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A pound of sugar-candy dissolved by therefore equal to 900 such candles. To beat, in a quantity of white-wine fill it requires three cwt. of coals, vavinegar, and evaporated to the measure lue at 6d. each cwt., 1s. 6d.; coal for heatof one pint, during which operation as ing the retorts during the composition, much garlic as possible is dissolved with 1s.--Hence, for 2s. 64. a quantity of light it, answers all the porposes of Godbold's is procurable from coal gas, which obtainvegetable balsam, and is probably the ed from candles would cost about 101. same medicine.
But from the above charge for coal, we The following details, relative to the must deduct the whole expence of what enal-gas light, one of the greatest improve- goes into the retort, for this acquires addiments of wbich modern times can boast, tional value by being charred, and is eagerare taken from an interesting Memoir ly bought up by the iron-founder's. A read before the Philosophical Society large quantity of tar is also obtained of Glasgow, by Mr. RICHARD Gil- in the condensing pit, as well as ammoLESPIE, by whose public spirit, and niacal liquor, from hoth of which cou. at whose works, this great experiment of siderable returns may be reasonably expermanently lighting an extensive manu- pected, factory by gas, was first undertaken in A new species of fiorin grass has been Scotland. The apparatus, made by discovered at Llarfain, in North Wales, Bolton and Watt, was fitted up at by Dr. Pring, which promises the most Anderston the latter end of last summer, important advantages to the agriculturist. and Mr. Gillespie's works were illuminated It is of the most luxuriant growth, and in this manner at the beginning of Novem- calculated to produce green food during ber. Since that time some great improve the four winter months. One of the ments have been made; and the whole roots, transplanted by Dr. Pring, containhow constitutes a very píeasing exhibition. ed 27 stalks, six feet'in height, and bear-Two iron retorts, of a semi-cylindrical ing 277 ramifications. farm, eaeh capable of containing about The subjects for the prizes given by the one cwt. of coal, yield at every charge representatives of the university of 750 cubic feet of gas, which, after being Cambridge for the present year, are-wa hed, so as to deprive it of any disagree For the senior bachelors, “Utrum ma. able smell, is conducted into a large cu- jori prudentia, eloquentia, fortitudine, bical plate-iron gasometer, of a capacity patriæque amore, M.T. Cicero an Comes equal to 1120 cubic feet. The gas evol- Clarendonianus, temporibus gravissimis, ved by the regular process of carboniza. Rempublicam administrarit " Middle tion, during the day, is here stored up bachelors, "Urrum in optima Reipula for use. From this magazine, which floats licæ forma instituenda, plus valeat ingein a water cistern, a main pipe issues, nium an experientia." which afterwards branches into innumera The two gold medals, given by the ble ramnifications, some of them extending chancellor of the university of Camseveral hundred feet underground; thence bridge, to two commencing bachelors of to emerge diffusing over a multitude of arts who acquit themselves the best in apartments a kind of artificial day; so classical learning, are this year adjuciged vivid is the illumination. The fame, to the second and seventh wranglers, viz. however, though exceedingly bright, is T. BRANDRETH, A. B. of Trinity college, very soft and steady, and free from that and George HODSON A. B. (of Carlisle) d zzling glare which has been so greatly fellow and tutor of Magdalen. enthplained of in the otherwise beautiful A new method of ornamenting all kinds light of the Argand lam, No trouble of glass in imitation of engraving, &c. attends this mode of illumination; the has recently been discovered. By this occasional attendance of one nån in the invention, the tedious and expensive pró. gas-house, to charge the retorts, and cess of grinding by means of a machine mnend the fire, being all that is ne- with wheel, is exploded, and in lieu of it, cessary. On turning a stop-cock, any an additional surface or coating of glass, particular fame may be kindled im prepared for the purpose, is substituted mediately, and no trimming or snuffing is which, when subjected to a proper degree required; neither are any sparks thrown of heat, wit incorporate with the glass to off, as from a burning wick : 14 cubic be operated upon, so as to produce an feet of gas yield the same quantity of light effect similar to that which has hitherto as a moulded candle of six in the pound, been obtained by ineans of grinding. The which is found, on the average, to last 24 inventor has taken out a patent for the hours. The contents of the gasometer are claim.
In one of the late numbers of the shall be at liberty to view the same by Monthly Magazine, was inserted a obtaining an introduction from any subbrief notice respecting the Irish fiorin scriber to the botanic garden.” grass, so highly recoinmended by the
FRANCE. Rev. Dr. RICHARDSON, and which, M. DESCRNIZILLES, sen, has described from the description given, is generally a method of making pickle of violets, supposed to be the agrostis stolonifera instead of syrup of violets, for a chemical of Linnæus. To this subject Mr. W. test, the latter being apt to spoil. It is SALISBURY, of the botanic garden, as follows:-Ou the petals of the violet, Sloane-strcet, invites the attention of slightly pressed into a small pewter meaagriculturists :-"I take this opportunity, sure, pour double their weight of boiling says he, of stating, for the information water, and stir them together. Cover of all who feel interested in this plant, the measure and expose it for a few hours that I have grown the fiorin grass last to a heat somewhat greater than that of summer, as a specimen, among our col. a water-bath; after which, let the liquor lection of British gramina, and find the be strongly pressed out through a very two are very different from each other; clean linen cloth. Weigh the infusion but as all planış differ in cultivation from accurately, and add to it one-third of its what they are in their wild state, and weight of common salt, stirring it till having never seen the Irish plant in its dissolved. Very fine white salt should native place, I shall not at present pro- be chosen for this purpose. In a small nounce if it is a different species or not; phial corked, this liquor will keep without but certainly the agrostis stolonifera is a alteration, even when exposed to the rays smaller-growing plant in all respects, of the sun. lle presumes that several which is evident on comparing the foliage, other blue flowers, as those of the iris, flowers, and seeds; and although it is larkspur, &c. would afford a pickle of suf not generally known by the above Lin- ficient sensibility. The latter, indeed, Dæan name, it will no doubt be recog- he has tried with success. nised by many farmers under the appel The same chemist has also published lation of common couch, scutch, quiich, some observations on the preservation of or sticth grass, *
* who well know it does vegetables for distillation by salting. To not possess the mạny good qualities as- preserve rose-leaves, for example, he cribed to the fiorin grass. Whether all gives the following directions: Tale the merits ascribed to the latter will be 4lbs. troy of rose-leaves, and pound found on its culture in this country, I do them two or three minutes with 4 of not know, or pretend to predict; but I their weight of common salt. The flowers am desirous the public should be con- bruised with the salt will soon give out vinced by actual experiment, and ocular their juice, and produce a paste of little demonstration, which they may have by bulk, which must be put into an earthen applying here during the spring and sum- vessel, or small cask, and proceed in the mer; as I have now planted a consi- same manner till you have filled it Stop derable quantity of the roots in different the vessel close, and keep it in a cool ways, of each kind, and also sown seeds place till wanted. This fragrant paste of each; which has been done, in jou may distil at leisure, in a commuon great measure, at the desire of the board still, diluting it with about double its of agriculture, from whom I received the weight of pure water. This process is seeds and plants. To these will be given particularly applicable to those herbs, the a fair and equal chance, and any person water of whict, distilled by the common
method, will not keep. ** I wish to ok serve, there are two kinds
GERMANY, of grass that are known by the names of A literary institution denominated the Couch, &c.; which, although they are well Museumi, has lately been established at known to the botanist, are note , generally Frankfort, under cię protection of the understood by the farmer. The grass in ques. priuce primate. It is divided into four tiep may be distinguished by its shoots rune classes, three of which are occupied by ning on the surface of the soil, and rooting the sciences, literature, and objects of at every joint; from which circumstance there is great difficulty in extirpating it. The
art. otber kind of couch is the triticum repens,
A society of learned orientalists has which forms its long roots below the soil, and lately been instituted at Vienna, under is, in all respects, equally noxious to the the patronage of Count WENCESLAUS
Rzewuskr. They have circulated a very
splendid prospectus in German and in Syria, has discovered in the neighbourFrench) of the work which they intend to hood of the Red Sea, the ruins of the publish, (in quarterly numbers) and ancient city of Dscherrasch, probably which, at the end of the year, will form the Gerasa of antiquity. He found rem a folio volume of about three hundred mains of several public edifices, two ampages. In the prospectus they make phitheatres, several palaces, a temple, very honourable inention of sir William &c. Jones and sir William Ouseley, whose
AFRICA. oriental collections appear to be in some In a late number we noticed the re measure the model of their intended cent disappearance of an island situated publication, which is to embrace every near the Cape of Good Hope, in consething that can tend to illustrate eastern quence of an earthquake. The effects literature; such as, 1. Languages. — of this phenomenon at Cape Town, are 2. Eloquence and poetry.-3. Ilistory, detailed in the following letter from that palæography, and numismaticks.-4. Geo- place, begun to be written on December graphy, "topograplıy, and statisticks. 6, 1809, and continued at different 6. Philosophy, and the laws of jurispru- times :-On the 30th November, the dence and theology.-6. Mathematics, weather was unusually warm for so early physics, natural history, and medicine. a period of the season, the thermometer 7. Bibliography and iniscellaneous ar- varying in the shade from 86° to 920 with ticles. Particularly an account of what. a sky perfectly clear and but little wind. ever works-shall have been published Thus it continued till the evening of the during the preceding quarter, relative to 3d, when a cool westerly breeze, attende oriental literature. The editors of this ed with a slight fog, came in from the sen. publication have the advantage of free On the 4th, at nine A.M. the fog still access to some of the public libraries at continued; thermometer 74o, barometer Constantinople—the imperial collection 290 80'. In the middle of the day, the at Viennaithe admirable manuscripts mountains of Hottentot Holland, in the of Count Wenceslaus Rzewuski, and south-east, were covered with fleecy other treasures of inestimable value. electric clouds, which are often observed The German title of the intended work at this time of the year. Several violent is Fundgruben des Orients, or Eastern gusts of wind, which raised the dust to a Mines, and cominunications are solicited considerable height in the air, were exin the principal languages of Europe, perienced in Cape Town, the intervals French, English, Italian, &c. as well as between thein being perfectly calın. The German and Latin. Schaumbourg, at sky for the whole day, after twelve at Vienna, is the bookseller employed. noon, except at Hottentot Holland, thirty ITALY.
miles from Cape Town, was perfectly PIRANESI, the antiquary, lately pre- clear. At five P.M. a strong south-east sented to the viceroy of Italy an eagle, wind came on, unattended with the usual formerly belonging to one of the Roman cloud over Table Mountain, which lasted legions, dug up some time since at Rome. three or four hours. At ten minutes
Morost, the mechanician, of Milan, past ten, P.M. a very violent shock of an has iuvented an hydraulic machine, by earthquake was felt through the whole means of which, the workinen employed town, which was succeeded by two ia coining, to give ihotion to the striking others equally tremendous; they conti. engine, are dispensed with; and this nued about twelve or fourteen seconds, operation, which formerly required eight and followed each other at intervals of men, is now performed by a boy. about half a minute, attended with a PRUSSIA.
noise very different from thunder, but M. von HUMBOLDT has recently pre- much louder. The shocks proceeded in sented to the king of Prussia's cabinet the direction from south-east to northe of minerals, the only lump of native pla- west. Between the hours of ten at night tina that is known. He found it in 1800, of the 4th, aud six in the morning of the in the soap-manufactories of the town of 5th, about fourteen shocks were experiTaddo, in the province of Choco, in enced; and two or three more in the South America. This ingot is of the course of the day. Excepting the first size of a pigeon's egg; its absolute three, they were very slight; producing weight is 10,886 grains, and ils specific no perceptible motion of the earth, but weight 16,037 grains,
reseinbling distant thunder. The last ASIA.
shock was at six A.M. this day (6th), but M. SEETZEN, in his travels through not stronger than the others. When the 3
Brst shock was felt, the thermometer was extremely in various ways, from the effect at 770 in the house, probably at 740 out of extreme fear. Some are so much in. of doors. At two A M. of the 5th, timidated by this unexpected visitation, thermometer 68° in the open air; baro- as seriously to talk of seiling their houses meter at five P.M. on the sanne day 29° and property here, and removing to Bar 84 wind west with rain; the night very tavia. This powerful operation of terror dark. Next morning there was a very on their minds, may probably appear asstrong wind from the westward and some tonishing to Europeans; but it is to be pain. Several meteors or falling stars considered, that the inhabitants of this were observed during the night of the climate have been hitherto totally exs 4th, with a very luminous aurora au. empted froin the tremendous convulsions stralis. The ships in the bay, althou of nature, which are frequently expethe water was not apparently agitated, rienced in other quarters of the globe. were so strongly affected by ihe shocks, -December 7. We now find that the that several men on board thein were shocks, violent as they were, have not thrown out of their hammecks. I ap- been felt at the hot baths, about eighty prchend that nearly one-fourth of the niles to the eastward, nor al sea, as we houses in Cape Town are more or less learn by the Camel, which ship arrired damaged. Several pillars, urns, and yesterday. It has been generally reother omaments, have been destroyed. niarked that a great many watches stopAs yet I have heard of only, one house poil, and sereral lost from two to teil, that was entirely thrown down; but a and even twelve and fifteen, bours. great many have lost portions of their Within the last half-hour, we have had walls,andare cracked from top to bottom. another slight shock. The inhabitants The house which was demolished, was still continue in a considerable degree of at some little distance from the town. alarm, and every unusual noise is dreaded The inhabitants in general forsook their as the forerunner of an earthquake. The houses during the whole night of the 411, following has been the state of the weze and so great was their consternation, ther since the above-ineutioned shock that implicit credit was given to a rery occurred:absurd prognostication, that similar shocks Doe would be felt the next night. Of the 10 45 P.N. 30° 20' 70 S.W. Durch inhabitants, I believe, not one
A.M. went to bed before day-light. Tents 5 30 A.M. were pitched in the parade, in the market, 3 10 P.M. 30° 15' 73 S.E. and in all the open places, and those who
9 6 P.M. 300 73 could not procure tents had their waygons
290 75' 76 brought out and sat up in their. "We No slinck since the slight one of the 7th. have" as yet received no particular ac. Weather clear, except occasionally a counts froin the country; but innume. ficecy cloud about the Table Mountain, rable vague reports are in circulation; aurora australis very strong at night, and and the inhabitants of the town, who are many falling stars. It was remarked that extremely susceptible of alarm, give cre. animals, particularly horses, were much dit to them all. One child of eight years frightened at the shocks. Several moles old dropped down in the street," and in- are reported to have left their holes and stantly expired through terror.' Two or, filed into the soldiers' tents at Wynberg three persons have been deprived of about seven miles from this place." speech, and several others are suffering
PATENTS LATELY ENROLLED.
NR. NARCISAMBARD BRUNEL'S (PORT. tained some years since a patent for cut
sen), for un Invention of a new Mode ting them out and completely fiuishing of cutting l'eneers or Thin Bourds, by them by means of his circular saws, and Álachinery.
other machinery, fitted up, and constantly W the
iTil this gentleman's inventions, at work, in the yard at Portsmouth. gazine are not unacquainted. The blocks cut out veneers or thin boards; which is now used in the nary are, we beliere, done by means of a sharp instrument, all furnished by Mr. Isambard, who ob- forming part of an engine which is fully
described and represented in the speci- continues to force the carriage antil the, hoation. The cutter may be made veneer is entirely separated; he 'then of a single piece; thongh, in the moves back the carriage with the assista figures attached to the legal instrument, ance of the same wheel, and prepares it is represented as being composed of for another cut by elevating the table as several pieces or plates of steel, held to much as possible. This is accomplished gether and fastened by means of screvs. by turning a spindle with the requisite These pieces or plates of steel can be hand:es. pushed out in proportion as they are worn down. The frame forms a stider MR. D. M. BANDOLPH's (FEATHERSTORIwhich moves along two strong rails, ex BUILDINGS, HOLBORN), for Improvetended by means of brackets along each ments in the Construction of Wheel side of a pipe, with which they form a Carriages of all kinds. solid body. This pipe, having a fianch The specification explanatory of this at each extremity, is fastened to two invention, is exceedingly minute and standards, which are strongly bolted long; drawings are given to facilitate through their base to a platform. The the understanding of the objects which frame or slider is connecied by means of the patentee means to accomplish, and a rod to the machinery, by which it is to which are applicable to the construction be put and kept in motion. The part of of wheel-carriages of every description, the engine which carries the wodd, is from the mail-coach to the wagyon We composed, (1) of a cast-iron bed bolted have also a description of a "road-scrato the platform; the upper edge of each per and earth-porter," for the purposes side of this bed terminates into a project- of scraping loose matter, and removing ing angular rail : (?) a cast-iron frame, the louse earth after having been prepared or carriage, intended to slide on the bed for the parpose by ploughing or digging, by the assistance of a screw and rack, in both cases made to collect and carry This sliding motion of the carriage, guided off the saine. The dje of the scraper by two clamps, is to propel the wood is connected with a lever bebind, which towards the cutter. When the veneer serves to prevent it from being stopped or thin board has been separated from or obstructed in its progress. That end the piece of wood, by the operation of of the lever projected behind the front the cutter, the carriage is removed back, axle, is furnished with a hook, and is in order to clear the wood from under otherwise so costrived, that when the the cutter. The piece of wood is then pole is pulled back to its proper level, to be elevated, proportionally to the the scraper is lifted up and contains the thickness of the veneer which is next to earth and other matter to be removed. be cut, by means of a parallel motion. To make the edge pass more freely over The patentee gives a description of the stubborn unevennesses in the road, when structure of the table, and observes, it scraping up any liquid or semi liquid is obrious that the cutter, whether long matter, there are friction rullers on which or short, requires to be kept perfectly the instrument moves. The upper and dat and true, with respect to the propel- back part of the scraper is tirinly attached ling motion of the carriage, and the pa- to the hind exle-tree, upon which as a rallel motion of the slider, and also very fulerum the lever rests; this aids the sharp: To obtain these points a lap is operation of lifting up the load, whicla added to the engine, upon which the is kept lifted up by siinply resting a cutter is to be ground when requisite. coin non hand-spike upon che tongue The frame of the lap is supported by lever across the union angle, and laying means of two steady pins let into uprights: the chams passing near the points over it is elevated or lowered at pleasure, by each end of it: thus the load will have the assistance of screws: the lap is been simply collected by one person embrought under the cutter by sliding back ployed at the lever, and another driving the carriage as much as is necessary. The the cattle, and is preserved sufficiently engine is thus managed :---The pieces of elevated, avd rendy to be rolled away wood to be cut into veneers are placed or and discharges. The foor of the scraper fastened on the table by means of cement is of cast iroit, le ring channels and holes or glue. The slider being supposed in in the same tir the passage of water or motion, the workman attending the en- other liquid mitter. The wheels and gine, adjusts at first the table to a proper axles of this machine are to be of certain degree of elevation, and propels the car. proportions as described in the specifiy riage by the assistance of a wheel: guided catione The sides of the sciaper are of by the apparent effect of the culter, he wood, raised in like manner as any other