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2 Some remove the

c not

see his

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the naked to lodge

7 They cause
without clothing, that they have
covering in the cold.
8 They are


P wet with the showers

d landmarks; of the mountains, and they violently take away flocks, and rock for want of a shelter.


• feed thereof.



4 embrace the

9 They pluck the fatherless from

3 They drive away the ass of the the breast, and take a pledge of the fatherless, they take the widow's ox for a pledge.

4 They turn the needy out of the way: the poor of the earth hide themselves together.

5 Behold, as i wild asses in the desert go they forth to their work; rising betimes for a prey: the wilderness yieldeth food for them and for their children.

10-13,17-21. 1 Sam. 12:3.

a Ps. 31:15. Ec. 3:17. 8:6,7. 9: | f 22:6-9. 31:16,17. Deut. 24:6,
11.12. Is. 60:22. Dan. 2:21.
Luke 21:22-24. Acts 1:7. 17:
26. 1 Thes. 5:1. 1 Tim. 4:1. 6:
15. 2 Pet. 2:3, 3:7,8.

b Ps. 9:10. 36:10. John 17:3.
c Gen. 7:4. 18:17,20,21. Ps. 73:
16-19. Jer. 12:1-3. Matt.
24:38. Rom. 2:5.

d Deut. 19:14. 27:17. Prov. 22:
23. 23:10. Hos. 5:10.
e 1:15,17. 5:5.

*Or, feed them.

g 14. 31:16. Ps. 109.16. Prov.
22:16. 30:14. Is. 10:2. Ez. 18:
12.18. 22:29. Am. 2:7. 8:4—6.
Mic. 2:1,2.

h Prov. 28:12,23. Jam. 5:4-6.
i 39:5-7. Jer. 2:24. Hos. 8:9.
k 14. Prov. 4:16. Hos. 7:6.
Mic. 2:1. Zeph. 3:3. John 18
28. Acts 23:12.

1 5:5. 12:6. Gen. 16:12. 27:40.

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t Deut. 25:4. Jer. 22:13. Jam, 5:4.

u Ex. 1:13,14. 2:23,24. 22:27. Judg. 10:16. Ps. 12:5. Ec. 4: 1. Is. 52:5.

x Ps. 69:26. 109:22.
Prov. 31:21. y Ps. 50:21. Ec. 8:11,12. Mal.
2:17. 3:15. Rom. 2:4,5. 2 Pet.

q Lam. 4:5. Heb. 11:38.
nite wisdom and love, and in order to humble,
soften, and sanctify them; nothing, but what shall
terminate in their benefit, and that of their
brethren, and redound to the glory of God: and,
in their sober judgment, they would be willing
to endure darkness and distress for a time, for
these important purposes. May we then learn
to obey and trust the Lord, even under tribula-
tion; be willing to die when he pleases, for we
know not from what evils we may thus be ex-
empted; and to live as long as he sees good, as
we are not aware for what good purposes our
lives may be prolonged.


CHAP. XXIV. V. 1. If God uniformly punished the wicked in this life, according to the opinion of Eliphaz and his friends; Job supposed, that wise and godly men, who are acquainted with him and his ways, would be able to give some account of the times of vengeance; to conclude how long the prosperity of the wicked would last; and to predict how it would terminate, and what degree of misery proportioned to their crimes would be inflicted: as those, acquainted with the mind of the prince, and the

them, there may be many temptations, sorrows, and perplexities: they may lose the sense of the favor of their God, and, for a season, seek it in every ordinance, and by every means, in vain. But he knows and approves their path; he notices all their trials and difficulties; he will give them some distant intimation of a happy event; and when their uprightness is manifested, their graces increased, and their dross consumed, they shall come forth as the purest and most precious gold. But the Christian, of whom we speak, is conscious of having uprightly embraced the salvation of God, and set out in his ways, by repentance, faith, and true conversion; he has held his steps, and kept his path, without turning aside for the sake of worldly advantages, or for fear of the cross. Many false steps indeed he has made; but he has not been left to walk in the way of allowed sin: he obeys unreservedly, from love, and with the constancy of patient expectation. The word of God has been the food of his soul: he has an appetite for it; he relishes and digests t, converts it into nourishment, and is strengthened by it for service and for conflict. In his habitual judgment, he would rather want animal recreation, and starve with hunger, than be de-laws of the land, can foresee and expect the senprived of the spiritual sustenance of his soul: and tence, which will shortly be pronounced and extherefore he takes pleasure in searching the ecuted upon notorious malefactors. There are scripture, and in attending on the ordinances of days appointed for their trial, and penalties anGod. (Notes, Ps. 42:1-3. 63:1-6. 84: 1,2. Cant. nexed to their crimes, and we know what tc 1:4.) Those who answer this description, may expect, as to the murderer or traitor. Doubtbe alarmed and troubled at afflictive events; they less, the Governor of the world also has his apmay be disquieted at the view of the unchangea- pointed times of vengeance; but why are they ble decrees and irresistible sovereignty of God, not discovered to his people? Why are they not and be perplexed about the reasons of his ap-marked or evident? They certainly would be, if pointments. They may even think that the Almighty delights to trouble them, and wish that they had died before their trials; but this is their weakness, temptation, and sin. For nothing can come upon them, but what is appointed by infi66]

exact justice were awarded in this world; and as they are not, it is evident that the time of trial, and of executing vengeance, is not appointed in this life. (Note, Ec. 9:1-3.)

V. 2-12. In these verses Job proves from


13 They are of those that rebel against the light; they know not the ways thereof, nor abide in the paths thereof.

14 The e murderer rising with the light killeth the poor and needy, and the night is as a thief.



as the shadow of death: if one know them they are in the terrors of the shad ow of death.

18 He is swift as the waters; their portion is cursed in the earth; he beholdeth not the way of the vineyards. 19 Drought and heat † consume the snow-waters: so doth the grave those


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which have sinned.

15 The e eye also of the adulterer waiteth for the twilight, saying, No eye shall see me: and disguiseth his face. 20 The womb shall forget him; 16 In the dark they dig through the worm shall feed sweetly on him; houses, which they had marked for them-P he shall be no more remembered; selves in the day-time; they know not the light.


17 For the morning is to them even

z Luke 12:47,48. John 3:19,20.
9.39-41. 15.22-24. Rom. 1:
32. 2:17-24. Jam. 4:17.
a Prov. 4:19. John 12:35,40.
Rom. 3:11-17. 2 Thes. 2:10-❘f


b 23:11,12. John 8:31,44. 15:6. 2 Pet. 2.20-22. 1 John 2:19. Jude 6.


e Ex. 20:14. 2 Sam. 11:4-13.

12.12. Ps. 50:18. Prov. 6:32

35. 7:9,10.

22:13,14. Ps. 10:11. 73:11. 94:
7. Ez. 8:12. 9:9.

Heb. setteth his face in se-
cret. Gen. 38:14,15.
g Ex. 22:2,3. Ez. 12:5-7,12.
Matt. 24:43.

c 2 Sam. 11:14-17. Ps. 10:8-
10. Mic. 2:1,2. Eph. 5:7-11.h 13. 38:12,13. John 3:20. Eph.
d Luke 12:39. 1 Thes. 5:2. Rev. 5:11-13.

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ing, before they had accomplished their crimes; and detection was as death to them. (Notes, John 3:19-21. Eph. 5:8-14. 1 Thes. 5:1-11.) Thus they often, through life, escaped the punishment due to their crimes.

facts, that notorious tyrants, oppressors, and rob- ning all intercourse with it, as not being able to bers, frequently escape adequate punishment in endure the discoveries which it would make. this world. Unjust rulers, under cover of law, They therefore lay still all day; or only went out often deprive men of their estates; and take away to mark their prey, and to make observations and their cattle and substance, as if forfeited: they form plans. Thus the murderer "rising with," or oppress the orphans and widows, and drive the before, "the day-break," lay in wait for the early poor into concealment or banishment. Many traveller, to murder him; or he spent the night in likewise disdain the yoke of obedience to God or robbery. The adulterer waited for the dusk of man, as the wild ass refuses to labor; and rapine the evening, and secretly, or having put a mask and plunder are their daily employments. Thus on his face, repaired to the haunts of his shameful troops of Ishmaelitish free-booters lived in the practices. The house-breaker likewise concealwilderness, by robbing the travellers: others ed himself till all were asleep, and then forced his reaped the corn, or gathered in the vintage, from way into the habitations of honest men to plunder the lands which they had violently seized; while them; even digging through the walls, which per the poor sufferers, whom they had ruined, were haps were made of clay. All these offenders hat exposed, without clothing or shelter, to the in-ed day-light; they dreaded the approach of morn clemencies of the weather, and driven to make the rocks their refuge, and to live like wild beasts. Such tyrants would pluck away the fatherless children from their weeping mothers, to be their slaves; and take the children of the widows, or of any poor persons, into bondage, as a pledge for some debt, contracted to keep their families from perishing. (Notes, 22:5-14. Neh. 5:1-13. Jam. 5:1-6.) They regarded not the hunger, thirst, or nakedness even of those who labored to support their luxury: but would take away the sheaf which the poor had gleaned; and suffer them to perish for hunger and thirst, amidst the abundance, with which they were surrounded, and about which their labors had been employed. Men, thus wounded and crushed by oppression, publicly expressed their anguish in groans and lamentations: yet God inflicted no remarkable punishment upon the criminals, proportioned to their guilt, or equal to the miseries of the oppressed. Thus, in this life he did not expose and punish their folly, or impute folly unto them; as he certainly will do, when he shall "render to every man according to his works."-The words translated "they take away the sheaf from the hungry," (10) may be rendered, "They are hungry that carry the sheaf:" that is, Their reapers starve.

V. 13-17. Job here followed up his argument, by bringing instances of criminals, who escaped detection, and eluded justice, as those before mentioned out-braved it. Such persons "rebelled against the light," as if enemies to the sun; shun

V. 18-20. These atrocious offenders, and many others, proceeded swiftly and silently, like the gliding stream, into every iniquity: they acquired a portion on earth by such accursed practices, without bestowing pains to cultivate the land; spending their time in deserts, and being seldom seen in the ways towards the vineyards, which were frequented by those who labored in them.Yet, as dry weather and heat evaporate the waters, arising from the melted snows, or they sink into the earth imperceptibly and unnoticed: so numbers of these criminals went down unobserved into the grave. They were not ignominiously suspended on gibbets, to be devoured by the fowls of the air; but were buried, and became a delicious morsel for the worms. And, as no remarkable misery or disgrace attended their lives or deaths, even their mothers and nearest relations were soon comforted for them, and they were forgotten, as if no more criminal than other men: so that their wickedness came to an end, as a tree that grows undisturbed, and is not cut down, but decays and is broken through length of time.

He is swift as the waters. (18) Or 'on the wa'ters.' Some understand this as a description of pirates, who, sailing over the waters in light and swift vessels, grew rich by plunder; and despised,

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as mean and vile, the drudgery of cultivating the earth, and the profit acquired by it.

V. 21-25. According to the observation, which Job had made on human affairs, many escaped in this world, who had injured the childless and the widow.-Others, having become powerful by iniquity, were able to prevail even against the mighty; so that none could stand before them, or be secure even as to their lives, when they arose to plunder or murder: or they formed connexions with other powerful tyrants, for the purpose of oppression. Indeed, men often purchased their favor and protection; and, confiding in their promises, thought themselves safe: but these oppressors allowed them only a transient respite, and watched for every pretence or opportunity to injure them. Thus they had their season of exaltation: and then, (as all must die,) they were gone, and brought low, and removed in an advanced age, and with as much ease as other men.-Job, having stated these undeniable facts, challenged his friends or any other persons, to prove them false or inapplicable; or to refute his doctrine, that 'calamities are no proof of wickedness.'

He evil entreateth, &c. (21) The Hebrew word ny does not signify evil entreateth, in its general use, being the Benoni part. from to feed, which sometimes means to devour. "He devoureth the barren, that he should not bear." Oppression discourages marriage, and prevents exceedingly the increase of the human species: as also does licentiousness, and the methods which the licentious take to prevent detection, which some think may be intimated.


V. 1-12.

The Lord knows the proper times for delivering his people, and for executing vengeance on his enemies; and he orders every thing in perfect wisdom, justice, goodness, and truth. Yet, to the wisest and best of men, the conduct of his providence appears involved in perplexity; but the approaching day of judgment will throw full light on all his ways and works. In the prospect of that solemn season, we should neither be stumbled and distressed at witnessing the prosperity of the wicked, nor discouraged if we share the troubles of the righteous. The history of all ages and nations proclaims the desperate wickedness of the human heart. So far from "loving their neighbor as themselves," men, if not powerfully restrained, are induced by selfishness and idolatrous love of worldly objects, not only to withhold from others the comforts of life, but to deprive them, by fraud or violence, even of what is necessary, and to reduce them to abject misery. When this selfish and destructive principle has surmounted the fear of human justice, or climbed into a throne, iniquity is committed with a high hand, or even prescribed by law. At other times it operates by rapine or fraud: and in all cases it dictates manifold violations of justice, truth, and mercy to man, as well as a disregard of the duties which we owe to God. But who can express the crimes that have been committed, or the miseries which have 68]

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24 They are exalted for a little while, but are gone and brought low; they are taken out of the way as all other, and cut off as the tops of the ears of corn.

25 And if it be not so now, b who will make me a liar, and make my speech nothing worth?

z 20:5. Ps. 37:10,35,36. 73:19. | Heb. closed up.
92:7. Jam. 1:11. 5:1-3.
a Is. 17:5.6. Rev. 14:14-20.
b 9.24. 11:2,3. 15:2.

† Heb. not. 3:22. marg.

been occasioned, by this inordinate self-love!
Men, more savage than tigers, have in all ages
and countries been disposed to prey on the help-
less part of their own species; and to plunder, op-
press, enslave, or murder them, as it might best
suit their purposes, or as they were able to con-
ceal or to defend what they had done; or, by their
brutal lusts, to reduce individuals and families
perhaps to still deeper and more exquisite misery.
And though the groans of the poor, the naked, and
the perishing; of the fatherless, the widow, the
defrauded laborer; of those who are enslaved,
dragged or driven from their native shores, and
cruelly tormented by human avarice, ambition,
malice, and sensuality, do not seem to interrupt
the indulgence of their haughty licentious op.
pressors; yet their cries enter into "the ears of the
LORD of hosts," who is their Patron; and who will
at length shew before the whole world, that it is
most dangerous to injure those, who are least able
to defend themselves. But, "because sentence
against an evil work, is not executed speedily;
the heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to
do evil." God does not immediately impute folly
to them; and therefore they proceed, and encour-
age one another; and the earth continues full of
violence and misery in multiplied and varied

V. 13-25.

The workers of iniquity, however in other respects distinguished, universally "rebel against the light." If they did no violence to their own kind, there would be no need for them to bestow conscience, and to the common reason of manso much pains to conceal or palliate their crimes. But after all the efforts of infidels and profligates, their practices continue shameful, and court darkness; they hate the light of day, as well as the word of God, even when not exposed to the sword of the magistrate: and their fear of detection is an earnest of future conviction and punishment.The murderer, the adulterer, and the robber, (characters associated in Scripture,) may enjoy their accursed portion, escape punishment from man, and live long, and go down quietly into the grave; and they may be ready to conclude, that "no harm shall happen to them." But "after death is the judgment:" and then they shall find that, while they abused the patience of God, and hardened themselves in impenitency, they "were treasuring up wrath against the day of wrath, and revelation of the righteous judgment of God, who shall render to every man according to his works.” "Then will they return and discern, between the righteous and the wicked, between him that serveth God, and him that serveth him not." (Noles, Mal. 3:13-18. Rom. 2:4-6.) And where is he, who can disprove these doctrines, or deny that they are of infinite importance? Let us then be thankful, if we have been kept from crimes so atrocious and ruinous; and let us be as assiduous in seeking the salvation of our souls, and in doing good, as sinners are in doing evil; remembering tience; that, having done the will of God, ye may the apostle's admonition: "Ye have need of pareceive the promise." (Heb. 10:36)

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shineth not; yea, the stars are not pure

Bildad asserts the dominion and power of God, before whom in his sight.


man cannot be justified, 1—6.

HEN answered Bildad the Shuhite, and said,

2 a Dominion and fear

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he maketh peace in his





3 Is there any number of

armies? and d light arise?


whom doth not his

4 How then can man be justified how can he be clean with God? or

that is born of a woman?

5 Behold even to the moon, and it

a 9:2-10. 26:5-14. 40:9-14.

1 Chr. 29:11,12. Ps. 99:1-3. Dan. 4:34-37. Jer. 10:6,7.

Matt. 6:13. 23:13. Eph. 1:20,
21. Rev. 6:16.

bls. 57:15,19. Matt. 5:9. 2 Cor.
5:18-21. Eph. 2:16,17.

c Ps. 103:20,21. 148:2-4.

40:26. Dan. 7:10. Matt. 26:53.
Rev. 5:11.

6 How much less man, that is a worm? and the son of man, which is a worm?


Job derides Bildad's speech, as little to the purpose, 1-4. He
shews the works and perfections of God to be unsearchable, 5


UT Job answered and said,



2 How hast thou helped him
that is without power? how savest thou
the arm that hath no strength?

3 How hast thou counselled him
that hath no wisdom? and how hast
plentifully declared the thing as

it is?


d 38:12,13. Gen. 1:3-5,14-16. and

Ps. 19.4-6. Matt. 5:45. John

e 4:17-19. 9:2. 15:14-16. Ps.
Rom. 3:19,20.
130:3. 143:2.

f 14:3,4. Ps. 51:5. Eph. 2:3.
Is.g Is. 24:23. 60:19,20. 2 Cor. 3:10.


CHAP. XXV. V. 1-6. The appeal to undeniable facts, which Job had made, seems to have reduced his opponents to great difficulties. They were not convinced of their error; but they could Bildad, therefore,|| not answer his arguments. spoke but few words in reply; Zophar did not answer the third time; and Eliphaz declined Bildad, however, leading on another attack. thought that Job had spoken without a proper reverence of God, or a due sense of his own He reminded him, meanness and sinfulness. therefore, that the sovereign authority over all creatures belonged solely to the Lord; and that all ought to reverence his Majesty, and to fear his omnipotent displeasure. All the inhabitants of heaven, in perfect unity and harmony, obeyed him: his innumerable creatures, marshalled in exact order, were observant of his commands and entirely under his control: and, as the light of his sun pervaded all the earth, so all that partook of his goodness, ought to submit to his authority. But, if the heavenly bodies were obscure when compared with his infinite glory, and in his view of them; how could sinful man abide the severity of his judgment, or be approved holy in his sight? Perhaps Bildad intimated that his very birth, amidst the sorrows and pains of his mother, proved him born in sin, and a fallen creature. And, as he was so mean a worm, and so vile at his best estate, he surely ought not to contend with God, or exalt himself above him.


It is better for Christians to avoid controversy, or to put an end to it, when they do not speedily come to an agreement; and to converse on such subjects, as all allow to be true and important.The pious, however distinguished, agree that the|| wicked may flourish for a time, but shall be rooted out at the last: they should therefore be careful not to quarrel with each other, not to envy the wicked, and not to faint in tribulation.-If we were duly influenced by the reverential fear of God, we should submit to his sovereignty, do his will, seek his glory, and rejoice in his favor, in peace and harmony, and without murmuring and disputing; even as the angels in heaven do. Indeed, his innumerable armies, yea, all his creatures, except fallen angels and men, are, in their


To whom hast thou uttered words?
whose spirit came from thee?

h 4:19. Gen. 13:27. Ps. 22:6. | d 33:3,33. 33:2.
Is. 41:14.

a 12:2. 1 Kings 13:27.

b 4.3,4. 6:25. 16:4,5. Is. 35:3,
4. 41:5-7.

c 6:13. 12.3. 13:5. 15:8-10. 17:
10. 32:11-13.

Ps. 49:1-4 71:15-13. Prov. 8:6-9. Acts


1 Kings 22:23,

e 20:3. 32:13.
24. 1 Cor. 12:3.
3. Rev. 16:13,14.

1 John 4:1


several ways, subject to his command. things living partake of his bounty: ought we not then to bear deserved correction patiently, and use his gifts to his glory? And ought we not to imitate his kindness to "the unthankful and the evil?"-It is very important, that we should be convinced, that we are mean, guilty, and polluted creatures before him: and the most important question which can possibly be asked, though often fied with God? or how shall he be pure, who is born least attended to, is this, "How can man be justiof a woman?" (Notes, 9:1-3. 15:14-16.) But the most atrocious sinners, when humbled before God, and disposed to accept of his salvation, may be "justified by faith," made holy by divine sun and moon will no longer shine, but "the grace, and exalted to glory in heaven; where the LORD himself will be our everlasting light." (Notes, Rev. 21:22-27. 22:2-5.)-Our vileness will thus commend his condescension and love; and the riches of his mercy, and the power of his || grace, will be magnified in every redeemed sinner, to all eternity.


CHAP. XXVI. V. 1-4. Bildad had brought no argument tending to refute Job's doctrine; and therefore Job ironically admired the assistance, which Bildad had given to his friends in their extremity, and the instruction which he had expected much help from him to their drooping afforded him in his perplexity. His friends had cause; Job himself had hoped for some important counsel in his difficulties; and all had supposed that he would abundantly clear up the controversy, and fully shew how the matter really stood. But indeed he had spoken so little, and that little was so foreign to the business, that they were no stronger, nor he any wiser; and all parties were just where they had been. Surely, Bildad could not mean to utter words to him, as if he needed words to be the dictates of the Spirit of prophecy, such counsel! Surely, he did not suppose his or even the language of faith and grace; when it was evident, that he spake in his own spirit!Some expositors, indeed, give another turn to the passage; and suppose that Job meant to de ride Bildad's speech, as implying that the almighty and infinitely wise God needed such an advocate and counsellor! It is evident, however, that Job

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5 Dead things are formed from||with bounds, P until the day and night and the inhabitants come to an end.

under the waters,


6 Hell is naked before him, and destruction hath no covering.

7 He stretched out the north over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing.

8 Hebindeth up the waters in his thick clouds; and the cloud is not rent under them.

9 He holdeth back the face of his throne, and spreadeth his cloud upon it. 10 He hath ° compassed the waters

f 41:1,&c. Ps. 104:25,26. Ez. k 36:29. 38.2,37. Ps. 135:7. 29.3-5.

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Prov. 30:4. 137.11-16.

m Is. 5:6.

Jer. 10:13.
Ps. 18:10,11.

n Ex. 20:21. 33:20-23. 34:3. 1
Kings 8.12. Ps. 97:2. Hab. 3:
3-5. 1 Tim. 6:16.

o 38:8-11. Ps. 33:7, 104:6-
9. Prov. 8:29. Jer. 5:22.

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spoke with peevishness and self-preference; but
it is surprising, that such a sufferer should have
spirits for banter and ridicule.
Plentifully declared, &c. (3) Or, "Abun-Rev. 12:7-12.)
dantly made known wisdom.”


V. 14. Job here declared his subject to be V. 5-13. To shew Bildad that he did not inexhaustible. Men might discourse long on want his instructions, Job began more particu- such things; yet a very little part of the works larly to discourse on the works of God.-The of God had come to their knowledge. And word translated "dead things," may be rendered should God himself speak of his own power, in a giants, or monsters. Enormous creatures are manner becoming the subject; it must be in a produced under the waters, among the number- voice like thunder, which, instead of instructing, less inhabitants of the deep, by the mighty power would confound and dismay sinful man. (Note, of God. Neither the bodies, which all over the 38:1.) earth are laid in the grave, nor the departed souls of men in their separate state, are conceal- The most important truths may be introduced ed from his all-seeing eye; and even the place of unseasonably; and be so misstated and misapplipunishment allotted to the wicked is under his ed, as to deceive instead of convincing, and to inspection: the heavens are stretched out by him distress instead of encouraging. We ought over the vast expanse of this northern hemi- therefore to consider not only what is true and sphere; and the earth is so wonderfully suspend-good, but what may be suitable and useful: we ed in the pure space, that it needs no support: should advert to the person whom we address, for this seems to have been known to some per- and his situation and frame of mind: we should sons at this early period. Immense quantities have some special intention in speaking; as to of water are treasured up in the atmosphere; and awaken a careless sinner or comfort a wounded are so confined in the clouds, as not to rush down conscience, to establish important truth or refute impetuously, but gradually, as it is necessary for dangerous error: and we should select our sub watering the earth. The throne of God in the|jects, and handle them with a view to this intenheavens is hid by interposing clouds, being too tion; otherwise we may be derided for speaking dazzling for frail mortals to behold. He con- impertinently, when we have advanced docfines the raging ocean within its appointed trines, which, in other circumstances, would be bounds: nor will it ever break forth to cover the worthy of great regard.-But disputants are in earth, while day and night endure. The moun- great danger of aiming at victory more than imtains, (which appear as the pillars of heaven," provement: this produces mutual contempt and yea the heavens themselves, are astonished and reciprocal boastings and revilings; and what tremble, when the Lord speaks in his wrath.seems to one party pregnant with instruction, He powerfully raises such storms in the ocean, decisive, and "fully declaring the thing as it is," as divide it into ridges of mountains; and he is often treated with ridicule by the other. It is knows how to abase the proudest and stoutest of well, however, when all parties agree to celehis enemies. Some think that the dividing of the brate the praises of the LORD, and to extol his Red Sea, and the destruction of Egypt, or Ra- works: yet the effusions of passion, or ostentahab, (so the word is,) are here alluded to: but as tion, may be mistaken for the dictates of those there is no other reference to those events, as holy affections, which come from the Spirit of this is ambiguous, and as probably Job lived be- God.-But wherever we turn our eyes, we may fore that time; it probably refers to the general perceive the power, the wisdom, and the goodoperations of the power of God.-Finally, by hisness of God. The earth and its wonderful revocreating Spirit, he has adorned the heavens with lutions and productions; the ocean under the diglorious luminaries, and replenished the worlds vine control, with all its monstrous and numer above with holy angels: and every formidable ous inhabitants; the operations of nature, in the monster on the earth, and in the waters, as dread-formation of the rains and dews; the dispensations ful serpents, crocodiles, and whales, are his workmanship, and under his control. Yea, the devil, who is subtle and poisonous, and of whom

of Providence, in governing the haughty tyrants of the earth, and in restraining the rage of Satan; the effects of God's indignation, in earthquakes,

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