and Relief of Gibraltar.' Two I should be very glad to learn from any of guineas were paid to Copley the painter, and your correspondents, whether it exists; two more were to be paid on delivery. and if it does, how it originated, and when The print has never appeared; nor has an it was acted upon.

X. Y. apology been given, that I ever heard of.

Before I make any remarks on this dise To the. Editor of the Monthly Magazine. graceful transaction, permit me, sir, through

the medium of your valuable publication, SIR, HAVING been lately engaged in terapia which you, or any of your very numerous

to request any information on the subject, lating a French work, wherein the term friends, can give we : particularly whetiser Canards tigrès is mentioned, and not knowing any explanation, or apology, has been pubto what species of the duck the word tigres liely given; or whether the subscribers have refers, I shall feel obliged if some one of your still grounds on which to found their excorrespondents, conversant in natural history and French literature, will informi me, through pectations of the print being delivered, or

ALPHA. the medium of your magazine. .

The letter of your correspondent from Bristol, signed E.'T. I. of last month, page To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. 134, refers, I presume, to a letter of mine in SIR, your Magazine for December last, page 461, I SHOULD be glad to be informed by some concerning the acetic acid. Now, sir, I by no of your legal readers, whether the clause means desire to make your valuable magazine in what is called the new police act, aua vehicle for controversy; what I have there thorising the apprehension of reputed thicre, stated, is in the power of any of your readers can be enforced by the city magistrates. The to prove, without having recourse to any very serious depredations that have recently theory whatever. I must however take the been committed in the city by pickpockets, liberty to remark, that the acetic acid is, in render every precaution absolutely necessary. many respects, more agrecable, not to say




To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. remains to be solved by a more learned pere SIR,

son than myself. An insertion of the above IN reply to a query in the magazine for Sep- in the Monthly Magazine, will oblige a contember, whether the sun-flower « follows stant reader.

J. S: the course of the sun in the day, and in the nght-time, (the stalk untwisting) returns to To the Editor of the Monthly Mugazine. the east to face the sun next morning," I beg SIR, leave to observe that I believe it to be ground. O reading a paper in your number for less; having a number of very fine flowers May, 1808, on the state of the silk ma. growing in an open garden, not in the least nufacture in this kingdom, I could not but influenced by any surrounding walls or build- eel a regret that an object promising such ing. They have the finest possible heads of national utility, should be so much neglected numerous flowers, growing to face all quare by us. And it appears deserving of particular ters; but my principal attention has been paid attention at this time, when some of our to the main flower, and I find it always re. principal manufactures are on the decline, and cains, in the situation it first blows in, either numerous hands out of employment; and north, east, south, or west. Some of the stalks when our supply from the continent is unappear (wisted, which I consider to arise from certain, and the article increasing in demand. the great weight of the head when in full I cannot but think that were premioms seed; though, while making these remarks, offered, and due encouragement given to the a friend of mine asserted, he had observed the growth of the mulberry, and the culture of flower changed its position; but he is the the worm, it would produce a spirit of exonly person I ever heard to believe it, wbilst ertion, which can alone ensure, and which I have many observers with myself to the seldom fails of ensuring, success. contrary,

That no local impediment arises, is evi. Also in observation on chalk becoming dent, from the success which has attended fint, by a natural process. Whilst in Bedo past exertions, when aided by a spirited gofordshire, this was the subject of conversa. vernment,'and that still attends the experition; and it was asserted to me as a fact, that ments of individuals on a smaller scale. on the chalky hills in the neighbourhood of Could any of your correspondents commuDonstable, chalk actually became flint, nicate information on the most successful though to the observers by an unknown pro. method of rearing the worm, winding the Cess; and that after removing these flints, yet sisk, &c. with the profit attached to it, and the fresh chalk replaced the usual quantity recommendations on the subject either to of fints, and that this would be the case ad persons or books, it would be esteemed a irfinitum; by what inherent chemical pro- favour, by an obliged enquirer. S. perty in the chalk, aided by the atmosphere,


XEMOIRS of the life and writings of the first establishment of that academy; M. BROUSSONNET.

and he was elected a member of the Ina ETER Marie Augustus Brousson- stitute in his absence; and was continued Medical School of Montpellier, mem- post at Montpellier rendered this absence ber of the French Institute, Fellow perpetual. From these considerations it of the Royal Society of London, and is evident that he must have possessed formerly associate-anatomist of the Aca- two classes of qualities which are not demy of Sciences, was born on the 28th always united; those calculated to come of February 1761, at Montpellier, where mand respect, and to attract esteem. his father, Francis Broussonnet, was pro Being born in the busom of a celebrafessor of medicine. The life of Brous- ted school, and the son of a man who sounet displays a striking series of proofs discharged with honour the duties of inof the high opinion with which he bad struction, it may be said that the Sciences inspired the different societies to which surrounded his cradle, and theirs was the he belonged: for at the age of eighteen language of his lispings. From his tenhe was selected by the university of Mont- derest years he was animated by an inpellier as one of its professors; at twenty- satiable curiosity after the productions of four he was unanimously chosen a mem- nature, in which the fine climate of his ber of the Academy of Sciences, a cir- nativity is so rich; and his father, fearing cunstance unprecedented in the whole that such a variety of attractive objects period (120 years) that had elapsed since wight divert him from those long prelimia


nary studies without which there is no had at the same time directed most of true science, thought it necessary to have those who engaged in that pursuit into a him removed from home, and according, wrong path ; and the zoologists and minely placed him in succession at different ralogists were not yet faimliar with the colieges appropriated to the belles lettres. commodious nomenclature and the rigorBut young Broussonnet, at the same time ous synonymy of Linneus. It appeared that he distinguished hiinself among his as if that great man had written only for companions in the common objects of botanists; and as these had all become their studies, found opportunities also for his disciples, they seemed to form a sepapursuing his own particular inclination. rate class, whose example bad yet but He was able to indulge himself much little influence on the investigators of the more in this respect, on his return to other two branches of natural history. Montpellier for the purpose of studying Broussonnet had himself imbibed the medicine; where, by gathering herbs in Linnean doctrine in all its purity; and the day-time, and dissecting in the night, he now resolved to establish it in France, he crowded the apartments of his father and to attach his reputation to the success with his botanical collections and his of this undertaking. anatomical preparations. Yet notwith As it is in the distinction of the species standing these accessory labours, he made that the advantage of Linneus's method such a rapid progress in the regular course is particularly conspicuous, and the cabiof medical study, that at the age of nets of Paris did not then present a eighteen he received the degree of doctor, sufficient number of new ones to serve and the university of Montpellier solicit- as materials for labours of any importance, ed the chancellor of France for his he determined to visit the most valuable succession to the professorial chair of of the foreign collections: and be directhis father on its future vacancy. ed his first steps to England; as its univers

IIis Thesis on Respiration, which he sal commerce, its immense colonial poshad maintained some months before, in sessions, its extensive maritime expedie reality justified this proceeding, which tions, and the taste which many of its otherwise bore the appearance of being most eminent personages entertained for premature. It is an excellent piece of natural history, had rendered that councomparative anatomy and physiology, try the richest emporium of the producexhibiting such facts as were then known tions of the two worlds. The house of with equal genius and learning, and anti- sir Joseph Banks was at that time a recipating the rudiments of several of the sort of the most illustrious characters of discoveries which have been recently Europe, and an open school for such made on this important subject. young persons as were incited to emula.

He visited Paris for the first time, for tion by these distinguished examples. the purpose of procuring the confirmation According to his usual practice, he made of his appointment as eventual successor M. Broussonnet undergo a sort of novi.. to his father's chair: but the minister, ciate for a year; and when he felt assured perhaps forming an opinion of him from that his visitor was worthy of his esteem, his youth,or influenced by some irrelevant he bestowed it on him unreservedly, and suggestions, was not forward in dispatch- continued to give him proofs of it throughing this business; and Broussonnet, con- out the rest of his life. ceiving new ideas in the metropolis, and Under the roof of sir Joseph Banks, feeling that he could there open for him- Broussonnet began his labours on the self a different prospect from that which subject of Fishes; and the presents which he had contemplated at Montpellier, de- he received from that generous friend of sired his father not to urge it.

the sciences, consisting of a multitude of His characteristic sagacity enabled objects collected by sir Joseph in captain him at once to perceive, from the man- Cook's first voyage, would have supplied ner in which natural history was then the materials of continuing those labours, studied at Paris, that he might easily and if it had not been for the different events quickly attract notice by the nex and which prevented the author from the furbrilliant turn which it was in his power ther prosecution of his design. The first to give to that science. Indeed, though Part of this work was published at Lonthe eloquence of Buffon had inspired a don in 1782, under the title of “Ichthygeneral taste for the study of nature, it ologie Decas I :"it contains the Latin de

scriptions, in the Linnean style, and per. Printed at Montpellier in 1978, under haps with too much minuteness of detail, the title : Varia Positiones circa Respirationens, of ten rare fishes (of which number half


were before unknown), accompanied by lations, the hedysarum gyrans, a species as many plates. This was a fine speci- of sainfoin, of Bengal, that raises and men of an important work; and it will depresses its lateral folioles, day and night, always be regretted, that notwithstanding without any external incitement. Ile the preparations which had been made gave an interesting accoupt of the deterfor the engravings, the author did not carry minate directions taken by different parts it forward.

of plants in spite of obstacles; of the Broussonnct returned from London, progress of the roots to seek for moisture, preceded by the reputation of his book, and the inflections of the leaves in pursuit decorated with the title of Fellow of the of light. Royal Society, and counting among his Such subjects were far superior to those friends the younger Linneus, Dr. Solan- of his first writings, which were mere der, Sparman, Sibthorp, Scarpa, and descriptions of species: but he soon rose several other naturalists of distinction, to still higher; and his Memoir on the

An unreserved conformity to the plan Respiration of Fishes belongs entirely to and systems of Linneus, would have been the philosophy of natural bistory. He of itself no recommendation in the eyes here shews the diminution in the intensity of those who then possessed the most of respiration, and in the heat of the influence in France; and particularly of blood, progressively from birds to quathe respectable Daubenton, who enjoyed drupeds, and from quadrupeds to reptiles; much credit both with the academy and he compares the size of the heart, and the the minister: but the amiable character, quantity of blood, in different fishes; exthe mild and engaging manners, and the plains how it is that those which have modest and diffident tone, of Broussonnet, small bronchial apertures can live out of atoned for his scientific creed; and his the water longer than others; and relates most zealous protector, was the man some experiments on the different degrees whose ideas on that subject were in the of heat which fishes can support, and on greatest opposition to his own. Thus substances that prove fatal to them wheir Daubenton appointed him his substitute mixed with the water in which they swiin. in the college of France, and his associate The greater part of these ideas and facts at the veterinary school; and was the had before been contained in his doctoral principal means of procuring his recep- thesis. tion at so early an age into the academy: Ilis Memoir on the Teeth of Animals a conduct which was equally honourable is of the saine class. The differences beto both. He was not elected academician tween those of carnivorous and of herbihowever without a competition which vorous animals; the laminæ of enamel continued for six months; and during which penetrate the substance of the late that period he presented a series of me- ter, and give to their crown the inequalimoirs, of such merit as could nat have ty necessary for the purposes of triturafailed of ensuring his success, even if he tion; the infinite variety in the number, had not been assisted by any patronage. figure, and position, of the teeth of qua

Among these was the plan of his in- drupeds; and the inference, that from the tended great work on ichthyology. His structure of the human teeth, man is arrangement was nearly the same as naturally both a frugiferous and carnivothat of Linneus; but he enumerated rous animal, in the proportion of 3 to 2 1200 species, though Linneus had then these facts, though now familiar, were only 460. As speciinens of his manner then neither void of novelty nor of inof description, he gave a memoir on the terest. sea-wolf (anarrhichas lupus), and another The experiments of Spallanzani and on the scomber gladius.' He wrote after. Bonnet on the reproductive power of ward on the spermatic vessels of fishes; aquatic salainanders, at this time excited and shewed that scales are possessed by a lively attention among natural philososeveral animals of this class, which are phers. Broussonnet repeated them on commonly thought to be destitute of fishes; and found that these also repro. them. But the article most likely to duce every part of their fins, if the small strike such men of learning as were not bones are not actually torn out by the professed naturalists, was his Comparison root. of the Motions of Plants with those of The whole of the above-mentioned laAnimals. In this he gave the first combours were previous to his becoming a plete description of the vegetable which member of the academy, and they are approaches nearest to the appearance of nearly all that he published on natural having something voluntary in its oscil- history. It will doubtless appear sur


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prising that he quitted a career which he of eloquence. The first of his éloges, Lad entered upon with so much distinc. that of Buffon, is perhaps rather feeble tion, and in which there was reason to for so grcat a name; but in two which expect such happy results from his genius followed it, at one time le charms us and activity. The occasion of this was, with the peaceful virtucs of Blaveau, and that in the same year in which he was at another excites our adiniration of the admitted into the academy, he was also self-devotion to the public good, and of appointed secretary to the Agricultural the probity and frankness, which marked Society; and this was followed by many the conduct of Turgot. At the period other causes of turning his attention into when every wish seemed directed to a different channel.

popular revolution, he frequently obAgricultural societies had been esta- tained applause by recalling the public blished in the several districts of France attention to agricultural subjects. in 1761: but as they were mostly com It is well known what influence the posed of the great proprietors of land, or activity of an individual can exert on of mere farmers, they had evinced little that of a whole body of men; and bow activity in their proceedings; and that of powerfully a young man of an ardent the metropolis bad done no more in a pe- character, as Broussonnet then was, may Tiod of four-and-twenty years, than publish be tempted by such occasions of exersome instructions. Berthier de Sauvigny, cising a brilliant genius, and of acquiring however, who was intendant of Paris at the public favour: but perhaps it is less this time, made it a kind of point of understood, 'in what degree that perpe. honour to raise this society to notice; tual self-devotion to the glory of others, and thought the execution of such a de- which constitutes the first duty of those sigo could not be entrusted to any person who are the organs of a learned society, wore capable than M. Broussonnet, with inay prove detrimental to the success whom he had had occasion to form a and display of their personal labours. connection in England. The latter ac- Broussonnet must have experienced this cordingly lost no time in applying all his more than any body else, in a depart. exertions to this parpose; and succeeded ment that is doubtless of the greatest in giriiry, in some measure, a new cha- inmediate utility; but which, being cop. racier to the association. Useful nie-fired by its very nature to noticing direct molrs were published every quarter of a applications, tad also, in an equal proyear; numerous instructions were circu- portion, the effect of keeping him from lated in the country-places; meetings of access to those general truths which are farmers were established in every carton, the only possible objects of really scienfor their more effectual information in tific labours; and of making his situation advantageons methods and processes; rather an intermediate office between the and prizes were solemnly distributed to provinces and the government, than a such of them as had most successfully centre of the correspondence of learned applied those processes in practice. men. He thus entered insensibly on a These steps quickly brought the society new career, from the time of his being into general respect; and induced the appointed to this post; and in that cagovernment to forin it into a central reer he became continually more and corporation, with a cognizance extending more engaged, particularly when the reorer the whole kingdomn, for the purpose volution seemed to have called erery one of collecting and communicating intel- to the management of public affairs. ligence of discoveries and inventions in A man who is capable of exertising a agriculture. Persons of the first dis- personal and independant influence on tinction did not disdain to enrol them- the welfare of his countrymen by the selves as its members; the society held peaceful investigation of truth, will find public sittings; and in short, it assumed it very bazardous, without previously a rank among the great learned asso- ascertaining his own strength, to agree ciations of the capital.

to become one of the inferior springs of It cannot be denied that, in his new the complicated machine of government; office, Broussonnet shened a great flexi- a machine in which the irresistible and bility of talent. lle gradually aban. simultaneous action of so many wheels, doved the dryness which forms 'a cha- leaves to no individual an uncontrolled racteristic of the school that he had fol. motion or will. How much more danlówed in natural history; and soon at- gerous must this determination be, at a tained an elegant and well-supported time when the whole state, delivered up style, rising soinetimes to all the warmth to the passions and caprices of the mul


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