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dent to the last days of a session of Congress, we have the affections of her people are so closely entwined and 80 com not time, did we deem it necessary, to enter upon a i pletely enfibred, and whose value is more highly appreciated, detailed statement of the reasons which force upon our
than that which we are now considering. minds the conviction that this project is by no means abandoned : that a large portion of the country, inter- ! last session of Congress, when a Senator from Mississippi pro
"It may not be improper here to remark that, during the ested in the continuance of Domestic Slavery and the posed the acknowledgment of Texan independence, it was Slave-trade in these United States, have solemnly and found, with a few exceptions, the members of that body were unalterably determined that it shall be speedily car. ready to take ground upon it, as upon the sulject of slavery ried into execution; and that, by this admission of new Slave Territory and Slave States, the undue ascend- lieving that these feelings influenced the New England Sena
"With all these facts before us, we do not hesitate in beency of the Slave-holding power in the Government tors, but one voting in favor of the measure; and, indeed, Mr. shall be secured and riveted beyond all redemp. Webster had been bold enough, in a public speech recently tion !!
delivered in New York, to many thousand citizens, to declare That it was with these views and intentions that set
that the reason that intiuenced his opposition was his abhor. tlements were effected in the province, by citizens of the rence of Slavery
in the South, and that it might, in the event of United States, difficulties fomented with the Mexican of the efforts making in favor of Abolition; and that, being pre
its recognition, become a slave holding State. He also spoke Government, a revolt brought about, and an Indepen- dicated upon and aided by the powerful influence of religious dent Government declared, cannot now admit of a feeling, it would become irresistible and overwhelming: doubt; and that, hitherto, all attempts of Mexico to re. "This language, coming from so distinguished an individual duce her revolted province to obedience have proved as Mr. Webster, so familiar with the feelings of the North and unsuccessful, is to be attributed to the unlawful aid and England, speaks so plainly the voice of the North as not to be assistance of designing and interested individuals in the misunderstood. United States, and the direct and indirect coöperation “We sincerely hope there is enough good sense and genuine of our own Government, with similar views, is not the love of country among our fellow-countrymen of the Northern less certain and demonstrable.
States, to secure us final justice on this subject; yet we cannot States of this Union, in aid of the Texan Revolution; the such men as Webster, and others who countenance such dan
The open and repeated enlistment of troops in several consider it safe or expedient for the people of ihe South to enintrusion of an American Army, by order of the Presi
gerous doctrines. dent, far into the territory of the Mexican Government, "The Northern States have no interests of their own which at a moment critical for the fate of the insurgents, under require any special safeguards for their defense, save only pretense of preventing Mexican soldiers from fomenting their domestic manufactures; and God knows they havo Indian disturbances, but in reality in aid of, and acting liberal scale ; under which encouragement they have im.
already received protection from Government on a most in singular concert and coincidence with, the army of the proved and flourished beyond example. The South has very Revolutionists; the entire neglect of our Government to peculiar interests to preserve; interests already violently asadopt any efficient measures to prevent the most un- sailed and boldly threatened. warrantable aggressions of bodies of our own citizens,
“ Your Committee are fully persuaded that this protection to enlisted, organized and officered within our own borders, her best interests will be afforded by the annexation of Texas ; and marched in arms and battle array upon the terri
an equipoise of influence in the halls of Congress will be secured, tory, and against the inhabitants of a friendly govern
which will furnish us a permanent guaranty of protection.” ment, in aid of freebooters and insurgents, and the pre
The speech of Mr. Adams, exposing the whole system mature recognition of the Independence of Texas, by a
of duplicity and perfidy toward Mexico, had marked the snap vote, at the heel of a session of Congress, and that; of opposition which began to come up from all parties in
conduct of our Government; and the emphatic expressions too, at the very session when President Jackson had, by special
the Message, insisted that “the measure would
ree States, however, for a time, nearly silenced the be.contrary to the policy invariably observed by the clamors of the South for annexation, and the people of United States in all similar cases;" would be marked the North have been lulled into the belief that the prowith great injustice to Mexico, and peculiarly liable to
ject is nearly, if not wholly abandoned, and that, at the darkest suspicions, inasmuch as the Texlins were least, there is now no serious danger of its consummaalmost all emigrants from the United States, AND
tion. SOUGHT THE RECOGNITION OF THEIR INDEPENDENCE WITH THE
Believing this to be a false and dangerous security ; AVOWED PURPOSE OF OBTAINING THEIR ANNEXATION TO THE
that the project has never been abandoned a moment, UNITED STATES. These occurrences are too well known by its originators and abettors, but that it has been de and too fresh in the memory of all, to need more
ferred for a more favorable moment for its accomplish than a passing notice. These have become matters ment, we refer to a few evidences of more recent de of history. For further evidence upon all
these and velopment upon which this opinion is founded. other important points, we refer to the memorable
The last Election of President of the Republic of Texas, speech of John Quincy Adams, delivered in the House of is understood to have turned, mainly, upon the question Representatives during the morning hour in June and
of annexation or no annexation, and the candidate July, 1838, and to his address to his constituents, de- favorable to that measure was successful by an overlivered at Braintree, 17th September, 1842.
whelming majority. The sovereign States of Alabama, The open avowal of the Texans themselves-the fre. Tennessee, and Mississippi, have recently adopted Resoquent and anxious negotiations of our own Government lutions, some, if not all of them, unanimously, in favor -the resolutions of various States of the Union -- the
of annexation, and forwarded them to Congress. numerous declarations of members of Congress—the
The Hon. Henry A. Wise, a member of Congress from tone of the Southern press-as well as the direct applica- the District in which our present Chief Magistrate
resided tion of the Texan Government, make it impossible for when elected Vice-President, and who is understood to any man to doubt, that anNEXATION, and the formation be more intimately acquainted with the views and de of several new Slaveholding States, were originally the signs of the present administration than any other mempolicy and design of the slaveholding States and the ber of Congress, most distinctly avowed his desire for, Executive of the Nation.
and expectation of annexation, at the last session of The same reference will show, very conclusively, that Congress. Among other things, he said, in a speech the particular objects of this new acquisition of Slave delivered January 26, 1842: Territory were THE PERPETUATION OF SLAVERY AND THE “True, if Iowa be added on the one side, Florida will be CONTINUED ASCENDENCY OF THE SLAVE POWEER.
added on the other. But there the equation must stop. Let The following extracts from a Report on that subject, gone-gone forever. The balance of interests is gone-the safe
one more Northern State be admitted, and the equilibrium is sdopted by the Legislature of Mississippi, from a mass
guard of American property-of the American Constitutionof similar cvidence which might be adduced, will show
of the American Union, vanished into thin air. This must be with what viero8 the annexation was then urged: the inevitable result, unless by a treaty with Mexico, THE SOUTH
CAN ADD MORE WEIGHT TO HER END OF THE LEVER? Let the “But we hasten to suggest the importance of the annexation of Texas to this Republic upon grounds somewhat local in
South stop at the Sabine, (the eastern boundary of Texas,) while their complexion, but of an import infinitely grave and inter
the North may spread unchecked beyond the Rocky Moun. esting to the people who inhabit the Southern portion of this sains AND THE SOUTHERN
SCALE MUST KICK THE BEAM." Confederacy, where it is known that a species of domestic
Finding difficulties, perhaps, in the way of a cession by Slavery is tolerated and protected by law, whose existence is prohibited by the legal regulations of other States of this Con Treaty, in another speech delivered in April, 1842, on a federacy; which system of Slavery is held by all, who are
motion made by Mr. Linn, of New York, to strike out the familiarly acquainted with its practical effects, lo be of highly
salary of the Minister to Mexico, on the ground that the beneficial influence to the country within whose limits it is per. design of the Executive, in making the appointment, mited to exist.
was to accomplish the annexation of Texas, Mr. Wise “The Committee feel authorized to say that this system is said," he earnestly hoped and trusted that the President cherished by our constituents as the very palladium of their prosperity and happiness, and whatever ignorant fanatics may
was as desirous (of annexation) as he was represented to elsewhere conjecture, the Committee are fully assured, upon
be. We may well suppose the President to be in favor of the most diligent observation and reflection on the subject, that it, as every wise statesman must be who is not governed the South does not possess within her limits a blessing with which by fanaticism, or local sectional prejudices."
He said of Texas, that.
In conclusion he said: "While she was, as a State, weak and almost powerless in "I see, therefore, no political necessity for the annexation resisting invasion, she was herself irresistible as an invading of Texas to the Union ; no advantages to be derived from it ; and a conquering power. She had but a sparse population, and objections to it of a strong, and, in my judgment, decisive and neither men nor money of her own, to raise and equip an character. army for her own defense; but let her once raise the tag of “I believe it to be for the interest and happiness of the foreign conquest--let her once proclaim a crusade against the whole Union, to remain as it is, without diminution and withuut rich States to the south of her-and in a moment volunteers addition." would flock to her standard in crowds, from all the States in the great valley of the Mississippi-men of enterprise and valor, be- To prevent the success of this nefarious project--to fore whom no Mexican troops could stand for an hour. They preserve from such gross violation the Constitution of our would leave their own towns, arm themselves, and travel on country, adopted expressly " to secure the blessings of their own cost, and would come up in thousands, to plant the liberty," and not the perpetuation of slavery-and to would drive Santa Anna to the South, and in boundless wealth prevent the speedy and violent dissolution of the Union of captured towns, and rified churches, and a lazy, vicious, -We invite you to unite, without distinction of party, in and luxurious priesthood, would soon enable Texas, to pay her an immediate expression of your views on this subject, soldiery, and redeem her State debt, and push her victorious in such manner as you may deem best calculated te arms to the very shores of the Pacific. And would not all
answer the end proposed. this extend the bounds of Slavery? Yes, the result would be, that, before another quarter of a century, the extension of John QUINCY ADAMS, NATHANIEL B. BORDEN, Slavery would not stop short of the Western Ocean. We had
SETH M. GATES,
THOMAS C. CHITTENDEN, but two alternatives before us ; either to receive Texas into our
JOAN MATTOCKS, fraternity of States, and thus make her our own, or to leave her to
WILLIAM B. CALHOUN, conquer Mexico, and become our most dangerous and formidable
CHRISTOPHER MORGAN, rival.
Joshua R. GIDDINGS, Joshua M, HOWARD, ** To talk of restraining the people of the great Valley from SHERLOCK J. ANDREWS, VICTORY BIRDSEYE, emigrating to join her armies, was all in vain ; and it was
HILAND HALL. equally vain to calculate on their defeat by any Mexican forces, aided by England or not. They had gone once already ; WASHINGTON, March 3rd, 1843. it was they that conquered Santa Anna at San Jacinto; and three-fourths of them, after winning that glorious field, had [NOTE.-The above address was drawn up by Hon. Seth M. peaceably returned to their homes. But once set before them Gates, of New York, at the suggestion of John Quincy Adams, the conquest of the rich Mexican provinces, and you might as well attempt to stop the wind. This Government might send and sent to members of Congress at their residences, after its troops to the frontier, to turn them back, and they would the close of the session, for their signatures. Many more than run over them like a herd of buffalo.
“Nothing could keep these booted loafers from rushing the above approved heartily of its positions and objects, on, till they kicked the Spanish priests out of the temples they and would have signed it, but for its premature publica. profaned.
Mr. Wise proceeded to insist that a majority of the people of tion, through mistake. Mr. Winthrop, of Mass., was one of the United States were in favor of the annexation ; at all these, with Gov. Briggs, of course ; Mr. Fillmore declined events, he would risk it with the Democracy of the North. signing it.)
"Sir," said Mr. Wise, “it is not only the duty of the Government to demand the liquidation of our claims, and the libera
The letters of Messrs. Clay and Van Buren, tion of our citizens, but to go further, and demand the pon: taking ground against annexation, without the surrection is raised on our borders, and let a horde of slaves
, consent of Mexico, as an act of bad faith and sas and Louisiana ? No. It is our duty at Once io sayano aggression, which would necessarily result in Mexico, T you strike Texas, you strike us ;' and if England, war, which appeared in the spring of 1844, standing by should dare to intermeddle, and ask, Do you make slight allusions, if any, to the Slavery take part with Texas P' his prompt answer should be, 'Yes, and against you.'
aspect of the case. In a later letter, Mr. Clay * Such, he would let gentlemen knoro, was the spirit of the whole declared that he did not oppose annexation on people of the great valley of the West.”
Several other members of Congress, in the same debate, account of Slavery, which he regarded as a expressed similar views and desires, and they are still temporary institution, which, therefore, ought more frequently expressed in conversation.
not to stand in the way of a permanent acquisiThe Hon. Thomas W. Gilmer, a member of Congress from Virginia, and formerly a 'Governor of that state, tion. And, though Mr. Clay's last letter on the numbered as one of the “Guard," and of course under subject, prior to the election of 1844, reiterated stood to be in the counsels of the Cabinet, in a letter and emphasized all his objections to annexation
signed as a private and confidential letter to a friend, under the existing circumstances, he did not ingives it as his deliberate opinion, after much examination clude the existence of Slavery. and reflection, that Texas WILL BE ANNEXED TO THE The defeat of Mr. Van Buren, at the BaltiUNION; and he enters into a specious argument, and presents a variety of reasons favor of the measure. He
more Nominating Convention-Mr. Polk being says, among other things :
selected in his stead, by a body which had been Having acquired Louisiana ard Florida, we have an in- supposed pledged to renominate the ex-Presiterior to the Pacific, which will not permit us to close our eyes, dent-excited considerable feeling, especially or fold our arms, with indifference to the events which a few among the Democrats of New-York. A number question of boundary with Texas; other questions must soon of their leaders united in a letter, termed the arise, under our revenue laws, and on other points of neces
“Secret Circular," advising their brethren, sary intercourse, which it will be difficult to adjust. The institutions of Texas, and her relations with other governments, are while they supported Polk and Dallas, to be yet in that condition which inclines her people (who are our own careful to vote for candidates for Congress who countrymen,) to unite their destinies with ours. THIS MUST BE DONE SOON, OR NOT AT ALL. There are numerous tribes of In- would set their faces as a flint against annexadians along both frontiers, which can easily become the cause or the instrument of border wars."
tion, which was signed by None can be so blind novo, as not to know that the real GEORGE P. BARKER, DAVID DUDLEY FIELD, design and object of the South is, to " ADD NEW WEIGHT WILLIAM C. BRYANT,
THEODORE SEDGWICK, TO HER END OF THE LEVER, It was upon that ground J. W. EDMONDS,
Thomas W. TUCKER, that Mr. Webster placed his opposition, in his speech on
ISAAC TOWNSEND. that subject in New York, in March, 1887. In that speech, after stating that he saw insurmountable objections to
Silas Wright, then a Senator of the United the annexation of Texas, that the purchase of Louisiana States, and who, as such, had opposed the and Florida furnished no precedent for it, that the cases Tyler Treaty of Annexation, was now run were not parallel, and that no such policy or necessity for Governor, as the only man who could carry as led to that, required the annexation of Texas, he said:
“Gentlemen, we all see, that by whomsoever possessed, the State of New-York for Polk and Dallas. In Texas is likely to be a slaveholding country, and I frankly a democratic speech at Skaneateles, N. Y., Mr. extend the Slavery of the African race on this continent, or add Wright had recently declared that he could other slavebolding States to the Union. When I say that I never consent to Annexation on any terms regard Slavery as in itself a great moral, social, and political evil, I only use language which has been adopted by distin which would give Slavery an advantage over guished men, themselves citizens of Slaveholding States. I Freedom. This sentiment was reiterated and shall do nothing, therefore, favor or encourage its further extension."
amplified in a great Convention of the Demo
cracy, which met at Herkimer, in the autumn of in the consummation of this grand scheme, which Eng
land hopes to accomplish through Texas, if she can The contest proceeded with great earnestness of all the Continental powers of Europe are directly and
defeat the Annexation, but that her interests, and those throughout the Free States, the supporters of deeply opposed to it. Polk and of Birney (the Abolition candidate for President), fully agreeing in the assertion
The election of James K. Polk as President, that Mr. Clay's position was equally favorable to and George M. Dallas as Vice-President, (Nov. Annexation with Mr. Polk's. 'Mr. Birney in a 1844) having virtually settled, affirmatively, the letter published on the eve of the Election, de question of annexing Texas, the XXVIIIth clared that he regarded Mr. Clay's election as Congress commenced its second session at • more favorable to Annexation than Mr. Polk's, Washington, on the 2d of December, 1844–Mr. because, while equally inclined to fortify and John Tyler being still acting President up to extend Slavery, he possessed more ability to the end of the Congress, March 4th following. influence Congress in its favor,
Dec. 19.-Mr. John B. Weller, (then member Before this time, but as yet withheld from, from Ohio) by leave, introduced a joint resoluand unknown to, the public, Mr. Calhoun, now tion, No. 51, providing for the annexation of President Tyler's Secretary of State, and an Texas to the United States, which he moved to early and powerful advocate of Annexation, had the Committee of the Whole. addressed to Hon. Wm. R. King, our Embassa- Mr. E. S. Hamlin, of Obio, moved a reference dor at Paris, an official dispatch from which we of said resolve to a Committee of one from each make the following extracts:
State, with instructions to report
Whether the annexation of Texas would not extend MR. CALHOUN TO MR. KING.
and perpetuate Slavery in the Slave States, and also, the DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
internal Slave-trade; and whether the United States Washington, August 12, 1844.
Government has any Constitutional power over Slavery.
in the States, either to perpetuate it there, or to do it SIR-I have laid your dispatch, No. 1, before the aroay. President, who instructs me to make known to you that he has read it with much pleasure, especially the portion
The question on commitment was insisted which relates to your cordial reception by the King, and upon, and first taken-Yeas, 109 (Democrats); his assurance of friendly feelings toward the United Nays, 61 (Whigs); whereupon it was held that States. The President, in particular, highly appreciates Mr. Hamlin's amendment was defeated, and the the declaration of the King, that in no event, would any steps be taken by his government in the slightest degree original proposition alone committed. hostile, or which would give to the United States just cause January 10th, 1845.--Mr. John P. Hale, of of complaint. It was the more gratifying from the fact, New-Hampshire, (then a Democratic Representhe impression that the government of France was pre- tative, now a Republican Senator) proposed the pared to unite with Great Britain in a joint protest following as an amendment to any act or resolve against the annexation of Texas, and a joint effort to contemplating the annexation of Texas to this induce her Government to withdraw the proposition to annex, on condition that Mexico should be made to
Union : acknowledge her independence. He is happy to infer Provided, That immediately after the question of from your dispatch that the information, so far as it boundary between the United States of America and relates to France, is in all probability without founda- Mexico shall have been definitiveiy settled by the two tion. You did not go further than you ought, in assur-Governments, and before any State formed out of the ing the King that the object of Annexation would be Territory of Texas shall be admitted into the Union, the pursued with unabated vigor, and in giving your opinion said Territory of Texas shall be divided as follows, to that a decided majority of the American people were in wit : beginning at a point on the Gulf of Mexico, midway its favor, and that it would certainly be annexed at no between the Northern and Southern boundaries thereof distant day. I feel confident that your anticipation will on the coast; and thence by a line running in a Northbe fully realized at no distant period.
westerly direction to the extreme boundary thereof, so Every day will tend to weaken that combination of as to divide the same as nearly as possible into two political causes which led to the opposition of the equal parts, and in that portion of said Territory lying measure, and to strengthen the conviction that it was south and West of the line to be run as aforesaid, there not only expedient, but just and necessary.
shall be neither Slavery nor involuntary servitude, otherBut to descend' to particulars : it is certain that wise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party while England, like France, desires the independence of shall have been duly convicted. Texas, with the view to commercial connections, it is not And provided further, That this provision shall be less so that one of the leading motives of England for considered as a compact between the people of the desiring it, is the hope that, through her diplomacy and United States and the people of the said Territory, and influence, Negro Slavery may be abolished there, and forever remain unalterable, unless by the consent of ultimately, by consequence, in the United States and three-fourths of the States of the Union. throughout the whole of this continent. That its ultimate
Mr. Hale asked a suspension of the rules, to abolition throughout the entire continent is an object ardently desired by her, we have decisive proofs in the enable him to offer it now, and have it printed declaration of the Earl of Aberdeen, delivered to this and committed. Refused-Yeas, 92 (not twoDepartment, and of which you will find a copy among thirds); Nays, 81. the documents transmitted to Congress with the Texan treaty. That she desires its abolition in Texas, and has
Yeas--All the Whigs* and most of the Demoused her influence and diplomacy to effect it there, the crats from the Free States, with Messrs. Duncan same document, with the correspondence of this Depart- L. Clinch and Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia, ment with Mr. Packenham, also to be found among the and George W. Summers, of Virginia. documents, furnishes proof not less conclusive. one of the objects of abolishing it there is to facilitate Nays—all the members from Slave States, its abolition in the United States, and throughout the continent, is manifest from the declaration of the Aboli- except the above, with the following from Free tion party and societies both in this country and in Eng
States : land. In fact, there is good reason to believe that the MAINE.-Sheppard Cary--1. scheme of abolishing in Texas, with a view to its abo- New-HAMPSUIRE.-Edmund Burke, Moses Norris, jr.—2. lition in the United States, and over the contineni, origi.
NEW-YORK.-James G. Clinton, Selah B. Strong-2. nated with the prominent members of the party in the PENNSYLVANIA.-James Black, Richard Brodheado United States ; and was tirst broached by them in the H. D. Foster, Joseph R. Ingersoll, Michael H. Jonk8–5. (so called) World's Convention, held in London in the 010.-Joseph J. McDowell-1. year 1840, and through its agency brought to the notice INDIANA.-Wm. J. Brown, J. W. Davis, John Pettit-3. of the British Government.
Now, I hold, not only that France can have no interest Except the two here given in Italice.
ILLINOIS.—Orlando B. Ficklin, Joseph P. Hoge, Robert | aforesaid was agreed to-Yeas, 118; Nays, Smith--3.
101. Total Democrats from Free States, 17. December 12th.—Mr. C. J. Ingersoll, of Penn-Brown, of Tennessee ; James Dellet, of Alabama;
Yeas—114 Democrats, and Messrs. Milton sylvania, from the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and Duncan L. Clinch, and Alexander H. reported a Joint Resolution for annexing Texas to the Union, which was committed and dis. Stephens, of Georgia, (4) Southern Whigs. cussed in Committee of the Whole from time to with all from Slave States, but the four just
Nays—all the Whigs present from Free States time, through the next month.
named; with the following mocrats from January 7th.-Mr. J. P. Hale presented re
Free States : solves of the Legislature of New-Hampshire, thoroughly in favor of Annexation, and silent
MAINE.- Robert P. Dunlap, Hannibal Hamlin-2.
VERMONT.-Paul Dillingham, jr.-1. on the subject of Slavery, except as follows: New-HAMPSHIRE.-John P. Hale-1.
Resolved, That we agree with Mr. Clay, that the re- CONNECTICUT.--George S. Catlin-1. annexation of Texas will add more Free than Slave New-YORK --Joseph H. Anderson, Charles S. Benton, States to the Union; and that it would be unwise to re- Jeremiah E. Carey, Amasa Dana, Richard D. Davis, fuse a permanent acquisition, which will exist as long as Byram Green, Preston King, Smith M. Purdy, George the globe remains, on account of a temporary institution. Rathbun, Orville Robinson, David L. Seymour, Lemuel
Stetson-12. January 13th.-Mr. Cave Johnson, of Ten- Ou10.—Jacob Brinckerhoff, William C. McCauslen, nessee, moved that all further debate on this Joseph Morris, Henry St. John–4. subject be closed at 2 P.M. on Thursday next.
MICHIGAN.-James B. Hunt, Robert McClelland-2.
Total Democrats from Free States,... .23. Carried-Yeas, 136 ; Nays, 57 ; (nearly all the Total Whigs from Free and Slave States, ....78. Nays from Slave States.)
The House then ordered the whole proposiJanuary 25th.—The debate, after an exten- tion to a third reading forthwith--Yeas, 120; sion of time, was at length brought to a close, Nays, 97--and passed it, Yeas, 120; Nays, 98. and the Joint Resolution taken out of Committee, and reported to the House in the following and all the Democrats from Free States, except
Yeas-all the Democrats from Slave States, form ; (that portion relating to Slavery, having been added in Committee, on motioù' of Mr. as above; with Messrs. Duncan L. Clinch, MilMilton Brown, (Whig) of Tennessee :
ton Brown, James Dellet, Willoughby Newton,
of Virginia, (wbo therefrom turned Democrat), Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representa- and Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia, (now tives in Congress assembled, That Congress doth consent that the Territory properly included within, and Democrat), from Slave States. rightfully belonging to, the Republic of Texas, may be Nays—all the Whigs from Free States; all erected into a new state, to be called the State of Texas, those from Slave States except as above; with with a republican form of Government, to be adopted by the people of said Republic, by deputies in Convention 23 Democrats from Free States. assembled, with the consent of the existing Government, So the resolve passed the House, and was in o.der that the same may be admitted as one of the sent to the Sevate for concurrence. States of this Union. 2. And be it further resowed, That the foregoing con
In Senate, several attempts to originate action sent of Congress is given upon the following conditions, in favor of Annexation were made at this sesaud with the follow.ng guaranties, to wit:
sion, but nothing came of them. First. Said State to be formed, subject to the adjustment by this Government of all questions of boundary
February 24th.-The joint resolution aforethat may arise with other governments; and the Con- said from the House was taken up for coustitution thereof, with the proper evidence of its adoption sideration by 30 Yeas to 11 Nays (all Northern mitted to the President of the United States, to be laia Whiys). On the 27th, Mr. Walker, of Wisconbefore Congress for its final action, on or before the 1st sin, moved to add an alternative proposition, day of January, 1846.
contemplating negotiation as the means of Second. Said State, when admitted into the Union, after ceding to the United States all public edifices, forti: effecting the meditated end. fications, barracks, ports and harbors, navy and navy
Mr. Foster, (Whig) of Tennessee, proposed yards, docks, magazines, arms, armaments, and all other That the State of Texas, and such other States as may property and means pertaining to the public defense, be formed out of that portion of the present Territory of belonging to the said Republic of Texas, shall retain all Texas, lying south of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes the public funds, debts, taxes, and dues of every kind north latitude, commonly known as the Missouri Comwhich may belong to, or be due or owing said Republic; promise line, shall be admitted into the Union with or and shall also retain all the vacant and unappropriated without Slavery, as the people of each State, so hereafter lands lying within its limits, to be applied to the pay- asking admission, may desire. ment of debts and liabilities of said Republic of Texas; and the residue of said lands, after discharging said debts
On which the question was taken. Yeas, (all and liabilities, to be disposed of as said State may direct: Whigs but 3) 18; Nays, 34. but in no event are said debts and liabilities to become
Various amendments were proposed and voted a charge upon the United States.
Third. New States of convenient size, not exceeding down. Among them, Mr. Foster, of Tenn., four in number, in addition to said State of Texas, and moved an express stipulation that Slavery should having sufficient population,may hereafter,by the consent be tolerated in all States formed out of the of said State, be formed out of the Territory thereof, which shall be entitled to admission under the provisions Territory of Texas, south of the Missouri line of the Federal Constitution. And such States as may be of 36° 30'. Rejected --Yeas, 16 (Southern formed out of that portion of said Territory, lying south Whigs, and Sevier, of Arkansas); Nays, 33. of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north latitude, commonly known as the Missouri Compromise line, shall be
Mr. Miller, of N. J., moved that the existence of Sla.
Yeas, 11; all Northern Whigs, except Mr.
crats but 3; Nays, _25, (all Whigs). In the. And whereas, Congress, in the organization of a terriHouse, Yeas 134, all Democrats but 1: Nays, 77, torlal government, at an early period of our political his(all Whigs).
established a principle worthy of imitation in all
future time, forbidding the existence of Slavery in free THE WILMOT PROVISO.
Resolved, That in any Territory, that may be acTexas having been annexed during the sum- quired from
Mexico, over which shall be established mer of 1845, in pursuance of the joint resolu- territorial governments, Slavery, or involuntary servition of the two Houses of Congress, a portion party shall have been duly convicted, shall be forever of the United States Army, under Gen. Taylor, prohibited ; and that in any act or resolution establishwas, early in the spring of 1846, moved down ing such governments, a fundamental provision ought to
be inserted to that effect. to the east bank of the Rio Grande del Norte, claimed by Texas as her western boundary, but
Mr. R. Brodhead, of Penn., moved that this not so regarded by Mexico. A hostile collision resolution lie on the table. Carried: Yeas, 105; ensued, resulting in war between the United Nays, 93. States and Mexico.
Yeas—all the members from Slave States, It was early thereafter deemed advisable that but John W. Houston (Whig), of Delaware, a considerable sum should be placed by Con- with the following from Free States (all Deniogress at the President's disposal to negotiate an crats but Levin) : advantageous Treaty of Peace and Limits with MAINE.-Asa W. H. Clapp, Franklin Clark, Jas. S. the Mexican Government.
Wiley, Hezekiah Williams-4.
New-YORK. - Ausburn Birdsall, David S. Jackson effect was submitted by President Polk to Con- Frederick W. Lord, William B. Maclay-4. gress, August 8th, 1846, and a bill in accord- PENNSYLVANIA.—Richard Brodhead, Charles Brown,
Lencis C. Levin, Job Man-4. ance with its suggestions laid before the House,
OH10.-William Kennon, jr., John K. Miller, Thomas which proceded
to consider the subject in Com- Richey, William Sawyer-4. mittee of the Whole. The bill appropriating INDIANA.-Charles W. Cathcart, Thomas J. Henley, $30,000 for immediate use in negotiations with John Pettit, John L. Robinson, William W. Wick-5.
ILLINOIS. - Orlando B. Ficklin, John A. McClernand, Mexico, and placing $2,000,000 more at the William A. Richardson, Robert Smith, Thomas J. disposal of the President, to be employed in Turner-5. making peace, Mr. David Wilmot, of Pa., after Nays—all the Whigs and a large majority of consultation with other Northern Democrats, the Democrats from Free States, with John W. offered the following Proviso, in addition to the Houston aforesaid. first section of the bill :
This vote terminated all direct action in Provided, That as an express and fundamental con favor of the Wilmot Proviso for that Session. dition to the acquisition of any territory from the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty from the Select Committee to which was re
July 18th.--In Senate, Mr. Clayton, of Del., which may be negotiated between them, and to the use neither Slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist ritorial government for Oregon, reported a bill by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, ferred, on the 12th inst., the bill providing a terin any part of said Territory, except for crime, whereof
to establish Territorial governments for Oregon, the party shall be first duly convicted. This proviso was carried in Committee, by the (It proposed to submit all questions as to the
New Mexico, and California, which was read. strong vote of eighty-three to sixty-four-only rightful existence or extent of Slavery in the three Members (Democrats) from the Free Territories to the decision of the Supreme Court States, it was said, opposing it. (No record is of the United States.) made of individual votes in Committee of the Whole.) The bill was then reported to the of Conn., moved to strike out so much of said
July, 24th.-Second reading. Mr. Baldwin, House, and Mr. Rathbun, of N. Y., moved the bill as relates to California and New Mexico. previous question on its engrossment. Mr. Tibbatts, of Ky., moved that it do lie on both parties); Nays, 37.
Rejected : Yeas, 17 (Northern Free Soil men of the table. Defeated-Yeas, 79; (Stephen A. Douglas, John A. McClernand, John Pettit
, ceeding days. On the 26th, Mr. Clarke, of R.
The bill was discussed through several sucand Robert C. Schenck, voting with the South to lay on the table ;
) Nays 93 ; (Henry Grider I., moved to add to the 6th section : and William P. Thomasson, of Ky. (Whígs) of the provisional government of said Territory permit
Provided, however, That no law, regulation, or act voting with the North against it.
ting Slavery or involuntary servitude therein shall be The bill was then engrossed for its third valid, until the same shall be approved by Congress.” reading by Yeas 85, Nays, 80; and thus passed Rejected: Yeas, 19 [Col. Benton, and 18 without further division. A motion to recon- Northern Freesoilers of both parties]; Nays, 33. sider was laid on the table-Yeas, 71; Nays, 83. Mr. Reverdy Johnson, of Md., moved to So the bill was passed and sent to the Senate, amend the bill by inserting: where Mr. Dixon H. Lewis, of Alabama, moved
Except only, that in all cases of title to slaves, the that the Proviso above cited be stricken out; said writs of error or appeals shall be allowed and deon which debate arose, and Mr. John Davis of cided by the said Supreme Court without regard to the Mass., was speaking when, at noon of August and except, also, that a writ of error or appeal shali
value of the matter, property, or title in controversy ; 10th, the time fixed for adjournment having also be allowed to the Supreme Court of the United arrived, both Houses adjourned without day.
States from the decision of the said Supreme Court created by this act, or of any judge thereof, or of the dis
trict Courts created by this act, or of any judge upon The XXXth Congress assembled Dec. 6, 1847. any writ of habeas corpus involving the question of per
sonal freedom. Feb. 28th 1848, Mr. Putnam of New York moved the following:
Carried ; Yeas, 31 (all sorts); Nays, 19 (all
Southern, but Bright, Dickinson, and Hannegan). Whereas, In the settlement of the difficulties pending between this country and Mexico, territory may be ac
Mr. Baldwin, of Connecticut, moved an addie quired in which Slavery does not now exist.
tional section, as follows: