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were brought into the field through legislative New-York, presided over the deliberations of the and other machinery-viz., Andrew Jackson, Convention, and the nominees received each Henry Clay, and John Quincy Adams. The re- 108 votes. The candidates accepted the nomi. Bult of this famous “scrub race" for the Presi- nation and received the electoral vote of Ver. dency was, that no one was elected by the mont only. The Convention did not enunciate people, Gen. Jackson receiving 99 electoral any distinct platform of principles, but apvotes, Mr. Adams 84, Mr. Crawford 41, and Mr. pointed a committee to issue an Address to the Clay 37. The election then devolved on the people. In due time, the address was published. House of Representatives, where Mr. Adams It is quite as prolix and verbose as modern powas chosen, receiving the votes of 13 States, litical addresses; and, after stating at great against 7 for Gen. Jackson, and 4 for Mr. Craw- length the necessary qualifications for the ford. This was the end of “King Caucus.” Chief of a great and free people, and presentGen. Jackson was immediately thereafter puting a searching criticism on the institution of in nomination for the ensuing term by the Le- free-masonry in its moral and political bearings, gislature of Tennessee, having only Mr. Adams somewhat intensified from the excitement for an opponent in 1828, when he was elected caused by the (then recent) alleged murder of by a decided majority, receiving 178 Electoral William Morgan, for having revealed the secrets Votes to 83 for Mr. Adams. Mr. John C. Cal of the Masonic Order, the Address comes to the houn, who had at first aspired to the Presidency, conclusion that, since the institution had bein 1824, withdrew at an early stage from the come a political engine, political agencies must canvass, and was thereupon chosen Vice-Presi- be used to avert its baneful effects—in other dent by a very large electoral majority-Mr. words," that an enlightened exercise of the Albert Gallatin, of Pennsylvania, (the caucus right of suffrage is the constitutional and candidate on the Crawford ticket,) being his equitable mode adopted by the Anti-Masons is only serious competitor. In 1828, Mr. Calhoun necessary to remove the evil they suffer, and was the candidate for Vice-President on the produce the reforms they seek.” Jackson ticket, and of course reëlected. It was currently stated that the concentration of the Crawford and Calhoun strength on this DEMOCRATIC OR JACKSON NATIONAL ticket was mainly effected by Messrs. Martin
CONVENTION_1832. Van Buren and Churchill C.Cambreleng, of NewYork, during a southern tour made by them in There was no open opposition in the Demo1827. In 1828, Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania, cratic party to the nomination of Gen. Jackson was the candidate for Vice-President on the for a second term; but the party were not so Adams ticket.
well satisfied with Mr. Calhoun, the Vice-President; so a Convention was called to meet at Baltimore in May, 1832, to nominate a candi
date for the second office. Delegates appeared U. S. ANTI-MASONIC CONVENTION—1830. and took their seats from the States of
The first political National Convention in this Maine, New-Hampshire, Vermont, Massachu. country of which we have any record was held setts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New-York, at Philadelphia in September, 1830, styled the New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, MaryUnited States Anti-Masonic Convention. It was
land, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, composed of 96 delegates, representing the Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ten. States of New-York, Massachusetts, Connecti- nessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. cut, Vermont, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania,
Gen. Robert Lucas, of Ohio, presided, and New-Jersey, Delaware, Ohio, Maryland and the the regular proceedings were commenced by Territory of Michigan. Francis Granger of the passage of the following resolution : New-York presided; but no business was trans- Resolved, That each State be entitled, in the nominaacted beyond the adoption of the following votes equal to the number to which they will be entitled
tion to be made for the Vice-Presidency, to a number of resolution:
in the electoral colleges, under the new apportionment, Resolved, that it is recommended to the people of the in voting for. President and Vice-President; and that United States, opposed to secret societies, to meet in two-thirds of the whole number of the votes in the Con. convention on Monday the 26th day of September, 1831, vention shall be necessary to constitute a choice. at the city of Baltimore, by delegates equal in number
This seems to have been the origin of the to their representatives in both houses of Congress, to famous "two-thirds” rule which has prevailed make nominations of suitable candidates for the office of President and Vice-President, to be supported at the of late in Deinocratic National Conventions. next election, and for the transaction of such other The Convention proceeded to ballot for a canbusiness as the cause of Anti-Masonry may require.
didate for Vice-President, with the following In compliance with the foregoing call, a Na- result: tional Anti-Masonic Convention was held at Balti- For Martin Van Buren: Connecticut, 8; Illinois, 2; more, iu September, 1831, which nominated Ohio, 21 ; Tennessee, 15; North Carolina, 9; Georgia, 11; William
Wirt, of Maryland, for President, and Louisiana: 5; Pennsylvania, 30; Maryland, 7, New Amos Ellmaker, of Pennsylvania, for Vice-Pre- Massachusetts, 14; Delaware, 8;
New-Hampshire, 7; sident. The convention was attended by 112 de- New-York, 42, Vermont, 7; Alabama, 1-Total, 208. legates from the States of Maine, New
Hampshire, Kentucky, 15—Total, 26.
For Richard M. Johnson: Illinois, 2; Indiana, 9; Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- For Philip P. Barbour : North Carolina, 6; Virginia, necticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, 23 ; Maryland, 8; South Carolina, 11 ; Alabama, a Ohio, Indiana, Delaware and Maryland -only Total, 49. Massachusetts, New-York and Pennsylvania Mr Van Buren, having received more than being fully represented. John C. Spencer, of|two-thirds of all the votes cast, was declared
duly nominated as the candidate of the party diate predecessor (J. Q. Adams) by Gen. Jackfor Vice-President.
son in his Inaugural Address, and adds: The Convention passed a resolution cordially The indecorum of this denunciation was hardly less concurring in the repeated nominations which glaring than its essential injustice, and can only be Gen. Jackson had received in various parts of paralleled by that of the subsequent denunciation of the
same Administration, on the same authority, to a foreigo the country for reëlection as President.
government. Mr. Archer, of Virginia, from the committee
Exception is taken to the indiscriminate reappointed to prepare an address to the people, moval of all officers within the reach of the Prereported that
sident, who were not attached to his person or The committee, having interchanged opinions on the party. As illustrative of the extent to which subject submitted to them, and agreeing fully in the this political proscription was carried, it is stated erabodied in an address of this description, it such an that, within a month after the inauguration of address were to be made, nevertheless deem it advisa- General Jackson, more persons were removed ble under existing circumstances, to recommend the from office than during the whole 40 years that
Resolved, That it be recommended to the several de had previously elapsed since the adoption of the
of the President has been so inconsistent and vacillating,
that it is impossible for any party to place confidence in The result of this election was the choice of his character, or to consider him as a true and effective General Jackson, who received the electoral friend. By avowing his approbation of a judicious tariff,
at the same time recommending to Congress precisely the vote of the following States :
same policy which had been adopted as the best plan of Maine 10; New-Hampshire, 7; New-York, 42 ; New- attack by the opponents of that measure; by admitting Jersey, 8; Pennsylvania, 30; Maryland, 8; Virginia, the constitutionality and expediency of Internal Improve 23; North Carolina, 15; Georgia, 11 ; Tennessee, 15; ments of a National character, and at the same moment Ohio, 21 ; Louisiana, 5; Mississippi, '4 ; Indiana, 9; negativing the most important bills of this description Illinois, 5 ; Alabama, 7 ; Missouri, 4—-Total, 219.
which were presented to him by Congress, the President For Mr. Clay: Massachusetts, 14; Rhode Island, 4; has shown that he is either a secret enemy to the system, Connecticut, 8; Delaware, 3 ; Maryland, 5; Kentucky, or that he is willing to sacrifice the most important na15—Total, 49.
tional objects in a vain attempt to conciliate the conflictFor John Floyd, of Virginia : South Carolina, 11.
ing interests, or rather adverse party feeling and opinions For William Wirt, of Maryland: Vermont, 7
of different sections of the country. Mr. Van Buren received only 189 votes for the United States Bank, and the necessity and
Objection is taken to Gen. Jackson's war on Vice-President, Pennsylvania, which cast her
usefulness of that institution are argued at convote for Jackson, having voted for William Wilkins of that' State for Vice-President. siderable length. The outrageous and inhuman John Sergeant, for Vice-President, received the treatment of the Cherokee Indians by the State same vote as Mr. Clay for President. South of Georgia, and the failure of the National AdCarolina voted for Henry Lee of Massachusetts, acquired by treaty with the United States,
ministration to protect them in their rights, for Vice-President.
is also the subject of animadversion in the
the Address. NATIONAL REPUBLICAN CONVENTION
A resolve was adopted, recommending to the 1831.
young men of the National Republican Party to
hold a Convention in the city of Washington on The National Republicans met in convention the following May. at Baltimore, Dec. 12, 1831. Seventeen States Such a Convention was accordingly held at and the District of Columbia were represented the Capital on the 11th of May, 1832, over by 157 delegates, who cast a unanimous vote which William Cost Johnson, of Maryland, prefor Henry Clay, of Kentucky, for President, and sided, and at which the following, among other John Sergeant, of Pennsylvania, for Vice-Pre. resolves, were adopted: sident. James Barbour, of Virginia, presided, Resolved, That an adequate Protection to American and the States represented were: Maine, New- Industry is indispensable to the prosperity of the coun. Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Cou- try; and that an abandonment of the policy at this necticut, Vermout, New York, New Jersey, the best interests of the Nation.
period would be attended with consequences ruinous to Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Resolved, That a uniform system of Internal ImproveNorth Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, ments, sustained and supported by the General GovernLouisiana and Indiana. The Convention adopted harmony, the strength and the permanency of the Re
ment, is calculated to secure, in the highest degree, the no formal platform of principles, but issued an public. Address, mainly devoted to a criticism on the Resolved, that the indiscriminate removal of public Administration of Gen. Jackson, asserting, gross abuse of power; and that the doctrine lately
officers, for a mere difference of political opinion, is a almong other things, that
boldly preached in the United States Senate, that " to the
victors belong the spoils of the vanquished,” is detriThe political history of the Union for the last three mental to the interest, corrupting to the morals, and years exhibits a series of measures plainly dictated in all dangerous to the liberties of the people of this countheir principal features by blind cupidity or vindictive try. purty spirit, marked throughout by a disregard of good policy, justice, and every high and generous sentiment, and, terminating in a dissolution of the Cabinet under circumstances more discreditable than any of the kind to
DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION, be met with in the annals of the civilized world,
1835. The address alludes to the charge of incapa- In May, 1835, a National Convention reprecity and corruption leveled against his imme- ting twenty-one States, assembled at Balti. more to nominate candidates for President and result was the triumphant election of Harrison Vice-President. The Hon. Andrew Stevenson, and Tyler, Van Buren receiving the electoral of Virginia, was chosen president, with half a vote of only seven States ; viz: dozen vice-presidents and four secretaries. A
New Hampshire, 7 ; Virginia, 23 ; South Carolina, 11 ; rule was adopted that two-thirds of the whole Illinois, 6; Alabama, '7; Missouri, 4; and Arkansas, 8 number of votes should be necessary to make a Total, 60. nomination or to decide any question connected South Carolina refused to vote for Richard M. therewith. On the first ballot for President, Johnson for Vice-President, throwing away her Mr. Van Buren was nominated unanimously, re- 11 votes on Littleton W. Tazewell, of Virginia. ceiving 265 votes. For Vice-President, Richard Harrison and Tyler received the votes of the M. Johnsor, of Kentucky, received 178, and following States : William C. Rives, of Virginia, 87. Mr. Johnson, having received more than two-thirds of necticut, 8; 'Vermont, 7; New-York. 42 ; New Jersey, 8:
Maine, 10; Massachusetts, 14; Rhode Island, 4; Con. all the votes cast, was declared duly nominated Pennsylvania, 80 ; Delaware, 3; Maryland, 10; North as the candidate for Vice-President. This Con. Carolina, 15; Georgia, 11; Kentucky, 15; Tennessee, 15; vention adopted no platform.
Ohio, 21; Louisiana, 5; Mississippi, 4; Indiana, 9; Michigan, 8-Total, 234.
THE OPPOSITION IN 1836.
ABOLITION CONVENTION,-1839. In 1835, Gen. Wm. H. Harrison, of Ohio, was dominated for President, with Francis Granger,
A Convention of Abolitionists was held at for Vice-President, by a Whig State Convention Warsaw, N. Y., on the 13th of November, 1839, at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and also by a
which adopted the following: Democratic Anti-Masonic Convention held at Resoloed, That, in our judgment, every consideration the same place. A Wbig State Convention in of duty and expediency which ought to control the Maryland also nominated Gen. Harrison for Pre-of the U. 8. to organize a distinct and independent poli.
action of Christian freemen, requires of the Abolitionists sident, with John Tyler, of Virginia, for Vice. tical party, embracing all the necessary means for nomiGen. H. also received nominations in New York, nating candidates for office and sustaining them by Ohio and other States.
public suffrage. Hugh L. White, of Tennessee was nominated
The Convention then nominated for Presi. by the Legislatures of Tennessee and Alabama, dent James G. Birney, of New York, and for as the Opposition or Anti-Jackson candidate; Vice-President Francis J. Lemoyne, of Pennwhile Mr. Webster was the favorite of the Oppo- sylvania. These gentlemen subsequently desition in Massachusetts, and Willie P. Mangum, clined the nomination. Nevertheless they of N. C. received the vote of S. C., 11. The received a total of 7,609 votes in various Free result of the contest of 1836 was the election States. of Mr. Van Buren, who received the electoral votes of the States of
DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION, Maine, 10; New-Hampshire, 7; Rhode Island, 4; Con
1840. necticut, 8; New York, 42; Pennsylvania, 30; Virginia, 28; North Carolina, 15; Louisiana, 5; Mississippi, 4;
A Democratic National Convention met at Illinois, 6; Alabama, 7; Missouri, 4; Arkansas, 3; Michi- Baltimore, May 6th, 1840, to nominate candigan, 3- Total 170.
dates for President and Vice-President. DeleGen. Harrison received the votes of gates were present from the States of Maine,
Vermont, 7; New-Jersey, 8; Delaware, 8; Maryland, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode 10; Kentucky, 15; Ohio, zi ; and Indiana, 9–Total, 78. Island, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania,
Hugh L. White received the vote of Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, 11, and Tennessee, 15: total, 26. Mr. Webster Tennessee, Ohio, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, received the vote of Massachusetts, 14. Indiana, Missouri, Michigan, and Arkansas.
Gov. William Carroll, of Tennessee, presided, WHIG NATIONAL CONVENTION, --1839. and the Convention, before proceeding to the A Whig National Convention representing ing platform—viz.:
nomination of candidates, adopted the followtwenty one States met at Harrisburg, Pa., Dec. 4, 1839. James Barbour, of Virginia, presided, limited powers, derived solely from the Constitution, and
1. Resoloed, That the Federal Government is one of and the result of the first ballot was the nomina- the grants of power shown iherein ought to be strictly tion of Gen. William H. Harrison, of Ohio, who construed by all the departments and agents of the received 148 * votes to 90 for Henry Clay, and government, and that it is inexpedient and dangerous to
exercise doubtful constitutional powers. 16 for Gen. Winfield Scott. John Tyler, of
2. Resolved, That the Constitution does not confer Virginia, was unanimously nominated as the upon the General Government the power to commence Whig candidate for Vice-President. The Con. or carry on a general system of internal improvement.
3. Resolved, That the Constitution does not confer vention adopted no platform of principles; but authority upon the Federal Government, directly or inthe party in conducting the memorable cam- directly, to assume the debts of the several States, con paign of 1840, assailed the Administration of tracted for local internal improvements or other 'State Mr. Van Buren for its general mismanagement purposes ; nor would such assumption be just or exof public affairs and its profligacy, and the 4. Resolved, That justice and sound policy forbid the
Federal Government to foster one branch of industry to * Ballots were repeatedly taken in committee throughout two the detriment of another, or to cherish the interest of or three days; but as no candidate received a majority, it was one portion to the injury of another portion of our comonly reported to the convention that the committee had not been mon country—that every citizen and every section of able to agree on a candidate to be presented to the convention. Finally, the delegates from New York and other states which the country has a right to demand and insist upon an bud supported Gen. Scott
, generally went over to Gen. Harrison, equality of rights and privileges, and to complete and who thus received a ninjority, when the result was declared, as ample protection of persons and property from domestio
violence or foreign aggression.
5. Resoloed, That it is the duty of every branch of Government, and discriminating with special reference the government to enforce and practice the most rigid to the Protection of the Domestic Labor of the country economy in conducting our public affairs, and that no —the Distribution of the proceeds from the sales of the more revenue ought to be raised than is required to de- Public Lands—a single term for the Presidency-a refray the necessary expenses of the government.
form of executive usurpations—and generally such an ad6. Resolved, That Congress has no power to charter a ministration of the affairs of the country, as shall impart United States Bank, that we believe such an institution to every branch of the public service the greatest practi. one of deadly hostility to the best interests of the coun- cable efficiency, controlled by a well-regulated and wise try, dangerous to our republican institutions and the economy. liberties of the people, and calculated to place the busi
The contest resulted in the choice of the ness of the country within the control of a concentrated money power, and above the laws and the will of the Democratic candidates (Polk and Dallas,) who people.
received 170 electoral votes as follows : Maine, 7. Resolved, That Congress has no power, under the 9; New-Hampshire, 6; New-York, 36; Pendinstitutions of the several States; and that such States sylvania, 26; Virginia, 17; South Carolina, are the sole and proper judges of everything pertaining 9; Georgia, 10; Alabama, 9; Mississippi, 6; to their own affairs, not prohibited by the Constitution; Louisiana, 6; Indiana, 12 ; Illinois, 9 ; Missouri, that all efforts, by abolitionists or others, made to induce Congress to interfere with questions of slavery, or to 7; Arkansas, 3; Michigan, 5—176. take incipient steps in relation thereto, are calculated to For Clay and Frelinghuysen : Vermont, 6; lead to the most alarming and dangerous consequences, Massachusetts, 12; Rhode Island, 4; Connectiand that all such efforts have an inevitable tendency to diminish the happiness of the people, and endanger the cut, 6; New-Jersey, 7; Delaware, 3 ; Maryland, stability and permanency of the Union, and ought not to 8.; North Carolina, 11; Tennessee, 13; Kenbe countenanced by any friend to our Political Institu- tucky, 12; Ohio, 23-105. tions.
8. Resolved, that the separation of the moneys of the government from banking institutions is indispensable DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION, for the safety of the funds of the government and the
1844. rights of the people. 9. Resowed, That the liberal principles embodied by
A Democratic National Convention assembled Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence, and sanc- at Baltimore on the 27th May, 1844, adopted the tioned in the Constitution, which makes ours the land two-third rule and, after a stormy session of three of liberty and the asylum of the oppressed of every nation, have ever been cardinal principles in the Demo- days, James K. Polk, of Tennessee, was nomi. cratic faith; and every attempt to abridge the present nated for President, and Silas Wright, of New privilege of becoming citizens, and the owners of soil York, for Vice-President. Mr. Wright declined among us, ought to be resisted with the same spirit the nomination, and George M. Dallas, of Pennwhich swept the Alien and Sedition Laws from our statute book.
sylvania, was subsequently selected to fill the The Convention then unanimously nominated second place on the ticket. Mr. Van Buren for reëlection as President; but, The ballotings for President were as follows: there being much diversity of opinion as to the proper man for Vice-President, the following
1st. 2d. 3rd. 4th. 5th. 6th 7th. 8th. 9th. preamble and resolution were adopted :
M. Van Buren.... 146 127 121 111 103 101 99 104
Lewis Cass....... 83 94 92 105 107 116 123 114 29 Whereas, Several of the States which have nominated Martin Van Buren as a candidate for the Presidency, James Buchanan..
29 89 88 32 26 25 21 R. M. Johnson...
4 9 11 17 29 23 22 2 have put in nomination different individuals as candi: J. C. Calhoun,..
1 1 dates for Vice-President, thus indicating a diversity of
2 opinion as to the person best entitled to the nomination;
1 and whereas some of the said States are not represented James K. Polk..
44 288 in this Convention, therefore,
Resolved, That the Convention deem it expedient at Mr. Van. Buren's name was withdrawn after the present time not to choose between the individuals the 8th ballot. in nomination, but to leave the decision to their Republican fellow-citizens in the several States, trusting that
The plaiform adopted by the Convention was before the election shall take place, their opinions will the same as that of 1840, with the following become so concentrated as to secure the choice of a additions : Vice-President by the Electoral College.
Resoloed, That the proceeds of the Public Lands
ought to be sacredly applied to the national objects speciWHIG NATIONAL CONVENTION, 1844. fied in the Constitution, and that we are opposed to the A Whig National Convention assembled in laws lately adopted, and to any law for the Distribution
of such proceeds among the States, as alike inexpedient Baltiinore, on the 1st of May, 1844, in which in policy and repugnant to the Constitution. every State in the Union was represented. Am- Resolved, Thăt we are decidedly opposed to taking brose Spencer, of New-York, presided, and Mr. from the President the qualified veto power by which he Clay was nominated for President by acclama- sufficient to guard the public interest, to suspend the tion. For Vice-President, there was some di passage of a bill, whose merits cannot secure the apversity of preference, and Mr. Frelinghuysen, of proval of two-thirds of the Senate and House of RepreN. J., was nominated on the third ballot as fol. sentatives, until the judgment of the people can be ob
tained thereon, and which has thrice saved the Amerilows:
oan People from the corrupt and tyrannical domination of the Bank of the United States.
Resolved, That our title to the whole of the Territory of 3rd.
Oregon is clear and unquestionable; that no portion of the T. Frelinghuysen, N. J.,..... 101 118
same ought to be ceded to England or any other power; John Davis, Mass.,,
and that the reoccupation of Oregon and the reannex. Millard Fillmore, N. Y.,. 53
ation of Texas at the earliest practicable period are John Sergeant, Pa.,.
great American measures, which this Convention recom
mends to the cordial support of the Democracy of the Total,..
Union. The principles of the party were briefly summed up in the following resolve, which was LIBERTY PARTY NATIONAL CONVENadopted by the Convention :
TON, 1843. Resoloed, That these principles may be summed as comprising a well regulated National currency-a Tariff
The Liberty Party National Convention met revenue to defray the necessary ex nses of the l at Buffalo, on the 30th of August. Leicester
King, of Ohio, presided, and James G. Birney, of Florida, or on the high seas, are unconstitutional, and all Michigan, was unanimously noninated for Pre- attempts to hold men as property within the limits of ex
clusive national jurisdiction, ought to be prohibited by law. sident, with Thomas Morris, of Ohio, for Vice
Resolved, That the provision of the Constitution of the President. Among the resolves adopted were United States, which confers extraordinary political the following:
powers on the owners of slaves, and thereby constitut
ing the two hundred and fifty thousand slaveholders in Resoloed, That human brotherhood is a cardinal prin the Slave States a privileged aristocracy; and the prociple of true Democracy, as well as of pure Christianity, vision for the reclamation of fugitive slaves from service, which spurns all inconsistent limitations; and neither are Anti-Republican in their character, dangerous to the the political party which repudiates it, nor the political liberties of the people, and ought to be abrogated. system which is not based upon it, can be truly Demo- Resolved, that the practical operation of the second cratic or permanent.
of these provisions, is seen in the enactment of the act Resolved, That the Liberty Party, placing itself upon of Congress respecting persons escaping from their masthis broad principle, will demand the absolute and un- ters, which act, if the construction given to it by the qualified divorce of the General Government from Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Prigg slavery, and also the restoration of equality of rights, vs. Pennsylvania be correct, nullifies the habeas corpus among men, in every State where the party exists, or acts of all the States, takes away the whole legal security may exist.
of personal freedom, and ought therefore to be immediResolved, That the Liberty Party has not been organ-ately repealed. ized for any temporary purpose by interested politicians, Resolved, That the peculiar patronage and support but has arisen from among the people in consequence of hitherto extended to Slavery and Slaveholding, by the a conviction, hourly gaining ground, that no other party General Government, ought to be immediately with in the country represents the true principles of American drawn, and the example and influence of National liberty, or the true spirit of the Constitution of the authority ought to be arrayed on the side of Liberty and United States.
Free Labor. Resolved, That the Liberty Party has not been organ- Resolved, That the practice of the General Governized merely for the overthrow of slavery ; its first de ment, which prevails in the Slave States, of employing cided effort must, indeed, be directed against slavehold-Slaves upon the public works, instead of free laborers, ing as the grossest and most revolting manifestation of and paying aristocratic masters, with a view to secure or despotism, but it will also carry out the principle of reward political services, is utterly indefensible and equal rights into all its practical consequences and ap- ought to be abandoned, plications, and support every just measure conducive to Resolved, That freedom of speech, and of the press, individual and social freedom,
and the right of petition, and the right of trial by jury, Resolved, That the Liberty Party is not a sectional are sacred and inviolable; and that all rules, regulaparty but a national party; was not originated in a de- tions and laws, in derogation of either are oppressive, unsire to accomplish a single object, but in a comprehen- constitutional, and not to be endured by free people. sive regard to the great interests of the whole country; Resowed, That we regard voting in an eminent deis not a new party, nor a third party, but is the party gree, as a moral and religious duty, which, when exerof 1776, reviving the principles of that memorable era, cised, should be by voting for those who will do all in and striving to carry them into practical application. their power for Immediate Emancipation. Resolveu, That it was undersiood in the times of the
Resolved, That this Convention recommend to the Declaration and the Constitution, that the existence of friends of Liberty in all those Free States where any in. slavery in some of the States, was in derogation of the equality of rights and privileges exists on account of principles of American Liberty, and a deep stain upon color, to employ their utmost energies to remove all such the character of the country, and the implied faith of the remnants and effects of the Slave system, States and the Nation was pledged, that slavery should Whereas, The Constitution of these United States is never be extended beyond its then existing limits, but a series of agreements, covenants, or contracts between should be gradually, and yet, at no distant day, wholly the people of the United States, each with all and all abolished by State authority.
with each ; and Resolved, That the faith of the States and the Nation
Whereas, It is a principle of universal morality, that thus pledged, was most nobly redeemed by the voluntary the moral laws of the Creator are paramount to all Abolition of Slavery in several of the States, and by the human laws; or, in the language of an Apostle, that adoption of the Ordinance of 1787, for the government " we ought to obey God rather than men;" and, of the Territory northwest of the river Ohio, then the only Whereas, The principle of common law-that any Territory in the United States, and consequently the only contract, covenant, or agreement, to do an act derogaterritory subject in this respect to the control of Congress tory to natural right, is vitiated and annulled by its in. by which Ordinance Slavery was forever excluded from herent immorality-has been recognized by one of the the vast regions which now compose the States of Ohio, justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, who Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and the Territory of Wiscon- in a recent case expressly bolds that " any contract sin, and an incapacity to bear up any other than freemen, that rests upon such a basis is void ;" and, was impressed on the soil itself.
Whereas, The third clause of the second section of Resolved, That the faith of the States and Nation the fourth article of the Constitution of the United thus pledged, has been shamefully violated by the omis- States, when construed as providing for the surrender of sion on the part of many of the States, to take any a Fugitive Slave, does " rest upon such a basis," in that measures whatever for the Abolition of slavery within it is a contract tó rob a man of a natural right-namely, their respective limits ; by the continuance of Slavery his natural right to his own liberty; and is, therefore, in the District of Columbia, and in the Territories of absolutely void. Therefore, Louisiana and Florida; by the Legislation of Congress ; Resowed, That we hereby give it to be distinctly by the protection afforded by national legislation and understood by this nation and the world, that, as abolinegotiation to slaveholding in American vessels, on the tionists, considering that the strength of our cause lies high seas, employed in the coastwise Slave Trafic; and in its righteousness, and our hope for it in our conformity by the extension of slavery far beyond its original to the laws of God, and our respect for the RIGHTS OF limits, by acts of Congress, admitting new Slave States Man, we owe it to the Sovereign Ruler of the universe, as into the Union.
a proof of our allegiance to Him, in all our civil relations Resolved, That the fundamental truths of the Declara- and offices, whether as private citizens or as public tion of Independence, that all men are endowed by their functionaries sworn to support the Constitution of the Creator with certain inalienable rights, among which are United States, to regard and to treat the third clause of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, was made the the fourth article of that instrument, whenever applied fundamental law of our National Government, by that to the case of a fugitive slave, as utterly null and void, amendment of the Constitution which declares that no and consequently as forming no part of the Constitution person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property, of the United States, whenever we are called upon or without due process of law.
sworn to support it. Resolved, That we recognize as sound, the doctrine Resobed, That the power given to Congress by the maintained by slaveholding jurists, that slavery is constitution, to provide for calling out the militia to against natural rights, and strictly local, and that its ex- suppress insurrection, does not make it the duty of the istence and continuance rests on no other support than Government to maintain Slavery by military force, much State Legislation, and not on any authority of Congress. less does it make it the duty of the citizens to form a
Resolved, That the General Government has, under part of such military force. When freemen unsheath the the Constitution, no power to establish or continue sword it should be to strike for Liberty, not for Despot. Slavery anywhere, and therefore that all treaties and ism. acts of Congress establishing, continuing or favoring Resoloed, That to preserve the peace of the citizens, and Slavery in the District of Columbia, in the Territory of secure the blessings of freedom, the Legislature of each of