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purposes. And are not the Jews a commercial and agricul tural people? To plant them in Palestine then, or to permit them to dwell there, would only be to carry out her great object, viz., to divide the country between her and her India possessions into small kingdoms, both that she may reach these possessions speedily and safely, and prepare those kingdoms, either as allies or colonies, to contribute to her strength and increase her resources, by supplying her home market.

But if the foreign policy and home interests of Great Britain render this course necessary or judicious, we are no less certain that her people would second it with a full and hearty sympathy. The world is growing freer. Creeds no longer fetter us, and formularies no longer touch the common heart. The power of the Church, as a government, is gone! Men, outgrowing its narrow and chilling influences, are looking to truth as the beacon and bond to direct and bind them together. Prejudice against those who differ with us about dogmas, and opposition, occasioned not by diversity of view as to Christian life, but by difference of opinion, are soon to be as a tale that was told. And with these sad relics of the past, so full in their day of mischief and misrule, will crumble the social and bigoted oppression that has so long borne down the Jewish race. And will this be all? Shall Christians merely cease to oppress? As the remembrance of the past sufferings of the Jews comes before the people-as their wrongs, so cruelly inflicted, yet so patiently borne, rise up in long line before them-they will feel as if they could not do enough to atone for their fathers' injustice. What relieves the heart more than to wipe away the tears of a brother whose peace we have broken! What brings joy so soon to the bosom as the solace we offer to those whose hopes we have ruined! What restores a man to himself so quickly as to shield him whom he has rudely torn and made to bleed! And thus would a Christian people feel towards the Jews. They would rejoice in the opportunity so offered to redeem the cruelty of the past, and lend to government all their moral sympathy, in order to bind up the broken hopes, and realize the faith of Israel. They would do this, too, the more earnestly and strongly, because they believe that the Jews were once the chosen of God, and that he has decreed their return in peace and happiness to their sacred and ancient home. Looking, therefore, at the present state of the world, and at effects which are springing from causes familiar to all, we feel safe in saying that the Government of Great Britain could make no move which would be more earnestly and enthusi

VOL. VIII.--34.

astically supported by her people than the restoration of the Jews to Palestine.

Let European policy and feeling, however, be as they may, other things are required before this end can be accomplished. The Jews must have the ability and the will to gain Palestine before it can become their country: let this be our second enquiry. Careful calculators estimate their population at between four and five millions of souls; few lower than four, none higher than five. Thus are they distributed:

In Europe, 2,300,000, of whom 800,000 are in Poland and Russia, and 500,000 in Austria.

In Africa, 500,000, of whom 300,000 are in Morocco.
In America, North and South, 10,000.

In Asia, and Asiatic Turkey, 1,400,000.

This statement we suppose to be nearly correct. But we shall consider the Jews, in round numbers, as amounting to four millions and a half of souls. Now could they obtain out of this multitude of people a force sufficient to defend Palestine, or could they with that force get possession of it? Turkey, we know, has lost all foothold there. Her government, then, would not interfere in this matter. The Pacha of Egypt is the only power who would resist the Jews, inasmuch as he claims Palestine as a part of his kingdom, and the first question would be whether they could successfully resist him. On this point there will be, we imagine, no diversity of opinion. They have the physical force to do it. Give the Jews possession of Palestine, and Egypt with her armies, and her fleets, and her despotic rulers, could make no impression there. It is often supposed, because the Jews are so scattered, that their forces must be much weakened, and that they could have nothing like unity of action. But this difficulty is more seeming than real. The Jews in Europe and America, for the most part, live under military rule; consequently, they have learned more of the military art than the mass of Egyptians can possibly know; and hence are they better prepared to conduct a war than they have ever been. Nor would this separation prevent an effective union. The Jews are not settled anywhere. The active force among them especially are ready to move at short notice, and could do so without loss of property, or the sacrifice of any interests. Nay, we believe that an order to march for this object, would be regarded by a majority of them as a positive temporal good. So far, then, as we can judge, the fact that they are so widely scattered, would prove a blessing, not a hurt: it has most assuredly strengthened, not weakened them; and as it would not prevent their

union, we may conclude that they could, if once in possession of Palestine, retain it.

But this is the difficulty. How are they to get possession of the country? Egypt holds it. She has there her walled and fortified cities, her armed soldiers, and a large fleet upon the waters, to insure peace within, and ward off attacks from without. Besides, invading armies labor always under serious difficulties. They require large means to support them. They require, too, what they rarely have, and what it is hard to obtain a perfect knowledge of localities, facilities of locomotion, food and forage, and double the number of men that is necessary to defend a country. Now how are the Jews to master these difficulties? If they have the force to maintain possession of Palestine, provided they were there, have they the ability to obtain that possession? We think they have. As to mere means, they possess them. They are wealthy enough to prosecute a seven years' war; (and of their readiness to do it we shall speak presently.) As to the other difficulties referred to, we shall not say that they would not feel them; but we do say that they would offer no serious obstacle. It will be borne in mind that a mighty host of Israel is encamped in Asia, and Asiatic Turkey; that 1,400,000 Jews dwell in and near Palestine; that they are familiar with its resources, and know well its hills and valleys, its plains and mountains, its mountain fastnesses and wilderness. A move upon Palestine by their brethren, then, could hardly be called an invasion; this home support, at any rate, would divest it of all the usual difficulties of invasion, and so far as knowledge of the country, facilities of locomotion, and food and forage, are concerned, it is clear there could be none. But larger benefits must flow from this cause. These Jewish men who live there are watching with lynx-eyed keenness every movement of their despotic rulers: are listening with fearful acuteness to every murmur borne on the passing breeze; and with hearts, panting for action, yet patient as if they felt no wrong, all on fire, yet calm as if no heat were there, are ready to proclaim to their brethren when the blow shall be struck. We think, therefore, notwithstanding the Pacha has control over Palestine, that the Jews could not only muster force enough to drive him out, but retain its possession, despite of his walled cities and forts, his armies and fleets.

But after all we rely most strongly on the moral convictions of the Jews on this subject. Faith will move mountains. Enthusiasm will defeat numbers, and break through and overcome difficulties which seem invincible. The rough Swiss

mastered European skill among their wild hills and valleys; and the untutored Circassian is seen now beating back from his mountain lair hosts of Russian soldiery. It is well, we know, to possess power, to own means, to know that an instructed army stands ready to resist attack and defend our homes. But it is better far to have faith, to burn with enthusiasm, to realize that we are right, and rely upon the moral power which that conviction brings. Now the Jews so feel. They have that realization and that conviction. Palestine is their country, and unalterably have they resolved to regain it. Go where they will, live how they may, be they wise or ignorant, virtuous or depraved, energetic or listless, this thought, whenever uttered, thrills every Jewish heart. It is heard in the low wail of the solemn Hebrew hymn, sung amid the ruins of the ancient capital, and in the earnest response made to it from every shore where they dwell. This thought is in them, and no disaster, no thraldom, has ever razed it out. It is in them, and has been made intensely strong and deep by all that is stirring in poetry or exciting in the recollection of the past, or that is solemn in prophecy, or sacred in religion. It is, indeed, the great Jewish idea. It is the liv ing sentiment of the mass, and burns there as a central fire. Do they call themselves citizens of the land in which they reside? Still they claim to have no country. Do they live under separate and distinct forms of government? Still, as followers of Moses, and as inheriters of the law, a Jew is no alien among Jews. Now imagine, if we can, the sustained energy and enthusiasm which this state of mind would infuse into their soldiery when fighting for Palestine. The accumu lated wrongs of centuries, borne so silently, yet not the less bitterly felt-the concentrated feeling, so long hushed, yet not chilled the hope that the glory of the past, so long de nied them, yet never for a moment forgotten, is to be theirs again-these thoughts, burning in their bosoms, would nerve them with a strength which would defy the Moslem power. If then they may rely upon European aid and sympathy,-if they have the physical force and the means, they possess also the higher ability, the moral courage, the will, to regain Palestine to live once more in that land which was promised to them from on high, through Moses, and which he described, when promising it to them, as a "land of brooks, of water, of fountains, of depths that spring out of valleys and hills—a land of wheat and barley, and vines and fig trees and pomegranates, -a land of oil-olive and honey-a land wherein thou shalt

eat bread without scarceness-thou shalt not lack any thing in it a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass."

There are other matters connected with this question which we should like to discuss. We believe the possession of Palestine necessary to the growth and progress of the Jews. We believe, too, that this restoration would open wide the field of improvement in the East. But we have not time or space to dwell upon these points. We shall conclude our remarks therefore with noticing an assertion which is often made, and which we fear influences no small portion of the Christian community. The Jews, it is said, are ignorant and debased, and could not exist therefore as a free or independent people. However true this remark may be as to a portion of them, it is not true as applied to the race. We see the worst of them. We know not the extent of their virtues, or the zeal of their benevolence. The partition wall yet stands between us, and we have yet to learn their spirit, and understand the scope of their intelligence. If we did, we should gladly aid them to found a new kingdom around their ancient homes,-looking, not to the ignorance or debasement of a portion of them, but rather to the devout and faithful patriotism, to the zeal, to the high purpose of the whole, to bear them triumphantly on. The old Hebrews were a noble race. They bore the stamp of manhood. Confident, impetuous, bold, true to their faith as no people ever were true, they could bide no taint upon their name-no attack upon its honor. The spirit of these sires is pent up in their sons. It is not dead. It only rests. Take away the pressure of that prejudice which overpowers them-restore them to their faith-give them a country let them live under laws and institutions of their own; and that spirit would be all alive again, and they, too, would bear the stamp of as noble a manhood.



THE dashed and bespattered rose complained of the pelting shower which had well nigh laid her low; while at that very moment her thirsty roots were drinking the sweet juices that had sunk from the clouds into the earth, and superior beings of human mould were bending in admiration over her washed leaves, and kissing the tear-drops from her eye of beauty.

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