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A CYCLOPEDIA OF EDUCATION

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REPUBLISHED BY GALE RESEARCH COMPANY, BOOK TOWER, DETROIT, 1968

COPYRIGHT, 1911,
BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 68-56361

EDITED BY

PAUL MONROE, Ph.D.

PROFESSOR OF THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENTAL EDITORS

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ELMER E. BROWN, PH.D., LL.D.. President of New York University. HIGHER AND

SECONDARY

EDUCATION EDWARD F. BUCHNER, PH.D. . . Professor of Education and Philoso BIOGRAPHY,

phy, Johns Hopkins University, PhilosoPHY

Baltimore, Md.
WILLIAM H. BURNHAM, Ph.D. Professor of Pedagogy and School HYGIENE

Hygiene, Clark University, Worces

ter, Mass. GABRIEL COMPAYRÉ

Inspector General of Public Instruc- EDUCATION IN

tion, Paris; Member of the Insti- FRANCE

tute of France. ElLWOOD P. CUBBERLEY, Pa.D. Head of Department of Education, EDUCATIONAL

Leland Stanford Junior University, ADMINISTRATION

Stanford University, Cal. John DEWEY, Ph.D., LL.D. Professor of Philosophy, Columbia PhilosoPHY OF

University, New York City. EDUCATION CHARLES H. JUDD, Ph.D., LL.D.. Director School of Education, Uni- PsychoLOGY

versity of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. ARTHUR F. LEACH.

Charity Commissioner for England MIDDLE AGES,

and Wales, St. James, London. REFORMATION WILL S. MONROE, A.B. .

Professor of Psychology and History BIOGRAPHY,

of Education, State Normal School, AMERICAN

Montclair, N.J. J. E. G. DE MONTMORENCY, M.A., LL.B. Barrister-at-Law, London; Assist- History Of

ant Editor, The Contemporary Re- EDUCATIONAL view.

ADMINISTRATION WILHELM MÜNCH, Ph.D.

Professor of Pedagogy, University of EDUCATION IN
Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

GERMANY
ANNA TOLMAN SMITH

Specialist, Bureau of Education, Wash. National
ington, D.C.

SYSTEMS
HENRY SUZZALLO, PH.D.

Professor of the Philosophy of Educa- METHOD OF

tion, Teachers College, Columbia EDUCATION

University, New York City.
FOSTER Watson, Ph.D. . • Professor of Education, University ENGLISH

College of Wales, Aberystwyth, EDUCATIONAL
Wales.

HISTORY

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