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M. Domergue, M. Sicard, successfully duces strength of style, bas treated imcultivate universal aud particular grain- portant questions of general policy. A mar. We shall have to remark a work writer, celebrated in more than one kind on our language, one of the best produc- of composition, now the Prince Archtions of Marmontel.

treasurer of the empire; like him, M. M. Degerando, a man of sagacity and Ræderer, M. Dupont de Nemours, M. methodical mind, has enquired into the Barbé-Marhois; after them, M. M. 1. B. connexions of signs, with the art of think- Say; M. Ganilh, have treated, in an ining. The comprehensive genius of teresting, and perspicuous manner, of M. de Tracy, has collecied the three different branches of political economy. sciences linked together, in one body, The Eleinents of Legislation, published as they are in nature. M. Cabanis, as by M. Perrau, are not unworthy of being interesting as he is perspicuous and pro- quoted. The author of a work, honoured found, by comparing the physical and with the prize of utility, which the the moral man, bas subunitted medicine French Academy used to decrec, M. to the analysis of the understanding. Pastoret, in developing the principles of M. Garat, appointed to lecture on this penal legislation, thought that be could analysis, in the normal schools, has, by determine how the law should proceed, his brilliant imagination, rendered reason in order to be humane, when it should itseli luminous; a kind of service for strike to be just, and where it should which, in questions yet abstract, rea- stop to be useful. We remark in the son can be indebted to talents of a su- works of M. de Lacretelle, a brilliant and perior order only.

celebrated discourse, on the nature of The science of the duties of man, ignominious punishments. All these mo:ality, without producing so many writers have kept pace with the reason works, has not however been barren. of the age, and some have accelerated its We have found in the lectures which progress. Marmuntel bequeathed 10 his children, Before we proceed to the oratorical the precepts of Cicero blended with art, in which we again find policy and evangelical wisdom. We ought parti- legislation presented under new forms to cularly to distinguish an iinportant work France, we shall have to mention a Treaof Saint Lambert, who formerly enriched tise on the Eloquence of the Pulpit, a book our literature by an elegant, harmonious, itself eloquent, in which Cardinal Maury and philosophical poem. Arrived at the gives excellent precepts, after having last period of his life, he did not abandon exhibited striking examples. the banners under which he enlisted in In literary criticism, several writers his youth. Invariable in bis principles, furnish us with profound studies, and shunning extreines even in good, he judicious comments on our great clase neither affected excessive piety, nor sics: M. Cailhava, on Moliere ; M. stoical austerity. Without detaching Palissot, on Corneille and on Voltaire; Diorality from the social, necessary de- Chamfort, on Lafontaine, whom he had, monstrable principle of a superintending while young, made the subject of a and protecting God, he founds it alto. charming eulogy; and Laharpe, on gether on the relations which unite man Racine, whoin he had also worthily to man, on our wants, on our passions, praised before. We do not omit remarkon the innumerable multitude of indi- ing numerous additions to the Literary Tidual interests, constantly at variance Memoirs of M. Palissot, a work frewith each other, but compelled by nature quently instructive, and always written to commingle, and forming by their with uncommon elegauce. Nor do we union, the general interest of society. forget the labours of M. Ginguéné, on

We consider, in their turn, those who Italian literature, a considerable and have applied the art of writing, to mac- useful work, already in a state of great ters of policy and legislation: not the forwardness. llere the last volumes of crowd of subordinate wits, who by, pe- "Laharpe's Course present themselves, riodical papers, or pamphlets, less tran- with his Correspondence in Russia. sitory, flattered the passions of the mul- After having done justice to the indistitude, while the multitude possessed putable talents of that man of letters, power; but a small number of men, more now no more, we shall be obliged to or less, distinguished for their talents, - point put the extreme severity with and equally laudable for their intentions which he thought himself authorised to An able dialectician, M. Sieyes, in treat his contemporaries, and particuworks where the strength of thought pro- larly. bis rivals; his unreserved censure, MONTHLY MAC. No. 195.

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which is scarcely ever just; the pleasure in the same assemblies, orators who of condemuing, which discredits an able united to a courageous probity, a dictisa censor; his mjustice often palpable; and both pathetic and imposing: Veignaux, even in a just cause his offensive bitter- for instance; M. Français de Nantes, ness so opposite to French urbanity. On M. Boissy d'Anglas, M. Garat, Portalis, this occasion, Sire, we shall examine the M. Simeon, and that able statesman so rules of sound criticisin, and in so doing, eminent for jurisprudence, and the we engage to observe them in the whole oratorical art, so elevated amongst the course of our work; and perhaps it inay great dignitaries of the empire. be of importance to repeat them, when In the camps, where, remote from the they appear to be forgotten.

calamities of tbe interior, the national In the oratorical art, at the com- glory was preserved unsullied; there mencement of our period, appears a colarose another species of eloquence, until lection of the funeral orations and ser. then unknown to modern nations. It mons, by Beauvais, bishop of Senez, a must even be admitted, when we read in prelate indebted for his dignities, to his the writers of antiquity, the harangues of merit; and who sometimes shewed him- the most renowned chiefs, we are often self the worthy successor of Boss06., and tempted to adwire only the genius of Massillon. The French bar appeared the historians. But here, doubt is im. impoverished, when its supporters en- possible; the monuments exist; history riched the tribune. · At this ierin our has only to collect them. From the meinory recurs with pain to turbulent army of Italy proceeded those beautiful assemblies. We shall hasten through proclainations, in wbich the conqueror them, Sire, to avoid numerous shoals. of Lodi and Arcole, at the saine ime We shall be able to conform ourselves to that he created a new art of war, created the views manifested by your equity and the military eloquence of which he will wisdom; and forced to recollect that face remain the model. This eloquence, like tions existed, we shall not forget that Fortune accompanying him, resounded there were also talents. We begin with through the city of Alexandria, in Egypt, that celebrated orator, who, gifted with where Pompey perished; through Syria, a mind as vigorous as flexible, attached which received the last breatli of Gerhis personal renown to almost all the manicus. Subsequently in Germany, in labours of the constituent assembly. Poland, in the midst of the astonished After Mirabeau, follow those who come capitals, Vienna, Berlin, Warsaw, it was batted his opinions with energy, the Care faithful in the hero of Austerlitz, of Jena, dinal Maury, Cazalès; those who suc- of Friedland; while in the language of cessfully supported him, Chapelier, Bar. honour, so well understood by the French nave, and M. Regnault de Saint Jean armies, from the bosom of victory, he still d'Angely, who stili displays, in the hall commanded victory, and inspired he: where we are now admitted, that preci- roism. sion and perspicuity, which peculiarly At the moment, when men of science distinguish his eloquence. Could we and literature, long tossed about by forget the number of able civilians, who storms, found refuge in a new asyluin; have applied the oratorical art, to the and particularly at the epoch, when

your different objects of legislation. Thouret, Majesty, improving the Institute, hoTrotrebet, rivals worthy of each other; noured it with your special favour: aca. Camus, who to great knowledge joined demical eloquence soon began to revive, great austerity of manners; Target, and to flourish again. That species of M. Merlin, M. Treilhard, whose extensive composition, the various models of whicle learning has enlightened the tribunals? belong exclusively to the literature of the We pay homage to the plan of public last century, is not contracted within instruction, that monument of literary narrower liniits. Two illustrious writers, glory, erected by M. de Talleyrand; a Thomas and M. Garat, bave proved, work, in which all the philosophic ideas that in certain subjects, it admits of are embellished by all the charms of grand images, and of the most beautiful style. The subsequent assemblies fur- movements of oratory. The art also nish lis with two works of uncommon often consists in avoiding them. But it merit, of the same kind; the one by the always requires elegance and regularity profound Condorcet, the other by M. in the forms, perspicuity, justness, and a Daunou, whose useful labours, elo. happy barmony between the ideas and

quence, and modesty, bave been esteem. the expressions. These qualities have ed by several legislatures. We remark been found combined, in the discourses 11

which M. Suard delivered, as perpetual splendid. We shall not forget an intera secretary, in the name of the class of esting publication of M. de Beausset: French Literature; and the same func- the life of that immortal prelate, who timus have been performed with equal enriched our language by Telemackus, success, in the name of the other classes. combined eloquence, religion, philosoM. Arnault, on several solemn occasions, phy, and was at the same time simple in has infused great interest into subjects his genius, his piecy, and his virtue. of public instruction. Amongt the pas Voyages and travels form a part of negyrists, M. de Boufflers, M. François history. We shall follow through North de Neufchateau, M. Cuvier, Portalis, America, the steps of M. de Volney, have been distinguished by the brilliancy who formerly, in traversing Egypt and and facility of their style; and the eulo- Syria, wrote one of the finest works of giom of Marmontel, a work of great the eighteenth century, and a mastermerit, which philosophy and friendship piece of its kind. Able men have col. dictated to M. Morellet, appears in par: lected the annals of the sciences, or ticular to have been heard with uniform drawn a faithful view of human opinions. pleasure throughout. Finally, as it is M, Naigeon, completing the great labour impossible to quote all, a inultitude of commenced by Diderot, describes the productions are sufficient securities to us, duminous progress of ancient and modern that this species of writing will resume philosophy: M. Bossut, interests by his the useful influence which it formerly diction, in the History of Mathematics: possessed; as well in the French Aca- with M. de Volney, eloquent Reason in demy, as in the Academy of Sciences; terrogates roins, accumulated during where more than one celebrated author, Sorty centuries : with M. Dupuis, a a member of both societies, preserved judicious Erudition searches for the com: between their different studies that mon origin of religious traditions. Here union, which renders sciences more we find again, a profound and rapid generally useful, and gives to literature a sketch of the progress of the hunan more extensive direction. But lopen mind, the last work, and nearly the last

The important branch of history, Sire, sigh of Condorcet, a will made by a sage will long engage our attention. Not in favour of humanity. that we pretend to rescue from oblivion, Before the art of writing was applied a mass of private memoirs on tive French amongst us to the history of the sciences, revolution. Defective in point of style, it was known to what au elevation it containing besides only pleadings in could attain, even in the sciences the favour of the different parties ; tley.be- object of which is the study of nature. long to the class of poleinic writings, and Button had taught it; and we shall have we shall discard them indiscriminately. an occasion to remark, how well his We shall, however, have to give an ac- worthy continuator, M. de Lacepede, count of a great number of works. In has benefited by the lessons of so great one, M. Castera, describes ao empress, a master. We shall see Lavoisier, and who shone thirty years on the throne of Foureroy diffusing over chemistry. that Peter the Great. In another, M. de clearness, which is the first quality of Segur, in drawing a political view of style, and the most necessary for in. Earope, during a tempestuous period, .struction.. We shall next examine communicates to his style the luminnus: whether the theories, relative to the ness of his opinions. We shall display different arts of imitation, do not offer in - the merit of an Abstract of the Ilistory the same light very remarkable improveof France, a work of M. de Tlmouret, one ments. Our researches will not be fruit. of the members of the Constituent As. dess. We shall remark particularly, with sembly. The period furnishes us with what ease and elegance M. Gretry has another superior work, at least for the treated the musical art, which he has great qualities of the art of writing. long honoured by compositions, the me. Rultiere, a academician, now no . Jody and truth of which can never benore, has related the memorable events come obsolete. un 1919 of the last century, in those regions, We shall not proceed to poetry withSire, where your Majesty, accoprpanied out taking a rapit yiew of novels, a kind by victory, has dictated a glorious peace., of writing which resembles history, by Although this posthumous womkremutns the recital of events; the epic by an incomplete, sve shall discover, in every action whelly, or partly fabulous; trapart of it, the stamp of a gemus iimproved gedy by the passions, comedy by the reby Jabour, and at times unconi uonly presentations of society. We shall not notice a heap of frivolous compositions poetry, and of translating genius by of no character; but we shall appreciate ialent, had not been carried so far. the wit and talents of several ladies, who In didactic poetry, it is also 10 M. follow with distinction the steps of the Delille that the period is indebted for its illustrious female, to whom we are in- fecundity. Ile has diffused through three debted for the Princess of Cleves. We original poems, the same richness of shall remark Atala, the ornainent of a style which he had displayed in transconsiderable work, in which M. de lating the neid, and Paradise Lost. Chateaubriant illustrates the Genius of The poem on the Imagination, would Christianity. As early as the first year, particularly be a sufficient foundation, we find the best, the most moral, and the upon which to establish a high renown. shortest of the novels of the whole pe. M. Esmenard, M. Castel, and some riod, the Indian Cottage, in which one others come next; deserving of praise, of our great surviving writers, M. Ber- but far behind their model. Lebrun nardin de Saint Pierre, has united, as in alone, would have been equal to the his other works, the art of painting by competition with M. Delille, if be had expression, the art of pleasing the car by finished his poem on Nature; of which the music of speech, with the supreme some fragments, of superior merit, reart of adorning philosophy by the main. Without a rival in the Ode, graces.

Lebrun obtained harmonious sounds Poetry will first present to us the from the Pindaric lyre, so rebellious to eminent and sublime species consecrated, vulgar poets; and we shall remark, Sire, Sire, to celebrate the men who furin thé that his last notes were consecrated to destiny of nations, the heroic poem. The your triumphs; he was worthy to cele-, poets capable of attaining the Epopée, brate them: are not less rare than the men worthy M. Daru the translator of Horace, of being adopted by it. Five master has, in that difficult undertaking, dispieces only produced within thirty cen- played a pure taste, a flexible mind, a turies, are a sufficient proof of it. If profound study of the resources of our within the period which we have to con- versification. Erotic poetry, is honoured sider, we perceive scarcely one laudable, by M. de Parny, by M. de Boufflers. but defective attempt, ihe Helvetians Poets, whom we shall find again with we may indulge in higher expectations, lustre on the French stage, already prewarranted by the poetical talents of M. sent themselves under brilliant and vade Fontanes, who now shines as an rious forms: M. Ducis, in the Epistle; orator at the head of the legislative body. M. Arnault, in the Apologue; M. AnIn proceeding to the Heroi-comic poein, drieux, in tales ; M. Legouvé, M. Ray, we shall not forget the extreme circum- nouard, in short poems of a serious and spection necessary, in certain subjects, philosoplıical kind. After these expeand at the same time to pay the tributé rienced authors, we observe some rising of praise justly due to one of our best talents now forming, which afford unore poets, M. de Parny. After original than hopes. During two successive compositions, follow imitations and trans- years, M. Millevoie, distinguished for the - lations, in verse, of some celebrated epic elegance of his style, bas obtained the poems. Amongst the imitators, M. prize of poetry. M. Victorin Fabre, Parceval de Grandmaison, to whom we still younger, has merited, during two are indebted for the Epic Amours, and years successively, an honourable disM. Luce de Lancival, author of Achilles iinction. Several, whom it is now ima at Scyros, must be distinguished from the possible to name, will not be forgotten in crowd: but translations of the greatest our work, where we shall avoid severity: merit will more particularly engage our persuaded, that in literature, as in every attention. Virgil and Milton themselves thing else, indulgence approaches nearer scem to speak our language; and, thanks to justice. to a living classic; thanks also to Mon- Ilere is presented to your Majesty's şieur de Saint Ange, an able and view, dramatic poetry; the two kinds of Jaborious translator of Ovid; we shall which had so much influence on our lanhave the pleasure of observing, that in guage, our whole literature, and the this respect, the present period is supe. national manners. In tragedy, appears rior to every other. Until now, at least, first M. Ducis, an inventor, even when he in works of such importance, the difficult imitates; inimitable when he gives lane art of conquering the beauties of foreign guage to filial piety, a poet deservedly

celebrated

celebrated, and whose pathetic genius gaiety, an original portraiture of manbas tempered the gloomy terror of the ners, have secured the success of M. English stage, Coinpetitors, worthy of Picard. Not less gay, and nearly as each other, come next: M. Arnault, so fertile, M. Duval is partly entitled to the noble in Marius, so tragic in the Vene- same coininendations. The purity of uans; M. Legouvé, whose Death of diction is esteemed in some essays of Abel presents an elegant imitation of M. Roger. Here we point out an imGesner, and who displayed great energy provement, the merit of which is due to in Epicharis; M. Lemercier, who in the principal writers, whom we have just Agamennou so ably blended together named; perhaps also to the change whicia the beauties of Eschylus and Seneca; has taken place in our manners. During lastly, M. Raynouard, who rendered so the whole period, the comedies worthy brilliant an homage to victims honoured of notice preserve no traces of that jarby the regrets of history. We shall gon, which was so long in vogue. To notice the interesting scenes of the succeed, it was found necessary to be Joseph of M. Baour Lormian, and the natural. The pedantic, prudish style, estimable parts of Mr. de Murville's, the false wit, the affected tone, which had Abdelasis. We must not omit a few been introduced on the comic stage, by reflections. The good tragic composi- authors more refiued than ingenious, tions of the period cannot be reproached have been entirely banished, with the muitiplicity of incidents, the In the drama, a defective species of profusion of subordinate personages, use- composition, but susceptible of beauties, less episodes, the insipiility of elegiac we distinguish Beauinarchais, whom tuis scenes. In all, the action is simple, and comedies and his memoirs, had already almost always severe. The progress of rendered celebrated. M. Monvel, an the poets is not timid. Without violating author who has deservedly obtained the ancient rules, they have stained numerous successes, and one of our new effects. Upon the whole, they have greatest performers; M. Bouilli, whose preserved the philosophical character pieces breathie that interest which excelimpressed on tragedy, by the finest genius lent morality inspires. On the theatre, of the last century; by following whose rendered illustrious by Quinault, are to steps, the greater part have opened to be remarked M. Guillard, and M. Hoffthemselves the various routes of modern man ; more recently, M. Esmenard, and history; an immense career, which pro- M. Joui: on the other lyric scene, M. inises for a long time, new palms to the Hoffman again, M. Monvel, M. Marpoets capable of pursuing it.

solier, M. Duval. After having done In proceeding to comedy, we find as justice to some pleasing productions, early as the first years, the pretty little compelled however to renew some opipiece, the Convent, by M. Laujon; nions of Voltaire, and to observe what ihe Greek Menechms, by M. Cailhava, he had foreseen and dreaded, the inan entertaining and well-conducted co- fluence of the comic opera on the general medy of intrigue; a. work elegantly taste of the spectators, we shall endeayersified, the Pamela of Mr. François; a vour, in consequence of that observation, copy of that of M. Goldoni, but a copy to enquire into the menas of supporting, superior to the original.“ Two, Fabre of augmenting, if possible, the splendor of d'Eglantine, and Colin d'Harleville, com- the French Theatre ; where the dramatic petitors experienced in contendmg with art essentially resides. Your Majesty, each other, enrich the higher order of is pleased benevolently to attend to this comedy, the one by forcibly pourtraying art, as beautiful, as it is difficult; and it impassible egotism, and impas-igned is more easy than ever to perceive, of virtue; the other in representing, with what importance it may become, when strongly comic truth, the inconveniences your soul, in unison with that of Corof a protracted celibacy. M, Andrieux, neille, applauds the conceptions of that shines in the same rank, by a pleasing man of genius, whose uatural language vivacity, graceful and interesting details, was sublime, and who forced beroes to and the uninterrupted charm of his style. weep. A fertile imagination, an unaffected In finishing, Sire, a vast view, of which

want of time now permits os only to preIn obedience to the class of French sent to your Majesty an incomplete, but literature, Mr. Chenier is here named. His at least a faithful sketch, general contragedy of Fenelon has succeeded, protected siderations on the whole period will by the memory of a great man.

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