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"5. Resolved, That all the territory ceded to by his slave-property, and to enjoy the same the United States, by the Treaty of Guadaloupe therein, free from all molestation or hindrance Hidalgo, lying west of said Territory of New. whatsoever. Mexico, and east of the contemplated new State * 3. Whether Slavery is or is not likely to be of California, for the present, constitute one Ter introduced into these territories, or into any of ritory, and for which some form of government them, is a proposition too uncertain, in my judg; suitable to the condition of the inhabitants be ment, to be at present positively affirmed; and I provided, without any restriction as to Slavery. am unwilling to make a solemn legislative decla
“6. Resolved, That the constitution recently ration on the point. Let the future provide the formed by the people of the western portion of appropriate solution of this interesting question, California, and presented to Congress by the Pre- ** 4. Considering, as I have several times here. sident on the 13th day of February, 1850, be actofore formally declared, the title of Texas to all cepted, and that they be admitted into the Union the territory embraced in her boundaries, as laid as a State, upon an equal footing in all respects down in her law of 1836, full, complete, and undewith the original States.
niable, I am unwilling to say anything, by reso“7. Resolved, That, in future, the formation of lution or otherwise, which may in the least deState Constitutions, by the inhabitants of the gree draw that title into question, as I think is territories of the United States, be regulated by done in one of the resolutions of the honorable law; and that no such constitution be hereafter Senator from Kentucky. formed or adopted by the inhabitants of any Ter- “5. I am, upon constitutional and other ritory belonging to the United States, without grounds, wholly opposed to the principle of asthe consent and authority of Congress.
suming State debts, which I understand to be “8. Resolved, That the inhabitants of any embodied in one of the resolutions of the hon. Territory of the United States, when they shall orable Senator from Kentucky. If Texan soil is be authorized by Congress to form a State Con to be bought, (and with certain appropriate safestitution, shall have the sole and exclusive power guards, I am decidedly in favor of it,) let us pay to regulate and adjust all questions of internal to the sovereign State of Texas the value thereof State policy, of whatever nature they may be, in money, to be used by her as she pleases. It controlled only by the restrictions expressly will be, as I think, more delicate and respectful imposed by the Constitution of the United to let her provide for the management of this States.
matter, which is strictly domestic in its charac"9. Resolved, That the Committee on Terri- ter, in such manner as she may choose--presumtories be instructed to report a bill in conformity ing that she will act wisely, justly, and honorably with the spirit and principles of the foregoing re- toward all to whom she may be indebted. solutions."
“6. As to the abolition of the slave-trade in
the District of Columbia, I see no particular obA debate of unusual duration, earnestness, jcction to it, provided it is done in a delicate and and ability ensued, mainly on Mr. Clay's judicious manner, and is not a concession to the
menaces and demands of factionists and fanatics. Resolutions. They were regarded by uncom- If other questions can be adjusted, this one will, promising champions, whether of Northern perhaps, occasion but little difficulty. or of Southern views, but especially of the
“7. The resolutions which provide for the reslatter, as conceding substantially the matter for the establishment of territorial governments,
toration of fugitives from labor or service, and in dispute to the other side. Thus,
free from all restriction on the subject of Slavery, Jun. 29th.—Mr. Clay having read and have my hearty approval. The last resolutionbriefly commented on his propositions, seria- which asserts that Congress has no power to tim, he desired that they should be held prohibit the trade in Slaves from State to State
I equally approve. over without debate, to give time for con- “8. If all other questions connected with the sideration, and made a special order for subject of Slavery can be satisfactorily adjusted, Monday or Tuesday following. But this I can see no objection to admitting all California, was not assented to.
above the line of 36 deg. 30 min., into the Union;
provided another new Slave State can be laid Mr. Rusk rose at once to protest against off within the present limits of Texas, so as to that portion of them which called in ques- keep the present equiponderance between the tion the right of Texas to so much of New- Slave and Free States of the Union; and proMexico as lies east of the Rio del Norte. vided further, all this is done by way of comMr. Foote of Miss. spoke against them promise, and in order to save the Ŭnion, (as dear
to me as to any man living.") generally, saying :
Mr. Mason of Va., after expressing his “If I understand the resolutions properly, they are objectionable, as it seems to me,
deep anxiety to “ go with him who went “1. Because they only assert that it is not expe- furthest, but within the limits of strict dient that Congress should abolish Slavery in the duty, in adjusting these unhappy differDistrict of Columbia ; thus allowing the implica-ences," added : tion to arise that Congress has power to legislate on the subject of Slavery in the District, which “Sir, so far as I have read these resolutions, may hereafter be exercised, if it should become there is but one proposition to which I can give expedient to do so : whereas, I hold that Con- a hearty assent, and that is the resolution which gress has, under the Constitution, no such power proposes to organize Territorial governments at at all, and that any attempt thus to legislate would once in these Territories, without a declaration be a gross fraud upon all the States of the Union. one way or the other as to their domestic institu.
“2. The Resolutions of the honorable Senator tions. But there is another which I deeply regret assert that Slavery does not now exist by law in to see introduced into this Senate, by a Senator the territories recently acquired from Mexico ; from a slaveholding State; it is that which assumes whereas, I am of opinion that the treaty with the that Slavery does not now exist by law in those Mexican republic carried the Constitution, with countries. I understand one of these propositions all its guaranties, to all the territory obtained by to declare that, by law, Slavery is now abolished treaty, and secured the privilege to every South in New Mexico and California. That was the very ern slaveholder to enter any part of it, åttended / proposition advanced by the non-slaveholding
he last session; combated and dis- anty or counteracting measure is connected with I thought, by gentlemen from the slave it."
Aates, and which the Compromise bill wided to test. So far, I regarded the ques
Mr. Clay in reply said : Con 3f law as disposed of, and it was very clearly "I am extremely sorry to hear the Senator and satisfactorily shown to be against the spirit from Mississippi say that he requires, first, of the resolution of the Senator from Kentucky. the extension of the Missouri Compromise line to If the contrary is true, I presume the Senator the Pacific; and also that he is not satisfied with from Kentucky would declare that if a law is now that, but requires, if I understood him correctly, valid in the Territories abolishing Slavery, that it a positive provision for the admission of Slavery could not be introduced there, even if a law was south of that line. And now, sir, coming from a passed creating the institution, or repealing the Slave State, as I do, I owe it to myself,
owe it statutes already existing; a doctrinë never as- to truth, I owe it to the subject, to state that no sented to, so far as I know, until now, by any earthly power could induce me to vote for a speSenator representing one of the slaveholding cific measure for the introduction of Slavery States. Sir, I hold the very opposite, and with where had not before existed, either south or such confidence, that at the last session I was north of that line. Coming as I do from a Slave willing and did vote for a bill to test this question State, it is my solemn, deliberate, and well-main the Supreme Court. Yet this resolution as- tured' determination that no power--no earthly sumes the other doctrine to be true, and our assent power-shall compel me to vote for the positive is challenged to it as a proposition of law. introduction of Slavery either south or north of
“I do not mean to detain the Senate by any dis- that line. Sir, while you reproach, and justly, cussion; but I deemed it to be my duty to enter a too, our British ancestors for the introduction of decided protest, on the part of Virginia, against this institution upon the continent of America, I such doctrines. They concede the whole question am, for one, unwilling that the posterity of the at once, that our people shall not go into the new present inhabitants of California and of New. Territories and take their property with them; a Mexico shall reproach us for doing just what we doctrine to which I never will assent, and for reproach Great Britain for doing to us. If the which, sir, no law can be found. There are other citizens of those Territories choose to estab. portions of the resolutions, for which, if they could lish Slavery, I am for admitting them with such be separated, I should be very willing to vote. provisions in their constitutions ; but then, it That respecting fugitive slaves, and that respect will be their own work, and not ours, and their ing the organization of governments in these posterity will have to reproach them, and not us, Territories, I should be willing to vote for; and I for forming constitutions allowing the instituam happy to declare the gratification I experience tion of Slavery to exist among them. These are at finding the Senator from Kentucky differing so views, sir, and I choose to express them; much, on this subject, from the Executive message and I care not how extensively and universally recently laid before the Senate. I beg not to be they are known. The honorable Senator from understood as having spoken in any spirit of un- Virginia has expressed his opinion that Slavery kindness towards the Senator froin Kentucky, exists in these Territories, and I have no doubt for whom I entertain the warmest and most pro- that opinion is sincerely and honestly entertained found respect: but I cannot but express also my by him; and I would say with equal sincerity and regret that he has felt it to be his duty, standing honesty, that believe that Slavery nowhere as he does before this people, and representing exists within any portion of the Territory acthe people he does, to introduce into this body quired by us from Mexico. He holds a directly resolutions of this kind."
contrary opinion to mine, as he has a perfect
right to do; and we will not quarrel about that Mr. Jefferson Davis of Miss. (since and difference of opinion.” now Secretary of War) objected specially to Mr. William R. King of Ala. was inso much of Mr. Clay's propositions as relates clined to look with favor on Mr. Clay's proto the boundary of Texas, to the Slave-trade positions, and assented to some of them ; but in the Federal district, and to Mr. Clay's he objected to the mode in which California avowal in his speech that he did not believe had formed what is called a State ConstituSlavery ever would or could be established tion. He preferred the good old way of first in any part of the territories acquired from organizing Territories, and so training up Mexico. He continued :
their people “ for the exercise and enjoy
ment of our institutions." Besides, he But, sir, we are called upon to receive this as a measure of compromise! As a measure in which thought “ there was not that kind of popuwe of the minority are to receive nothing. A lation there that justified the formation of a measure of compromise! I look upon it as but State Government." On the question of a modest mode of taking that, the claim to which Slavery in the new Territories, he said : has been more boldly asserted by others; and, that I may be understood upon this question, “With regard to the opinions of honorable and that my position may go forth to the coun. Senators, respecting the operation of the laws of try in the same columns that convey the senti- Mexico in our newly-acquired territories, there ments of the Senator from Kentucky, I here may be, and no doubt is, an honest difference of assert, that never will I take less than the Mis- opinion with regard to that matter. Some believe souri Compromise line extended to the Pacific that the municipal institutions of Mexico overocean, with the specific recognition of the right rule the provisions of our Constitution, and preto hold slaves in the territory below that line ; vent us from carrying our slaves there. That is and that, before such territories are admitled in a matter which I do not propose to discuss; it has to the Union as States, elaves may be taken there been discussed at length in the debate upon the from any of the United States at the option of Compromise bill, putting it on the ground of a the owners. I can never consent to give addi judicial decision. Sir, I know not-nor is it a tional power to a majority to commit further ag: matter of much importance with me—whether gressions upon the minority in this Union; and that which the honorable Senator states to be a will never consent to any proposition which fact, and which, as has been remarked by the will have such a tendency, without a full guar. Senator from Mississippi, can only be conjectural,
be in reality so or not—that Slavery never can go than this : That California is already disposed of, there. This is what is stated, however. Well, having formed a State Constitution, and that be it so. If slave labor be not profitable there, Territorial Governments shall be organized for it will not go there; or, if it go, who will be Deseret and New Mexico, under which, by the benefited ? Not the South. They will never operation of laws already existing, a slavehold. compel it to go there. We are misunderstood- ing population could not carry with them, or own grossly, I may say—by, honorable Senators, slaves there. What is there in the nature of a though not intentionally ; but we are contending compromise here, coupled, as it is, with the profor a principle, and a great principlema principle position that, by the existing laws in the Terri. lying at the very foundation of our constitutional tories, it is almost certain that slaveholders canrights-involving, as has been remarked, our not, and have no right to, go there with their property ; in one word, involving our safety, our property? What is there in the nature of a comhonor, all that is dear to us, as American free promise here? I am willing, however, to run the
Well, sir, for that principle we will be com- risks, and am ready to give to the Territories the pelled to contend to the utmost, and to resist ag. governments they require. I shall always think gression at every hazard and at every sacrifice. that, under a constitution giving equal rights to That is the position in which we are placed. We all parties. the slaveholding people, as such, can ask no act of Congress—as has been properly in- go to these Territories, and retain their property timated by the Senator froin Mississippi-to carry there. But, if we adopt this proposition of the Slavery anywhere. Sir, I believe we have as Senator from Kentucky, it is clearly on the basis much constitutional power to prohibit Slavery that Slavery shall not go there. from going into the territories of the United “I do not understand the Senator from MissisStates, as we have to pass an act carrying Slave sippi (Mr. Davis) to maintain the proposition, ry there.
We have no right to do either the one that the South asked or desired a law declaring or the other. I would as soon vote for the Wil- that Slavery should go there, or that it maintained mot Proviso as I would vote for any law which the policy even that it was the duty of Congress required that Slavery should go into any of the to pass such a law. We have only asked, and it Territories."
is the only compromise to which we will submit,
that Congress shall withhold the hand of violence Mr. Downs of Louisiana said :
from the Territories. The only way in which “I must confess that, in the whole course of this question can be settled is, for gentlemen my life, my astonishment has never been greater from the North to withdraw all their opposition than it was when I saw this (Mr. Clay's] pro.
to the Territorial Governments, and not insist on position brought forward as a compromise; and their Slavery Prohibition. The Union is then I rise now, sir, not for the purpose of discussing safe enough. Why, then, insist on a compromise, it at all, but to protest most solemnly against it. when those already made are sufficient for the I consider this compromise as no compromise at peace of the North and South, if faithfully ob. all. What, sir, does it grant to the South ? I served ? These propositions are in the name of can see nothing at all. The first resolution offer a compromise, when none is necessary.” ed by the honorable Senator proposes to admit the State of California with a provision probibit
The debate having engrossed the attention ing Slavery in territory which embraces all our of the Senate for nearly two months— possessions on the Pacific. It is true, there may be a new regulation of the boundary hereafter;
March 25th.--Mr. Douglas, from the Combut, if there were to be such a regulation, why mittee on Territories, reported the following was it not embraced in this resolution ? As no bills : boundary is mentioned, we have a right to presume that the boundary established by the Con- Senate, 169.—A bill for the admission of Calistitution of California was to be received as the fornia into the Union. established boundary. What concession, then,
Senate, 170.--A bill to establish the Territorial is it froin the North, that we admit a State thus Governments of Utah and New Mexico, and for prohibiting Slavery, embracing the whole of our other purposes. possessions on the Pacific coast, according to these resolutions ? As to the resolution relating
These bills were read, and passed to a to New Mexico and Deseret, if it had simply con
second reading tained the provision that a constitutional government shall be established there, without any Bell's resolves do lie on the table. Lost:
April 11th.—Mr. Douglas moved that Mr. mention of Slavery whatever, it would have been well enough. But, inasmuch as it is affirmed that Yeas 26 ; Nays 28. Slavery does not now exist in these Territories,
April 15th.--The discussion of Mr. Clay's does it not absolutely preclude its admission there ? and the resolutions might just as well resolutions still proceeding, Colonel Benton affirm that Slavery should be prohibited in these moved that the previous orders be postponed, Territories. The Senator from Alabama, if I un and that the Senate now proceed to conderstood him aright, maintains that the proposi- sider the bill (S. 169) for the admission of tion is of the same import as the Wilmot Pro- the State of California. viso ; and, in view of these facts, I would ask, is there anything conceded to us of the South ?" Mr. Clay moved that this proposition do
lie on the table. Carried : Yeas 27 (for a Mr. Butler of South Carolina said :
Compromise); Nays 24 (for a settlement "Perhaps our Northern brethren ought to un- without compromise). derstand that all the Compromises that have been The Senate now took up Mr. Bell's remade, have been by concessions--acknowledged solves aforesaid, when Mr. Benton moved concessions-on the part of the South. When other compromises are proposed, that require that they lie on the table. Lost : Yeas 24; new concessions on their part, whilst none are Nays 28. exacted on the other, the issue, at least, should be
Mr. Benton next moved that they be so presented for their consideration before they come to the decision of their great question. It amended as not to connect or mix up the I understand it, the Senator from Kentucky's admission of California with any ther whole proposition of compromise is nothing more I question. Lost : Yeas 23 ; Nays 28.
Various modifications of the generic idea Tennessee, Mr. Bell. By a provision in the were severally voted down, generally by large resolution of Congress annexing Texas to the
United States, it is declared that “ new States of majorities.
convenient size, not exceeding four in number, On motion of Mr. Foote of Miss., it was by the consent of said State, be formed out of now
the territory thereof, which shall be entitled to
admission, under the provisions of the Federal “ Ordered, That the resolution submitted by Constitution ; and such States as may be formed Mr. Bell on the 28th February, together with the out of that portion of said territory lying South resolutions submitted on the 29th of January by of 36° 30' North latitude, commonly known as Mr. Clay, be referred to a Select Committee of
the Missouri Compromise line, shall be admitted thirteen; Provided, that the Senate does not into the Union with or without Slavery, as the deem it necessary, and therefore declines, to ex. people of each State asking admission may depress in advance any opinion, or to give any in. sire." struction, either general or specific, for the guid. ance of the said Committee.”
The Committee are unanimously of opinion, April 19th.—The Senate proceeded to of the territory of Texas, not exceeding four,
that whenever one or more States, formed out elect by ballot such Select Committee, which having suficient population, with the consent of was composed as follows:
Texas, may apply to be admitted into the Union,
they are entitled to such admission, beyond all Mr. Henry Clay of Ky. Chairman.
doubt, upon the clear, unambiguous, and absolute Messrs. Dickinson of N. Y. Cooper of Pa.
terms of the solemn compact contained in the Phelps of Vt.
Downs of LA.
Resolution of Annexation adopted by Congress, Bell of Tenn.
King of Ala.
and assented to by Texas. But, whilst the ComCass of Mich.
Mangum of N. C.
mittee conceive that the right of admission into Webster of Mass. Mason of Va. Berrien of Ga.
the Union of any new State, carved out of the Bright of Ind.
Territory of Texas, not exceeding the number speMay 8th.--Mr. Clay, from said Com- citied, and under the conditions stated, cannot be
justly controverted, the Committee do not think mittee, reported as follows:
that the formation of any new States should now REPORT.
originate with Congress. The initiative, in con
formity with the usage which has hitherto preThe Senate's Committee of thirteen, to whom vailed, should be taken by a portion of the peo
were referred various resolutions relating to ple of Texas themselves, desirous of constituting California, to other portions of the territory the formation of such new States, it will be for
a new State, with the consent of Texas. And in recently acquired by the United States from the people composing it to decide for themselves the Republic of Mexico, and to other subjects whether they will adinit, or whether they will exconnected with the institution of Slavery, have, clude, Slavery. And bowever they may decide
that purely municipal question, Congress is bound according to order, had these resolutions and
to acquiesce, and to fulfill in good faith the stipu. subjects under consideration, and beg leave to lations of the compact with Texas. The Commitsubmit the following Report:
tee are aware that it has been contended that the
resolution of Congress annexing Texas was unThe Committee entered on the diecharge of constitutional. At a former epoch of our countheir duties with a deep sense of their great im- try's history, there were those (and Mr. Jefferson, portance, and with earnest and anxious solicitude under whose auspices the treaty of Louisiana to arrive at such conclusions as might be satis- was concluded, was among them,) who believed factory to the Senate and to the country. Most that the States formed out of Louisiana could not of the matters referred have not only been sub-be received into the Union without an amend. jected to extensive and serious public discussion ment of the constitution. But the States of Loui. throughout the country, but to a debate in the siana, Missouri, Arkansas, and Iowa have been Senate itself, singular for its elaborateness and all, nevertheless, admitted. And who would now its duration ; so that a full exposition of all those think of opposing Minnesota, Oregon, or new motives and views which, on several subjects States formed out of the ancient province of confided to the Committee, have determined the Louisiana, upon the ground of an alleged original conclusions at which they have arrived, seems defect of constitutional power? In grave nationquite unnecessary. They will, therefore, restrict al transactions, while yet in their earlier or inthemselves to a few general observations, and to cipient stages, differences may well exist; but some reflections which grow out of those sub- when once they have been decided by a constitujects.
tional majority, and are consummated, or in a Out of our recent territorial acquisitions, and process of consummation, there can be no other in connection with the institution of Slavery, safe and prudent alternative than to respect the questions most grave sprung, which, greatly di- decision already rendered, and to acquiesce in it. viding and agitating the people of the United Entertaining these views, a majority of the ComStates, have threatened to disturb the harmony, mittee do not think it necessary or proper to reif not to endanger the safety, of the Union. The commend, at this time, or prospectively, any new Committee believe it to be highly desirable and State or States to be formed out of the territory necessary speedily to adjust all those questions, of Texas. Should any such State be hereafter in a spirit of concord, and in a manner to pro- formed, and present itself for admission into the duce, if practicable, general satisfaction. They Union, whether with or without the establishment think it would be unwise to leave any of them of Slavery, it cannot be doubted that Congress will open and unsettled, to fester in the public mind, admit it, under the influence of similar consideraand to prolong, if not aggravate, the existing tions, in regard to new States formed of or out of agitation. It has been their object, therefore, in New-Mexico and Utah, with or without the insti. this Report, to make such proposals and recom tution of Slavery, according to the constitutions mendations as would accomplish a general ad- and judgment of the people who compose them, justment of all these questions.
as to what may be best to promote their happiAmong the subjects referred to the Committee ness. which command their first attention, are the reso- In considering the question of the admission lutions offered to the Senate by the Senator from of California as a State into the Union, a majori
ty of the Committee conceive that any irregu- 1 of providing for them government and laws suitlarity, by which that State was organized withouted to their condition. Congress will fail in the the previous authority of an act of Congress, performance of a high duty, if it do not give, ought to be overlooked, in consideration of the or attempt to give to them, the benefit of such omission by Congress to establish any territorial protection, government, and laws. They are not government for the people of California, and the now, and for a long time to come may not be, preconsequent necessity which they were under to pared for State government. The territorial create a government for themselves, best adapted form, for the present, is best suited to their condito their own wants. There are various instances, tion. A bill has been reported by the Committee prior to the case of California, of the admission on Territories, dividing all the territory acquired of new States into the Union without any pre- from Mexico, not comprehended within the limits vious authorization by Congress. The sole con of California, into two territories, under the names dition required by the Constitution of the United of New Mexico and Utah, and proposing for each States, in respect to the admission of a new State, a territorial government. is, that its constitution shall be republican in The Committee recommend to the Senate the form. California presents such a constitution ; establishment of those territorial governments ; and there is no doubt of her having a greater and, in order more certainly to secure that desira population than that which, according to the ble object, they also recommend that the bill practice of the government, has been heretofore for their establishment be incorporated in the bill deemed sufficient to receive a new State into the for the admission of California, and that, united Union.
together, they both be passed. In regard to the proposed boundaries of Cali. The combination of the two measures in the fornia, the Committee would have been glad if same bill is objected to on various grounds. It there existed more full and accurate geographi- is said that they are incongruous, and have no cal knowledge of the territory which these bound necessary connection with each other. A majority aries include. There is reason to believe that, of the Committee think otherwise. The object large as they are, they embrace no very dispro- of both measures is the establishment of a governportionate quantity of land adapted to cultiva- ment suited to the conditions, respectively, of tion. And it is known that they contain exten- the proposed new State and of the new Territosive ranges of mountains, deserts of sand, and ries. Prior to their transfer to the United States, much unproductive soil. It might have been, they both formed a part of Mexico, where they perhaps, better to have assigned to California a stood in equal relations to the government of that more limited front on the Pacific; but even if republic. They were both ceded to the United there had been reserved, on the shore of that States by the same treaty. And, in the same arocean, a portion of the boundary which it presents, ticle of that treaty, the United States engaged to for any other State or States, it is not very protect and govern both. Common
their ori. certain that an accessible interior of sufficient gin, common in their alienation from one for. extent could have been given to them to render eign government to another, common in their an approach to the ocean, through their own lim wants of good government, and conterminous in its, of very great importance.
some of their boundaries, and alike in many parA majority of the Committee think that there ticulars of physical condition, they have nearly are many and urgent concurring considerations everything in common in the relation in which in favor of admitting California, with the pro- they stand to the rest of this Union. There is, then, posed boundaries, and of securing to her at this a general fitness and propriety in extending the time the benefits of a State government. If, parental care of government to both in common. hereafter, upon an increase of her population, a If California, by a sudden and extraordinary aug. more thorough exploration of her territory, and mentation of population, has advanced so rapidly an ascertainment of the relations which may as to mature for herself a State Government, that arise between the people occupying its various furnishes no reason why the less fortunate Territoparts, it should be found conducive to their con- ries of New Mexico and Utah should be abanvenience and happiness to form a new State out doned and left ungoverned by the United States, of California, we have every reason to believe, or should be disconnected with California, which, from past experience, that the question of its ad- although she has organized for herself a State mission will be fairly considered and justly de Government, must, legally and constitutionally, cided.
be regarded as a Territory until she is actually A majority of the Committee, therefore, recom- admitted as a State into the Union. mend to the Senate the passage of the bill re- It is further objected that, by combining the ported by the Committee on Territories, for the two measures in the same bill, members who admission of California as a State into the Union. may be willing to vote for one, and unwilling to To prevent misconception, the Committee also vote for the other, would be placed in an embarrecommend that the amendment reported by the rassing condition. They would be constrained, it sanne Committee to the bill be adopted, so as to is urged, to take or reject both. On the other hand, leave incontestable the right of the United States there are other members who would be willing to the public domain and other public property to vote for both united, but would feel themof California.
selves constrained to vote against the California WI a majority of the Committee believe it bill if it stood alone. Each party in the bill to be necessary and proper, under actual circum- which it favors something which commends it to stances, to admit California, they think it quite acceptance, and in the other something which it as necessary and proper to establish governments disapproves. The true ground, therefore, of the for the residue of the territory derived from Mex- objection to the union of the measures is not ico, and to bring it within the pale of the federal any want of affinity between them, but because authority. The remoteness of that territory from of the favor or disfavor with which they are rethe seat of the general government; the dispersed spectively regarded. In this conflict of opinion, state of its population;
the variety of races--pure it seems to a majority of the Committee that á and mixed-of which it consists"; the ignorance spirit of mutual concession enjoins that the two of some of the races of our laws, language, and measures should be connected together-the efhabits; their exposure to inroads and wars of feet of which will be, that neither opinion will savage tribes; and the solemn stipulations of the exclusively triumph, and that both may find, in treaty by which we acquired dominion over them such an amicable arrangement, enough of good -impose upon the United States the imperative to reconcile them to the acceptance of the comobligation of extending to them protection, and I bined measure. And such a course of legisla