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Mr. Davy means to apply himself to was not in great excess, a substance was the solution of these important questions; formed, spontaneously inflammable at but as the enquiry now stands, he thinks common temperatures, the combustible it evident that he is correct with respect materials of whicb were charcoal and to the composition and decomposition potassium. Here was a strong analogy of ammonia; and that MM. Gay between the action of these bodies and Lussac's and Thevard's idea of the de- sulphur on potassium. Their physical composition of the potassium, and their properties likewise resemble those of theory of its being compounded of hydro. sulphur; for they agree in being non-congen and potash, are unfounded : for a ductors, whether fluid or solid; in being considerable part of the potassiuin is transparent when fluid, and semi transrecovered unaltered; and in the entire parent when solid, and highly refractive. decomposition of the fusible substance, Their affections by electricity are likethere is only a small excess of hydrogen wise siinilar to those of sulphur; for the above that existing in the ammonia acted oily bodies give out hydrocarbonate by upon.
the agency of the voltaic spark, and be The phenomena of the process prove
come brown, as if from the deposition of the same thing. After the first slight carbonaceous matter. But the resinous effervescence, owing to the water ab. and oily substances are compounds of a sorbed by the potashi, formed upon the sinali quantity of hydrogen and oxygen potassium during its exposure to the air, with a large quantity of a car bonaceous the operation proceeds with the greatest
basis. The existence of hydrogen in tranquillity. No elastic fluid is given off sulphur, is fully proved; and the subfrom the potassium. The crystallized stance which can be produced from it in substance formed in the first part of the such quantities, cannot be considered as process, may be considered as a combi- an accidental ingredient. matiou of arnmonium and potassium; for
The reddening of the litmus paper by it emits a smell of ammonia when ex. sulphur that has been acted on by voliaio posed to air; and is lighter than potas. electricity, might be ascribed to its consium. Mr. D. first thought, that a solid taining some of the sulphuretted hydrocompound of hydrogen and potassium gen formed in the process ; but even the might be generated in the first part of the production of this gas is an evidence of operation; but his experiments do not the existence of oxygen in sulphur, favour the opinion. Potassium is very Mr. D. beated four grains of potassium, soluble ir. hydrogen; but, under com- in a retort of the capacity of iwenty cumon circumstances, hydrogen does not bical inches; it had been filled with salseen absorbable by potassium.
pluretted hydrogen, dried by means of In the examination of sulphur, Mr. muriate of lime: as soon as the potas. Davy made use of that which had been sium fused, white fumes were copiously recently sublimed, and the power applied emited, and the potassium took fire, and to it was that of a battery of 500 double burnt with a most brilliant flame. A plates of six inches highly charred. The small quantity of the residual gas only action was most intense, the beat strong, was absorbed. The non-absorbable gas and the light extremely brilliant: the sul was hydrogen, holding a minute quantity pbur soon entered into ebullition, elastic of sulphur in solution. A yellow subli. matter was formed in great quantities, mate lined the upper part of the retort, and the sulphur, from being of a pure which proved to be sulphur. The solid yellow, became of a deep red brown tint. matter formed was red at the surface, The gas proved to be sulphuretted hydro- like sulphuret of potasi; but in the gen. In other experiments, upon the interior it was dark grey, like sulphuret union of sulphur and potassium, it was of potassium. The piece of the retort proved, that these bodies act upon each containing it, was introduced into a jar other with great energy; and that sul- inverted over mercury, and acted upon phuretted hydroden is evolved in the by a small quantity of dense muriatie process, with intense light and heat. In acid, diluted with an equal weight of heating potassium in contact with com- water; when there were disengage pound inflammable substances, as rosin, ed two cubical inches and a quarter wax, camphor, and the fixed oils, it was of gas, which was sulphuretted hydrofound that a violent inflammation was gen. occasioned; that hydrocarbonate was
This, and other experiments, concur in evolved; and that when the compound proving the existence of a principle in
sulphurelted sulphuretted hydrogen, capable of de- oxygen furnished to the potassium by stroying partially the infiamınability of the larger quantity of the sulphur. potassium, and of producing upon it all “ From the general tenour of these vathe effects of oxygen. Sulphuretted hya rious facts,” says Mr. D., “it will not, I drogen may be formed, by heating sul. trust, be unreasonable to assume, that phur strongly in lıydrogen gas. Now if sulphur, in its common state, is a come we suppose sulphuretted hydrogen to be pound of small quantities of oxygen and formed by sulphur dissolved in its unal. hydrogen, with a large quantity of a tered state in hydrogen, and allow the basis that produces the acids of sulphur, existence of oxygen in this gas, its exist. in combustion; and which; on account ence must likewise be allowed in suls of its strong attractions for other bodies, phur; for we have no right to assume that it will probably be very difficult to obtain sulphur in sulphuretted hydrogen, is in its pure forin.” combined with more oxygen than in its In inetallic combinations, it probably common form: it is well known, that retains its oxygen and part of iis hydrowhen electrical sparks are passed through gen. Metallic sulphurets can only be sulphuretted hydrogen, a considerable partially decomposed by heat; and the portion of sulphur is separated, without small quantity of sulphur evolved from any. alteration in the volume of gas. them in this case, exists in its common Hence the intense ignition produced by state, and acts upon potassium, and is the action of sulphur on potassium and affected by electricity in the same man. sodium, must not be ascribed merely to ner as native sulphur. the affinity of the metals of the alkalies Mr. William Sewel, of the Veterinary for its basis, but may be attributed like. College, discovered, some years since, a wise to the agency of the oxygen that it canal in the medulla spinalis of the horse, contains. The minute examination of bullock, sheep, hog, and dog. Upon the circumstances of the action of po- tracing the sixth ventricle of the brain, tassium and sulphur, confirms these which correspouds to the fourth in the opinions. When two grains of potas- human subject, to its apparent termisiun, and one of sulphur, were gently nation, he perceived the appearance of a heated in a green-glass tube filled with canal, continuing by a direct course into hydrogen, there was a most intense igni- the centre of the spinal marrow. Upon tion produced by the action of the two close exan.ination, he finds its diameter bodies, and one-eighth of a cubical inch large enough to admit a large-sized pin; of gas was disengaged, which was sul from which, by incision, a sinall quantity phuretted hydrogen. Now sulphuret of of colourless fluid issues, like that conpotash produces sulphuretted liydrogen, tained in the ventricles of the brain. by the action of an acid; and if the suls The canal is lined by a membrane, phur låd not contained oxygen, the laye resembling the tunica arachnoidea, and drogen evolved by the action of the is situated above the tissure of the mepolassium ought to have equalled at dulla : it extends as a continued tube least two cubical inches, and (he whole through the whole length of the spinal quantity of sulphuretted hydrogen ougiit marrow; and a free communication of the to have more: and that so inuch less sula linpid Auid which the canal contains, phuretted hydrogen was evolved, can is kept up between the brain and whole only be ascribed to the larger quantity of extent of spinal marrow.
VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL,
Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign.
new edition of his Persian Tales, en- the eastern style of composition, and titled, the Babar Danush, or Garden of particularly to those who wish to acquire Knowledge; and we are assured that sir a knowledge of the manners and customs Gore Ouseley, sir William Ouseley, and of Hindoostan, other orientalists who have collated the Mr. George CUMBERLAND, of Bristranslation with the original, have spoken tol, author of Thoughts on' Outline, in the highest terms of the utility of Di, Hafod, Life of Bonaloni, &c. has in the press, and will publish next month, two in which the examples from antiquity are solumes of Original Tales. He is like- drawn to one scale, will also appear at tvise preparing for publication a work tlie sainc time, under the auspices of the with sixty plates, on the Principles of same socicty. the Composition of the Ancients.
Miss Lucy Arkin has in the press, The amateurs of the fine arts Epistles on the Character and Condition will be pleased to learn that it is in- of Women, in various Ages and Nations, tended to publish by suliscription, a fac- with other poems. siinile of Wilson's Sketch Book, being Mr. Walter Scott has in the press Studies and Designs by that great artist, a poem, in six cantos, entitled, the Lady made in Italy and Roue, in the year of the Lake. 1752. It will consist of fifty Plates, the His Royal Highness the Prince of size of the Originals, to be engraved by Wales has addressed a letter to Lord Mr. J. WIESSELL, and will form a demy Grenville, chancellor of the university of quarto volume.
Oxford, requesting him to present to the Mr. Dallas is preparing for the press university, in the name of his royal bigha new edition of the novels of Percival ness, four of the papyri, or rolls from Aubrey, and the Morlands, to be printed Portici, together with fac-simile copies, in a uniforın manner; making together plates, and engravings, from other rolls. six volumnes instead of twelve. To these A life of the late Mr. IJOLCROFT is he proposes to add a seventh volume, just gone to the press. The carlier part containing poems, dramas, and moral was dictated by laimself during his last essays.
illness; and it was bis intention, had his The Royal Free School, Borough Road, life been prolonged, to have completed Southwark, which is the establishment his own biography. The portion which of Mr. Joseph LANCASTER, has in it he was unable to finish bas been drawn above one thousand scholars, the expense up by a gentleman with whom he was of whose education last year did not cost for a considerable time in habits of four sl:illings per annum each child. intimacy. The seminary for training schoolmis. Translations of the Medea and Octatresses, is under the care of his sister, via of Seneca, with other poems, origiMiss Mary Lancaster The governess nally translated by a member of Trinity of the school, in conjunction with her college, Cambridge, may soon be exsister, has reduced 10 practice a recent pected to appear. discovery in the art of teacbing needle- A collegiate seminary is establishing work, which will soon be published, but by subscription at Llanddewibréfi, under at present is not understood by any per. the patronage of the learned and beve. son except the above, who are anxious volent bishop of St. Darid's. It is ine to establish irs self-evident perfection on tended to be on a large scale, for the the most clear basis, before the details admission of youths designed for the are submitted to the public. By means church; wbo will have all the advantages of this, any girl may teach others to of an university education, free of expense. work with the same facility, as they may The medical student and practitioner be taught to read after Mr. L.'s original will soon receive from the pen of Dr. Inethod. Any school of girls, however G. II. Toulmix, of Wolverhampton, a Jarge, may be supplied with materials at work under the title of, Elements of the the most trifling expense; and one mis. Practice of Medicine, in which that imtress may superintend the needlework portant subject will,-for the first tine, with as inuch case to herself, as one assume all the interest of a practical Inaster on the British system can teach science. eight hundred or a thousand boys read. Miss Mary llouguton has a work in ing, writing, and arithmetic. This plan the press, in three volumnes, entitled, is just at present kept from public view, Mysteries of the Forest, which bids fair hui in a few weeks is intended to be to rival the best productions of the ad. published.
mired RADCLIFFE. A new volume of essays, by the Lon. The Rev. F. A. Cox proposes to pubdon Architectural Society, will be ready lish by subscription, the Dissertations, for the public in a few days.
Historical, Critical, Theological, and An bistorical and scientific disquisition Moral, on the most memorable events on the Doric Order of Architecture, hy of the Old and New Testaments, of Dir. E. dikin, in folio, with seven plates, Saurio, Roques, and Beausubre.
Mr. DYMOCK, of the grammar-school Mr. EDWARD DRIVER is preparing a . of Glasgow, bas in the press a new edi- complete mp on six large sheets, of the tion of . Decerpta ex P. Ovidii Nasonis manor of Lainbeth, from actual admeaMetamorphoseon Libris,” with notes at surement, made by order of the commisthe foot of the page, and a copious index sioners, under an act of inclosure passed of the proper names at the end of the in 1806, comprising a district seven Folume, for the use of schools.
miles in length, from Westininster-bridge Mr. GEORGE Singer's lectures on to Norwood Compion. It will contain a Electro-Chemnical Science, commence on complete delineation of every person's Thursday the 10th of May, at the Sci- estate within the manor, distinguishing entific Istitution, No. S, Prince's-street, the freehold from the copyhold, alsó Cavendish-square, and will continue on every house, yard, building, and inclo. Monday and Thursday evenings, at eighit sure, of each person's property, and their o'clock.
exact quantity, together with all the Mr. GEORGE CHALMERS has in the allotments, and also the several parcels press, a new edition of his Estimate of of land which have been suld under the the Comparative Strength of Great act. Britain, and of the Losses of her Trade, A General History and Survey of from every war since the Revolution; London and Westininster, founded prin. corrected and continued to 1810. cipally on Strype's edition of Stow, with
The same gentleman is superintending introductions, notes, and supplements, a new edition of Natural and Political bringing the whole down to the present Observations and Conclusions upon the time, is in the press, in a royal quarto Siate and Condition of England, 1696, by volume, illustrated by nuincrous engraGregory king, esq. Lancaster-Heraldi, vings. to which he has annexed a life of the The Rev. Ralph CHURTON is superauthor.
intending the publication of the works Mr. Chalmers is also preparing for of the Rev. Dr. Townson, late archdea. publication, a Chrouological Account of con of Richmond, to which will be prethe Commerce of England from the Re. fixed an account of the author, an introstoration to 1810, distinguishing the duction to the discourses on the gospels, years of war; on a board to hang up, or and a sermon on the quotations in the an a case for the pocket,
Old Testament. They will form two Early in May' will be published, in octavo volumes. one voluine, octaro, the State of the A work will shortly appear in one Established Church, in Ten Letters volume quarto, under the title of Exto the Right Honourable Spencer Per- tracts froin the Diary of a Lover of ceval, with an appendix of official do. Literature. It will comprise a series of cuments relative thereto.
critical observations on eminent works, Mr. Donovas has been for some time literary anecdotes and conversations, engaged in preparing a comprehensive remarks on distinguished characters, work ou the Natural [listory of the British discussions of various metaphysical, poliIsles, on a popular as well as scientific tical, and religious topics, and notes on plan.
different excursions through picturesque Mr. B. H. SMART, teacher of elocu- parts of this Island. tion, will speedily publish a Grammar of In order to confute the idea that the English Pronunciation, compiled on a silk.weavers of this country cannot pronew plan, but on plain and recognized duce manufactures equal to the French, principles, which will supply a practical a society was formed some time ago, inethod for the removal of a foreign or called the Flag Association, with a view provincial accent, vulgarisms, impedi. to the production of such a specimen of idents, and other defects, of speech, and double brocade weaving as had never furnish pupils of all ages, particularly before been attempted.
In consethose destined for public situations, with quence, there is now in the room a flag the means of acquiring that graceful iwo yards wide, the ground a rich crim. articulation upon which alone a superior son satin on both sides, and brocaded on delivery can be founded.
each side alike with appropriate colours Constance de Castile, a poem, from tastefully and elegantly shaded by the the pen of Mr. SOTHEBY, may sbortly be artist. Upon its surface will appear expected to appear.
within an oval, a female figure, emble. MONTHLY MAG. No. 198.
matic of the art of weaving, reclining separately dropped into water. The with pensive aspect on a remnalit uf true deposiis oxyde of antimony, in s brocade, lamenting the neglected state copious white congulum; or, it the water of this manufacture. Enterprise is has been previously einged with sulpharet represented raising her up and cheering of ammonia, in a time orange precipitate. her drooping spirits, by shewing her a The spurious gives no precipitate in cornucopiæ, pouring forth its treasure, water; and in the other liquid, one of a symbol of the resources of Britain, and dark brown or olive culour.' A solution indicating that the wealth and liberality of the spurious in vinegar has a sweet of this nation are ever ready to support taste, tugether with the other properties laudable undertakings. Close to Enter of acetate of lead. A very small mir. prise, and beneath a representation of ture of it may be detected, by its dethe all-seeing eye of Divine Providence, basing, more or less, the bright orange Genius appears erect, pointing to a flag colour of the precipitate thrown down displaying the weavers' arms, placed by sulphuret of ammonia, from the solu. upon the temple of Fame. The corners tion in any acid. The samples of the of the flag will be adorned with einbleins spurious hitherto detectce, are of of peace, industry, and commerce ; and much thicker and cluinsier cast than the an edging with a curious Egyptian bor genuire; but the appearance is not th der, will exbibit a combination of figures be trusted ; and no specimen should be and devices, indicative of the design for allowed to pass without a trial, either of which it was formed.
the specific gravity, or chemical proMr. LUKE HOWARD, of Plaistow, has perties. detected a criminal imposition, the A medicinal spring has lately been knowledge of which cannot be too widely discovered in the park of sir William circulated, or its effects too carefully Paxton, at Middleton Ilal}, near Llans guarded against. A very large quantity arthey, in Carmarthenshire. The water of glass of lead, bas, by some means, of this spring, whose effect afford's just tound its way into the London market, ground of hope that it will occupy a dis as glass of antimony. 'I liis iinposition is tinguished place among the British founsure to be discovered in the operation to tains of health, has been analysed by which the latter is chiefly applied, the Mr. Accun, who found the gaseous making of ernetic tarlar; but it is highly contents in 100 parts to be: necessary for the consumers of 'sınaller
Carbonic acid gas
16:50 quantities, as in the vitrum ceratum, and
4.50 cinum antimonii, to be acquainted with
Atmospheric air the following distinctive characters of the two; that those who have bouglit the The solid contents in 100 parts are:
21 article within the last twelve or eighteen months, may assure themselves of its Carbonate of iron
5.25 being genuine. The public health, and Muriate of soda
6.00 even the lives of many patients, may be Carbunate of lime
4.75 considered at stake on this occasion. Muriate of lime
9.25 Glass of antimony has a rich brown or Sulphate of Time
2.00 reddish colour, with the usual transparency of coloured glasses. The glass
21.25 of lead is of a deeper and duller colour Mr. G. CUMBERLAND, having found against the light, is much less trans- the wear of steel files rather expensive, parent, and even in some samples quite has been induced to seek a substitute opatque. The specific gravity of the for abrading hard bodies, and tras discotrue, never exceeds 4-95; that of the vered that clay may be employed for this spurious, is 6-95: or in mund-numbers purpose. Wet pieces of this substance, their comparative weights are as 3 to 7. folded up in muslin, cambric, or Iristo Let twenty grains be rubbed fine in a linen, forced by the pressure of the hand glass mortar, adding half an ounce of into the interstices of the threaris so as good muriatic acid. The true dissolves to receire a correct mould, and then well with an hepatic smell; the solution is' baked, form a new species of file, capaturbid, but has no sedinient. The spu- ble even of destroying steel, and rery rious turns the acid yellow, giving out an useful in cutting glass, polishing and oxymuriatic odour, and leaves much se- rasping woud, ivory, and all sorts of Winnent. Let a little of each solution be metals.