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British poblie, than hy publishing the second of them forned an idol like unto that volume of my Mechanics separately; that image, and gave themselves up to idoit only wanted one thing to make it complete, fatry. mmely, an Essay on Wheel Carriages, and The son of Lamech, the son of Me that he shoulo be much gratified if I would thusalemy, the son of Ench.-Ile was adopt the one he had inserted in his new edi- the first prophet who denounced unto tion of Ferguson's Lectures; this, however, the untrelievers the punistudents of hell; I did not adopt, because I bought bis theory and he was the first by whose curse a incorrect.
multitude of them perished. In the day
of resurrection, he will be the second For the Monthly Mugazine,
person raised from the grave. No An ACCOUNT of the BEGINNING of 100- prophet lived to so great an age as
LATRY amongst the sons of ADAM; Noah. translated from the PERSIAN IMSTORY The nations being at this time uniof KHONDEMEER, und originally pub- versally addicted to the sins of giving lished at CALCUTTA, in the MISCEL- companions to God, worshipping of idols, LANY of a pa. GLADWIN.
blasphemy, and every other species of THIS subject having given rise to a wickedness, God raised up the prophet abridgment would not contain all the repentance. According to tradition, he traditions that have been produced in continued for the space of mine hundred support of those opinions, I shall only and fifty years, point out the true deliver, in a summary manner, one of road to che sons of Adam; at the expirathem, which appears to be nearest to tion of which period, finding only eighty truth.
persons that had faith in Isis dctries, It is related, that Enoch bad an in. and experiencing great trouble and vextiinate friend, who had been instracted ation trom the unbelievers, he despaired by hearing his philosophical discourses; of effecting their reformation; and thereand after Enoch's ascension into Her- fore prayed God to extirpate every soul ven, this friend bewailed tlie separation of them from the face of the earth. with lamentations and groans, so that God having approved thereof, a voice Inis days were spent in grief and misery, came unto Noah, saying, “ Plant the This having coine to the knowledge of Sabin tree, and employ thyself in making Satan, be went to hiin, and said, “ If an ark; for I' will enrirely destroy these you desire it of me, I will make for you people with water, and commit then alt an image, which shall be such an exact to the flames of hell." representation of Enoch, that from It is related, that Gabriel brought unto Lelolding it, your mind shall be relieved Noah a young sapling of the Sabio tree, from its present distress.". The man and instructed him how to plant it. accepted of Satan's proposal, who per- After forty years growth, where that formed his promise; and the grief of the tree was arrived at perfection, Noah friend of Enoch was greatly mitigated fetleri it, and when it was dry le emat the sight of the image. And he ployed himself in building the ark. placed the image in a room of his house, The ark consisted of three stories, the where no one went but himself, and upper one was allotted for the birds; in every evening and morning he comforted' thie bottom story, were placed every kind hinself with the sight thereof.
of bcast in pairs; and the middle apartIt happened that the friend of Enoch ment was the habitation of Noaii and bis died in that rooin, where he had placed family, being in all eighty persons. And the image. And when, after some days, Noah, at the command of God, having he has not been seen by his neiylıbuurs, put the body of Adam into a coffin, cariliey came to search his house, and found ried it with him into the ark. him dead by the side of the idol. The And at that time, the sun, the moon, men were astonished at the sight, and and the planets; came into conjunction immediately Satan appeared amongst in a watery sign, when, by command of them, in a human shape, and said unto the higt God, the waters continued to them, “ Enoch and tins man, who was rise out of the earthi, and the rain fell his friend, warshipped this image, who from the hearens incessantly, for the is the Lord of the universe; on which space of forty days and forty nights, account they obtained their wishies.” till the whole earth was deluged.
It is The temptation of the devil having made related that Noan had an idolatrous son, impression upon his audience, they cach named Yiam, (also called Kanaan), wlin,
notwithstanding all the warnings and or clauses, which modify, and of others, commands of his father, would not con- which are modified; and the same comsent to go into the ark; saying, he would munication will also discover to bin, take refuge in the mountains, where he that the characteristic feature of the should be safe from the waters; therefore voice, in the pronunciation of a propothat youth, and his mother, who was sition, indicates either continuation or named. Wauilah, not giving faith to completion. As therefore the less sig. Noah, were both drowned.
nification of one or more clauses may be Historians agree in describing the restrained, or altered, by the power and inundation as having been, so excessive, influence of others tnore significant; so in that the waters rose to the height of forty the delivery, that the progress and comcubits above the tops of the most lofty pletion of a whole passage may be gramountains; and they say, that even then dually conveyed to the ear, the attention they did not reach above the knee-pan, must be kept alive, by suitable degrees of Awj, Ben Unuck, although be was not of suspension in the voice, If from this arrived at his full growth.
we take a more enlarged view of oral The ark, having gone. round the earth sounds, we shall find, that in the are sereral times, it ai last rested on the top rangement of diffuse periods, there may of mount Ararat. The rain. Çeased; and be members, whose completeness as to the earth, after six months, having soaked meaning, have certain degrees of intoup the water, Noah and all the living nation; and which, to indicate their just creatures came out of the ark on the relations to a whole, terminate with pro-, second day of the month Ramzan, portionate qualities of sound.
The family of Noab built a city, at the Thus, in the most rude and uncultifoot of mount Ararat, and called it Suk- vated appearance of the subject before el-Samaneen. And it came to pass, after, us, are we sensible of something like a short space of time, out of those eighty leading principle and rule ; but the modepersons, there were only left Noah, and finite idea of sound, and its relation to his three sons, with their wives.
articulate voice, seems to have involved Noah lived two hundred and fifty years the thoughts of those hitherto interested after the flood; he was two hundred and in the enquiry, in considerable obscurity. fifty years old when he received the gift For this reason, perhaps, the method of of prophesy; and he preached for the conveying information to students in elospace of mine hundred and fifty years. cution, have not been sufficiently perThe days of Noah were one thousand tinent. four hundred and fifty years. And be Numerous instances may be adduced, left behind him three sons, Japhet, Shem, wherein the spirit of a proposition, der and Ham, from whom the whole human pends more upon the peculiar turn of race are descended.
voice, than upon that stress which assists
in placing varieties in contradistinction To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. one to another. This has been successSIR,
fully pointed out by the late Mr. Walker; S public speaking discovers itself and what an ingenious writer, in the mida Aby and gesturę, to be a beautiful copy of marks or signs, for the management of correct conversation, that system, which, the voice in enunciation, seenus not yet by analogous methods, proceeds from the to have eluded our enquiry on that sube best portraits of the original, to explain ject, nor is the adoption of such minute, the numerous successions of these signs, arrangement, considered metaphysically, inust be the most steady motle by which inpracticable. That the Greeks and we can attain a just and graceful elocu, instrumental accompaniment to their tion. Of this nature appears to be the tragedy, is adequately attested, and unistudy of inflexion. It is lamentable, versally believed; but whether it were however, to observe, that, notwithstanding an exact representation of speaking the very great advantage which such a sounds, or whether it were only a mere theory must afford to the admirers of the musical modulation, cannot accurately science, its eficacy is not generally una be decided upon: we may, however, derstood, and, consequently, it cannot conceive, that, had the melody been avbe properly appreciated.
propriate to the sounds of delivery, the A slender converse with logical deduc- Romans would have adopted similar tion, will inforin the student, that phra- modes, and a plan and scale of their seology is made up of certam members, notes, would have been transinitted to
us by Cicero, in his Disquisition on ments, and not upon the different formSounds.
ations of the mouth-the whole diversity Although the accent and quantity of of articulation may be accomplished in words, with the genuine import of stinple any one note of a diatonic or chromatic and complex articulation, should occupy scale of music. This idea appears to a very considerable share of the student's agree with that inelodious arrangement regard, the acquirement of these different of sound called singing; for the leaps, or combinations, forms a distinct part of intervals of sound, may be heard, unpronunciation; for it is possible to pos- derstood, and compared, with any note sess a correct idea of the proper force of the sane measurable gamut or scale, and accent of each individual characier, after the articulation shall have ceased. separately, or independent of each other, If we extend the subject to the speaking without the capability of displaying, with voice of man, we shall be led to suppose, just emphasis and discretion, the relative that it is formed of such ininute and eva situations of words, arranged in due nescent variations and inflexions of sound, order, forining discourse. In conformity, as could not possibly be represented by therefore, with this position, a general any scale of notes, or formula, hitherto survey of articulate voices, will serve as invented. To this definition of vocal a substructure to the theory of inflexion. sounds, the student will further observe,
Audille voice is produced by a set of that musical notes are not susceptive of Diuscles acting on the cartilaginous the slightest elevation or depression of cavity at the top of the trachea, or sound; thus, each note, however comwind-pipe, called the larynx, while the prehensive as to time, is of the samic air is passing through the ylettis. When quality from the beginning to the end ; the recurrent nerve, on one side of the but speaking sounds are of very short dus larynx is cut, the voice becomes remark- ration; they are " emitted with ease ably weaker; when both are cut, it is through the glottis, at the pronunciation entirely and irrecoverab'y lost.* Arti- of every distinct syllable, frequently culation is either a definite, or indefinite, shifting at once, pr gliling in a wave-like quality of sound, inodified by the palate, manner, through small" but not" imteeth, lips, nostrils, and cavities of tben. measurable intervals; and now and then When the common current of breath, is leaping from one musical note to anourged more forcibly through these vari- ther, considerably distant; but in all ous apertures of articulation, without cases articulated by the atiluent breath, much affecting the larynx, we have an . as it is differently affected by the organs instance of the indefinite sound, known of the mouth." by the paine of the whisper. What is In this essay, we have already had octermed hvarseness of voice, proceeds casion to speak of certain sounds, which, from: various causes, foreign to the pre- in their general sense, iudicate the conti sent purpose. It may not, however, be nuation or completion of a thought or unnecessary for the student to know, that proposition; but as these sounds, in anatomists state, when the larynx is Eheir fullest meaning, are discernible in injured, the air though the cartilages a single word of four or five syllabies, acted by the muscles, passes through the with a little method, the student may be wind-pipe, without yielding the ordinary readily furnished with a more determi'sound. In audible voice, then, the air, nate idea of their more essential parts. while passing froin the lungs to the mouths, In order, therefore, to acquire a clearer must affect the larynx. We may have conception of these distinctions, ve an opportunity of further dedacing, ty must select an appropriate word, and experiment, that, from the peculiar na- then mark the change of sound produced ture of the constituent parts of the larynix by the “ accentuation." A little attenand its orifice, the whole diversity of tion, while pronouncing the word, placed sound, may be distinctly heard, though at the close of the last period, within the the mooth be shut; and from this may signs of the quotation, will show the disbe castly conceived, that, as the soundt tinction required. As it is perfectly and tone of the voice depend upon the easy, in this instance, to discover, thie diameter of the glottis vera, os orifice of the voice signifies i completion on the the glottie, will tre to soon of its liga. three first sytlables of thic word descri
bert, viz." accentu-" so it will not be | lone as to quality, whether natural or dithcuit to perceive, that the terminating feigoed.
sound of the same word, signifying com
pletion, commences with the antepenul- The former of these sounds, is termed
the rising inflexion, the latter, ibe falling tunate, viz. “ation."
intiesion; and in polite and fannibar eon-
It may not be improperly noted here, flexion, onaccompanied by articulation. that inflective sounds are produced in the This will be effected by observing the act of tuming musical instruments : they chirp of birds, when they are supposed are also frequently made use of by violin to cry " sweet": and I flatter myself that performers, in sliding to what is termed the instinct vdices of all animals, from the shift.
man to the meanest of the brute species, If the student be unacquainted with will be fuuod capable of this resolution the science of music, perhaps, he will oi' sound.
Your's, &c. Letter understand the precise measure
JAMES WRIGHT. ment or distance of these full slides of December 27, 1809. sound, by aii example, in nature, of in
MEMOIRS AND REMAINS OF EMINENT PERSONS.
ACCOUNT of the LATE
early removed to the Universities of
from the Melvilles of Carnbee, in cess. His fortune being but moderate, Fife, a branch of the ancient and noble he, in compliance with the counsels of fansily of his naine, of which the chief is his friends to select one of the learned tire present Iart of Leven and Melville. professions, turned his views to the study The original stock of this family was a of medicine: but his genius strongly Norman warrior, one of the followers of prompting him to follow a military live, Williain the Conqueror, who, on some and the war theu carrying on in Flanders disgust he conceived at his treatment in presenting a favourable opportunity for Englaud, withdrew into Scotland, in the gratifying his natural tendencies, young reign of Malcolm Carmore, from whom Niclville could not resist the temptation. he received lands in Lothian, about Without, therefore, the knowledge of his 1066; and branches of his family were friends, he privately withdrew to Lonafterwards esiablished on lands in Angus, don, where, upon a statement of his and Fife.
motives and determination, he was furGeuerul Melville's parents dying when nished with the necessary nieans of carhe was very young, lis guardians placed rying his projects into effect. He achim at the grammar-school of Level, cordingly repaired to the Netherlands; wliere he soon distinguished bimself by a and early in 1744, he was appointed an quiek altd-lively apprehension, united to ensign in the 25th regiment of foot, then a singularly capacious and retentive forming a part of the allied army. That memory. From this seminary, bis rapid campaign he served under Field-Marshal progress in füs studies enabled hinu to be Wade, and all the following, up to the
peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, under constantly successful during an attack, H. R. H. the Duke of Cumberland, after a night's march, and the surprise partly in the Netherlands, and partly in of a post very close to the French camp, Britain, whither the regiinent had been the major was entering a house just drawn in 1745, on account of the po- abandoned by the enemy, when it exlitical troubles in the kingdom. In the ploded, and he was blown to a considerend of 1746, the regiment returning to able distance, and taken up for dead. the Continent, Ensign Melville, at the From the immediate efects of this battle of Lafeldt, conducted himself in accident he soon recovered: but to such a way, as to merit being selected by the same cause must be attributed the his colonel, (the Earl of Rothes,) to de- decay of sight, with which, in his latter liver to the Commander in Chief the years, he was afflicted, and which at last colours of a French regiment, taken by ended in total irremediable blindness, the 25th, on which occasion he was pro- in recompence for his services in Guamoted to a lieutenancy.
daloupe, Major M. was directed by the His regiment, after the battle of Fon- commander of the forces, (General Bartenoy, was besieged in Ath, where Lieu- rington,) to succeed Liqutenant Colonel tenant Melville narrowly escaped de- Debrisey, in the defence of Fort Royal, struction: for the enemy directing their which he held until the reduction of the fire at the fortifications alone, in order island, when, in addition to the governto spare the town, a shell from an over- ment of that fort, he was appointed lieucharged mortar passing over the ram- tenant-governor of the island of Guadaparts, fell in the middle of the night, loupe, and its dependencies, with the when he was absent on duty in one of lieutenant-colonelcy of the 63d regin the outworks, on the house where he was quartered, and, piercing the roof, actually Brigadier-general Crump, who made its way through the hed he usually made governor of the new colony, dying occupied.
in ' 1760, Licutenant-colonel M. SucOn the termination of the war, Lieu- ceeded to the government, with the couitenant M. proceeded with lus regiment mand of the troops. In this situation he for the south of Ireland; and on the exerted bimself to the utmost, and was passage was shipwrecked in the coast of at very considerable expease, in order Normandy,
to impress the new French subjects with In 1751, being promoted to the com- favourable notions of the justice and mand of a company in the same regi. liberality of the British government. In ment, and employed in recruiting in Scot- this attempt he was so successful, not land, bis unexampled success drew the only in the colony immediately under his notice of the commander of the forces, command, but in Martinique, and the and he became aid-de-cainp to the Earl other neighbouring French islands, thảo of Panmure. ln 1756, he was made a secret cor. sponrience was established major of the 38th regiment, then in An- with the leading people amongst the tigua, where it had been stationed for enemy, which in a great measure prohalf a century, since its removal from duced the speedy surrender of those Gibraltar,
islands to the British arms. Although a That island had often been made a governor in chief froin England had arreceptacle for offenders, from regiments "rired in Guadaloupe, and Licutenantat home; and thus its mintary force had colonel M. had not only received his long been composed of the inost disor. Majesty's leave to repair to Europe derly troops. By the indefatigable zeal for the benefit of his health, but was 'at of the new major, and from the perfect the same time promoted to the rank of conviction he's as able to aspire into the colonel in the army, still resisting very men, ihat be had their welfare, and that tempting invitations to return hrine, he alone at heart, he at length, with the preferred to remain even as second in assistance of most oi the other officers, command, in the view of accomplishing succeeded in rendermz the 38h regi- bis great object--the acquisition of the meat one of the most orderly in the French colonies: which, from the intere service and detachments from it ac- course be had now opened with them, companied him in the attack on Mar- must have suifered much interruption tinique, as also on the invasion oi Gra- from his absence. In pursuance of these dalouse, where Majer M. commanded projects, Colonel M. proceeded as second the right infantry, at the advanced posts. in command, with Bigadi .r-general Io one of the skirmishes, which' were Lord Rollo, against Dominica, wbich MONTHLY Mac. No. 194.