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now elapsed since the restoration of let- esting objects that we had surveyed. ters in Europe. Has every possible The most prominent of these were Ludefacility been supplied to the young stu- ley Castle, and Hailes Abbey; the first dent of ancient literature at his com- situated rather more than seven miles mencement; or might not the difficulty' from Cheltenham,' and the second of the ascent have been worn down to scarcely two miles further on the same a more gentle declivity? Is any consi- road. We left home at noon on the derable portion of time, which might be preceding day, and soon reached Prestusefully employed in gaining a radical bury, a pleasant village at the distance knowledge of the language, and in ex- of about a mile from Cheltenham, which tending acquaintance with the produc- place, in common with many others in tions of its greatest ornaments, expended the immediate vicinity of the town, ocin acquiring a sort of mechanical dex- casionally receives such company as canterity in Latin versification; a dexterity not there be suitably accommodated. of little ornament, and of no practical Imunediately beyond this place is the value, in any of the uses of life? May hamlet of Southam, where the venerable not the ease of the preceptor have been mansion of T. B. Delabere, esq. is an consulted more than the interests of the object of no inconsiderable attraction. scholar? Is not the abortion of time and Those who are versed in antiquarian lore, labour to be attributed in part to the have fixed the date of its erection in the number of pupils consigned to the care reign of Henry VII. and have considered of one principal superintendant, whose it to be one of the completest specimens inspection can scarcely be more par- of the domestic architecture of that ticular, and must be, from the nature of period which the rage for modernizing has the case, more unsatisfactory and fal- spared. It consists of two stories only, lacious than that of the field-officer on a and the principal apartments appear to review? Is the business of the school have undergone little change. Some prepared as well as repeated in classes; curious painted bricks, bearing heraldic or are such arrangements made as shall and enigmatical devices, a magnificent oblige every pupil to prepare his work chimney-piece, and several fragments of singly, and not in classes, which afford stained glass, originally froin Hailes Aban easy refuge to indolence, while one bey, are preserved here. Many porof the class who possesses more talent traits also of illustrious personages, as or more industry than his companions, well as of various branches of the Debecomes interpreter to the rest, and as labere family, form a part of the decohis judgment alone is exercised, he only rations of this interesting mansion. is benefited by the labour? If such cus. Among these are two of Edward VI. toms exist, and if all or any of them are upon pannel, probably by Holbein; and principal causes of the failure of the pre- another, that with some appearance of vailing mode of education in its most reason, is supposed to represent Jane important objects, or whatever else may Shore, the "merrye mistresse" of. Edward have rendered it inefficacious in innu. IV. It is recorded of this extraordinary merable instances, in which the blame woman as unusual accomplishments, that cannot be thrown upon nature, he will she could read and write. She is therenot have employed his thoughts amiss, fore with much propriety placed before who shall apply them to the removal of a table contemplating a book. Her sueh obstacles in the first stages of men- complexion is beautifully fair, and her tal improvement.
hair a bright auburn. She is attired in Henrietta-street, J. MORELL. crimson satin, with slashed sleeves Brunswick-square.
puffed with white; and round her neck a
medallion bearing the profile of a man, For the Monthly Magazine. is suspended by a gold chain. LETTERS DESCRIPTIVE of CHELTENHAM, somewhat abruptly to ascend, and the
Beyond Southam, the road begins and its VICINITY. -No, IV.
surrounding scenery merits attention, not Cbeltenham, August 5,'1808.
so much from its extent as its richness OU
that my correspondence is likely to most to the summit of the hill, where the be diversified by descriptions somewhat protruding crags are finely relieved by different from those that have lately em- the shadowy foliage of a neighbouring ployed my pen.
grove. The adjacent vales are either We returned from our excursion yes, thickly planted with fruit-trees, or divided terday, highly gracified with the inter into irregular meadows, whose hedge.
rows are decorated with luxuriant time consequence of this supernatural interber. The prospect opens as we ad- position, was at length canonized; and vance, and the windings of the road, the numerous pilgrimages that were which passes over the steepest part of made to his shrine, greatly augmented the hill, are seen at intervals through the the revenues of the house. trees. The summit, - which is called This monastery was richly endowed; Cleeve Cloud, presents a lovely view of and its abbot was one of those who had the vale of Gloucester, bounded by the the privilege of a mitre, and of a seat in mountains of Malvern and of Wales, the House of Lords. The building is and affords also to the lover of antiqui- reported to have been exceedingly magties, the remains of a Roman camp. nilicent, but it was speedily demolished From this eminence we descend to the after the dissolution of religious houses. town of Winchcombe, leaving in a se. So prosperous however was its state questered nook immediately under the previous to that period, that it is said to hill to the right, a house of ancient ap- have been “equal to a little university;" pearance, called Postlip, near which is indeed, students from thence weie regu. the source of a considerable brook, onlarly maintained at Oxford, where cerwhose banks several paper-mills are tain apartments in Gloucester-hall, now erected. This manufacture, which is Worcester College, were known by the the only one carried on in the neigh. "name of Winchcombe Lodgings. bourhood, produces a very inadequate An abrupt turn to the right at some supply of labour to the surrounding distance below the church, leads directly poor.
to Sudeley Castle, which forms a picWinchcombe, according to the usual turesque object from almost every point custom of the Anglo Saxons, is placed in a in the vicinity of the town). This edifice retired situation, surrounded by hills, was erected in a style of uncommon The town is large, but apparently not splendor, about the year 1442, by Ralph very opulent, and wears a cheerless as- lord Boteler, a statesman of great power pect: of its once magnificent abbey not and influence in the court of Henry VI. a vestige now remains. Tradition alone The attachment of this nobleman to the has preserved the knowledge of its site, house of Lancaster, exposed him to the which was a plot of ground immediately animosity of the adherents to the rival below the church-yard, and to this, to- house of York, when that party gained gether with an adjoining house, the ap- the ascendancy in the state. His princely pellation of the Abbey is still applied. mansion was then resigned into the In turning over the soil for agricultural hands of Edward IV. and remained and other purposes, many massy foun- yested in the crown until it was granted dations have been removed, and innu- by Edward VI. to his uncle, lord Thomerable human bones disturbed. Stone mas Seymour. This castle, which from coffins have also not unfrequently been neglect was rapidly hastening to decay, found; and indeed several of these are its new possessor completely and magnow to be seen in the gardens of the cot. nificently repaired. Ile afterwards made tagers appropriated to menial uses. it his principal residence; and here Ka
In this abbey, which was founded by therine Parr, the widow of the late king, Kenwulph, king of Mercia, in the year to whom lord Seymour had recently 800, the remains of monarchs, and of been united in marriage, died and was many others of illustrious rank, were buried. After having again twice redoubtless deposited. The archbishop verted to the crown, it was at length of Canterbury, and twelve other prelates, bestowed by queen Mary upon sir John assisted at its dedication, when the ge- Brydges, who was afterwards further renerous Kenwulph led to the altar the warded with the title of baron Chandos captive king of Kent, and there, in the of Sudeley.. It continued in the pospresence of a splendid concourse of no- session of his descendants until the year bility, released him without ransom. 1654, when it was carried by a female
Kenelm, the son and successor of the into another family, and is now the profounder, fell an early victim to the am- perty of earl Rivers. bitious machinations of an unnatural During the unhappy contest between sister, who hoped by bis destruction Charles I. and the parliament, Sudeley, to secure the throne. The miracu- which was held for the king, was twice lous discovery of bis body forms the besieged. Then it was that this maysubject of an amusing legend, but is too nificent edifice, in common with so many long to be repeated here. Kenelm, in others, was reduced to a heap of rains.
Since that period a very small part of it baronial residence of such magnitude enly has been habitable; but from the required. From hence we advanced to strength and solidity of its original fabric, an inner court, which once enclosed the its remains will probably long defy the state apartments, and in whirli miny destructive hand of time, and will exbibit splendid relics of former gradeer still for centuries to come, a melancholy mo- remain. Although now converted in! nument of the architectural taste of the a farm-yard, and its or una excit :s.ch era of its erection.
some difficulty explored, it must stil be The transient view which we had perceived that at each corner stoord a caught of Sudeley, as we approached tower, and that one sue was scaped Wischcombe, excited our curiosity, and by the great hall, whose livinent although the evening was advancing, we window, even in its presene har enige resolved to take a nearer survey of this lished state, exhibits a mode, thair interesting pile. After crossing a brook lightness and elegance las peri aps sila at the extremity of the town, we followed dom been equalled, and probably thier a foot-path that brought us directly to surpassed. The ox is now stalled and the castle. Here the sombre foliage of the horse fed, where the voice of mirth the venerable oak, or the spreading elm, was wont to be heard; where the sons of apparently coeval with the prosperity of power and the daughters of pleasure were the place, is no longer to be seen. A wont to assemble. llere the proud and few trees however of modern growth, aspiring Seymour planned schemes of form an agreeable relief to the heavy aggrandizement that were fatally frusportal near which we entered the gar- trated, and here too the amiable but den. From this spot we had at once a unfortunate Katherine, after escaping complete view of the ruin. The chapel the caprice of a tyrant, whose tender was immediately before us, and to the regard involved almost certain destrucright extended a long line of buildings in tion, at length fell a victim to the amvarious stages of decay. The horizon, bition of him with whom she had fondly skirted with dark clouds, increased the hoped to enjoy that happiness, which the gloom, which the sober tints of twilight possession of a crown had failed to shrew over the massy towers and the lot. conser. tering arches, while the deepening shades The square tower to the right of this beautifully harmonized the rambliug ivy court is still known by the name of the with the Gothic tracery of which it seem- water-tower, and may be supposed once ed to form a part, as its fantastic to have contained a reservoir for the branches clothed the dilapidated win- general supply of the castle. Attached dow, or entwined the shattered pine to the prison-tower is a considerable nacle.
building, the gloomy apartments of The chapel is indeed a most beautiful which, from their size and strength, may object, and appears originally to have very naturally be concluded to bave been a very complete specimen of ar. forined a necessary appendage to the arebitectural excellence. It is now roof- bitrary system of feudal tyranny, The less and desolate, its decorations are turret itself is traditionally reported to entirely defaced, and its very walls seem have had no entrance but from above. to be upheld by the profusion of ivy with The unhappy victims must therefore which they are covered. At the west have been lowered with cords into this end is a window, ornamented on each dreadful abode of darkness and despair. side with a beautiful canopied niche, and when an opening was some years ago suzinounted by a square turret, In a burst into it, a human skeleton, perhaps small side chapel, to which some endowe that of its last sad inhabitant, is said to ment is annexed, divine service is still have been found. The watch-tower may once a fortnight performed.
still be ascended, although some of Proceeding from the garden through its steps are destroyed. It has a light the portal, which is surrounded with appearance, and is of an octagon shape, Lattlements, and in very good preser- and through the apertures at the top, the vation, we entered a square court, in country inay be reconnoitered in every which there appeared to be no object direction. that claimed particular attention. The views round Sudeley are, for the merely seems to have contained the most part, confined and uninteresting. accommodations necessary for the nu. The park, with its ornamental timber, is merous domestics and retainers, which a totally destroyed. On one side, however,
an eminence crowned with wood, affords between them. This fort is situated on to the seenery a pleasing variety. Below a point of hill land which overlooks the this was planted the artillery that so suc- great eastern roads from Salisbury, Ilcessfully battered the castle walls, when chester, Shaftesbury, &c. to Exeter. the victorious arms of Massey spread The ancient loads from Ilchester and through the country terror and dismay. Ilminster ran by the last, and near the
castle of Neroche to Otterford, and over In Letter III. p. 20, col. 1, line 36, for the hill through the north of Up-Ottery alteration, read alternation. Col. 2, line 13, to this very point; and from thence to for extraneous, read cutaneous.
Exeter. The promontory on which it is
situated, is calculated to secure the To the Editor of the Alonthly Magazine, country: its works were truly Ronan,
and strong from nature. But lest my
readers should suppose that this station The public is lately indebted for the may be found in another situation, I of Great Britain to several learned sides to the east of Exeter which will writers : copies of this work were very answer to this distance. The word Mor, much wanted. The commentary upon from the Welsh, has been rendered Sca; it must be a very acceptable part of the and hence Seaton, has been stated to work, so far as it is just; but in Iter 16, be the place, though nearly twenty-two “the site of Moridunum is said by the miles from Exeter, and without sufficient writer to be doubtful, some thinking it to remains to claim the name of a station. be at Eggardon, the hill of the Morini, But according to Gale, Mur is the gewith which the distance of nine miles neral reading. Let it however be Mor would not disagree; whilst others, with or Mur, Moridunum is not derived from more reason, prefer Seaton, the great this language, nor is Scaton a translation port of the West; because the foss leads of this name. The letter M is often from Ilchester 'directly to it. Interme- changed to V; Maridunum in Wales, diate stations have evidently been lost now Cær-Marthen, or Cær-Marden, has between this place and Exeter, as has been changed by the Welsh to Ceralso been the case between that place Vyrdhin: and l'or, Var, Bor, Bur, &c. and the Dart, the Tamer, the Fawy, have frequently in old names been renand the Fall."
dered Border, from the roots er, or, and With many antiquaries it is an opinion ur, border. The Saxons translated Mor of long standing, that Moridunum is Sea- by Hem, which is also border. Durum ton; but it is a very erroneous one. A they rendered berry; and hence Hencomment to this purpose in this very bury was the Saxon translation of Moriuseful work, cannot be too soon pointed dunum. I have seldom, Mr. Editor, out. The public too, who have been so attended to the measure of the line of many years contemplating on this line road from one place to another, or to of stations, not luid down by Antoninus, the measuring for the import of these or Richard, will gladly be led out of er words; but I shall just mention, that ror through the medium of your Ma. Seaton will not suit any distance in the gazine.
Itinerary; on the contrary, Hembury I must observe then, that the distance Fort, by the way of Shaftesbury, over the of Moridunum from Isca Dunmoniorum hills by Neroche, will be found at the is fifteen Roman miles, both in Richard distance stated by them from Dorchesand Antoninus; and this distance seems ter, as well as at the exact distance from to have been unaccountably overlooked Exeter. So far, Mr. Editor, bare we by antiquaries. Both authors agreeing proved that Hembury fort is Moridunum ; in this, the rule in such cases is to con- and so far are we further beholden for
clude that they are both right as to dis- truth, by comparing our old names with tance. I shall therefore enquire where Saxon translations, hitherto generally a station lay which will answer to fir- neglected. But independent of these tecn miles east of Exeter. Hembury particulars, we have still a more imporFort, then, on Black-Down near Ho. tant proof of this place being Moridu. niton, is exactly fifteen Roman miles num. Maridunuin in Walos, is now from this city; and the old road between called Caer-Marthen or Caer-Marden; Isca Dunnioniorum, and Moridunum, and a manor of land under Ilembury viewed from the fort, ran by the way of fort, and the land on which the firit Broad Clest Heath, in a straight line stands, are at this present cime named
in old writings, Cox Pitt Manor and supposed to imply enclosure, is derired Morden.*
the Gaelic term Can, Cen, Kun, or Ken, Having settled this point so as to pre- a lake. la is said by General Vallancey clude all dispute on the subject, I will to imply land, settlement, &c. Cenia now follow the Iter and Commentary, therefore, or the Lake Settlement, must The site of Ereter is not doubted. be on Richard's Cenius, or Lake; denoThe road from Honiton is said " to be minated from its widely-extended waters, visibly pointing to Exeter, as well as and from the Kenwyn falling into it at from Exeter to Totnes.”+ I have already Truro; and not on the Fal or Stream described the direct old road from Mo- which gave not name to Ptolomy's (eridanum to Exeter, which is not the com- nion, or Great Lake. mon road from Honiton; I will not say I have now corrected this part of the that another might not be used from sixteenth Iter, which was, Mr. Editor, Hembury Fort to Exeter.
given according to our best writers; but " Durio Amne,” is said to be “ on the which I have proved erroneous. I think Dart." Totness, with no very ancient no more blame can be attached to the visible remains, may have been the writer I have commented upon than to place supposed in the Comment; but others; for he bas followed our authoriwe have on the border of the Dart, in ties: I must therefore thank him for his Hole parish, near Ashburton, another labour in giving us this new edition; and Hembury fort, with remains which may again recommend this valuable remain of point out a station.
our, countryman to all lovers of our his. Tamara is on the Tamer; authors tory. Further, as the ending of Voluta suppose at Tamerton Foliot.
is the same as Rutubiæ, or Rutupiæ, I Voluba comes next, and is stated to will beg leave to speak of this last word, be "on the Fawy." But Pawy implies of which so much has been written witha small stream, from its diminutive end- out giving any satisfaction. ing in y; and Vol in Voluba, Foluba, or Camden derives Rutupiæ from RkydFaluba, implies, I shall prove, Stream. tufith, a sandy ford; and in this Somner The ending of this last word relates to agrees with bim, Battely first says, that the stream, or is term for land. If our Rutupiæ was always named Rutubi it relate to the stream, it must be an Portus by Orosius and Bede; and as augment, and the same as Ube in the there was a Rutubi Portus in Gaul, he Danou, or Danube; but this stream can- supposes ours derived from it: but here not be dignified by the adjective Great, he stops, and by not enquiring from nor can it be diminished by Ube, into whence this last was derived, he has exthe term little, which we find in the plained nothing by it. He next states, Fauy. It will therefore be the Vol, that the name came from Rutubus, a
Fol, or Fal, or the Stream: and Uba tyrant who held a hill on the Seine; will be derived from A, rising ground or but neither in this does he shew from bill, pronounced Au, as Abury is also whence this Rutubus had his name. He written Aubury. Au is also changed to then states, “that Thanet was called Av, and this to Ab in various instances: by the Britons Inis Ruhin, or Ruithina: and this further to Ub or Up, as at Khuo, in their language, he says, signifies Ubley, called also Upton. I might carry "to roar," which Camden understands of such changes much further, and bring the porpusses on the coast; but he rather appropriate authorities; but these are applies it to the waves which break on enough for this letter. Uba was there. the shore. "If (says he) we compound fore the Hill on the Fal or Streum, and the word Rhuo with tyäyn, which sig. not on the Fawy or little Stream. nifies 'a shore, it gives a derivation of
Cenia comes next in the Itinerary, the name exaetly suitable to the descripand is stated to be on the Fal: and here tion of Lucan, lib. vi." I shall add, all our authors have shewn their great he continues, "the opinion of an unpubinattention, in supposing that this word , lished author, namely, that the Rutupian means a Mouth, or a Stream. From An coast is so called from Rupes a rock; or or En, water, with c prefixed, which is from Rutini, a people of Gaul, now
Bologne;" which affinity of the Gaelic Hist. Devon. vol. 2.
Rutini and our Ruputini, seems to be + Here some confusion takes place, the confirmed by Mallebranche, who says of road from Scaton to Exeter is not by way of the Ruthini, "all that part of the coast Honiton; nor is Honiton in the road from which lies between Calais and Dunkirk, Hembury Port to Exeter.
our seamen eyen now call Ruther. Add