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Sec. 87. And be it further enacted, That it shall be So Mr. Clayton's project of Compromise was the duty of the attorneys for said Territories, respec- defeated. tively, on the complaint of any person held in involun
The next session of the same Congress opened tary servitude therein, to make application in his behalf in due form of law, to the court next thereafter to under very different auspices. The Mexican be holden in said Territory, for a writ of habeas corpus, War had been terminated, so that none could in service as aforesaid, and to pursue all needful mea- longer be deterred from voting for Slavery Exsures in his behalf; and if the decision of such court shall clusion by a fear that the prosecution of hos. be adverse to the application, or if, on the return of the tilities would thereby be einbarrassed. General ground that he is a slave held in servitude in said Terri- Taylor had been elected President, receiving tory, said attorney shall cause an appeal to be taken the votes of Delaware, Maryland, North Carotherefrom, and the record of all the proceedings in the lina, Georgia, Ķentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, case to be transmitted to the Supreme Court of the and Florida—a moiety of the Slave States--over United States as speedily as may be, and to give notice Gen. Cass, now the avowed opponent of Slavery thereof to the Attorney General of the United States, who shall prosecute the same before said Court, who Restriction. Many of the Northern Democrats shall proceed to hear and determine the same at the considered themselves absolved by this vote from first term thereof.
all extra-constitutional obligations to the South, Yeas, 15 (all Northern, except Benton); and voted accordingly, Nays, 31. Mr. Davis, of Mass., moved to strike out sec- the following:
Dec, 13.-Mr. J. M. Root, of Ohio, offered tion 12, and insert as follows:
Resolved, That the Committee on Territories be inSec. 12. And be it further enacted, That so much structed to report to this House, with as little delay as of the sixth section of the ordinance of the 13th July, practicable, a bill or bills providing a Territorial Govern. 1787, as is contained in the following words ; viz. “There ment for each of the Territories of New Mexico and Cali. shall be neither Slavery nor involuntary servitude in the fornia, and excluding Slavery therefroin. said Territory, otherwise than in the punishment of
A call of the House was had, and the previous crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly con. victed, shall be and remain in force in the Territory of question ordered. Oregon.
Mr. W. P. Hall, of Mo., moved that the same This was defeated; Yeas, 21; Nays, 33. do lie on the table. Lost : Yeas, 80 ; Nays, 106.
The bill was then engrossed for a third read- The resolve then passed : Yeas, 108; Nays, ing ; Yeas, 33 ; Nays, 22; as follows:
80, viz. : Yeas—For Clayton's Compromise :
Yeas-All the Whigs from Free States, and all the DeMessrs. Atchison,
mocrats, but those noted as Nays below, including the folAtherton,
lowing, who had voted against the same principle at the
former session :
MAINE.-Asa W. H. Clapp, James S. Wiley-2.
New-YORK.-Frederick W. Lord–1.
INDIANA.--Charles W. Cathcart, Thomas J. Henley, John
L. Robinson, William W. Wick-4.
ILLINOIS. --Robert Smith-1.
Messrs. Clark and H. Williams, of Maine, Birdsall and
Maclay, of New York, Brodhead and Mann, of Pa., Pettit,
of Ind., Ficklin and McClelland, of Ill., who voted with
the South at the former session-now failed to vote.
Mr. Jackson, of N. Y, who then voted with the South,
had been succeeded by Mr. H. Greeley, who voted with the Foote,
Nays-All the Members voting from the Slave States,
with the following from the Free States : Nays-Against Clayton's bill:
New-YORK.-Henry C. Murphy-1. Messrs. Allen,
PENNSYLVANIA.-Charles Brown, Charles J. Ingersoll-2.
OH10.--William Kennon, jun., John K. Miller, William
ILLINOIS. - William A. Richardson-1.
Total Nays from Free States—8.
Mr. Robinson, of Ind., moved a reconsidera-
tion of this vote, which motion (Dec. 18), on Dix,
motion of Mr. Wentworth, of Ill., was laid on Dodge,
the table: Yeas, 105; Nays, 83. So the bill was engrossed, and immediately The Civil and Diplomatic Appropriation bill passed without a division.
having passed the House in the usual form, came July 28th.-- This bill reached the House, and up to the Senate, where it was debated several was taken up and read twice.
days. Mr. A. H. Stephens, of Ga., moved that the Feb. 21st.—Mr. Walker, of Wisc., moved an bill do lie on the table. Yeas and Nays orderd, amendment, extending all the laws of the United and the motion prevailed: Yeás, 112; Nays, States, so far as applicable, to the Territories 97.
acquired from Mexico. Yeas, all the Free State Whigs, with 8 Whigs Mr. Bell, of Tenn., moved to add further secfrom Slave States; 20 Democrats from Free tions organizing the State of California, to be States.
admitted into the Union on the 1st of October Nays-21 Democrats from Free States, with next. This was rejected : Yeas, 4 (Bell, Dodge 76 Democrats and Whigs from Slave States. of Iowa, Douglas, Davis); Nays, 39.
Mr. Pollock, of Pa., moved that this vote be Feb. 26th.-Mr. Dayton, of N. J., moved that reconsidered, and that the motion to reconsider the President be vested with power to provide do lie on the table; which prevailed: Yeas, a suitable temporary government for the Ter. 113; Nays, 96.
ritories. Rejected : Yeas, 8; Nays, 47.
The question recurred on Mr. Walker's amendment, which was carried : Yeas, 29; Nays, 27.
Aug. 6, 1846.--Mr. Douglas, from the ComThe bill being returned to the House, thus mittee on Territories, reported to the House a amended, this amendment was (March 2d) voted
bill organizing the Territory of Oregon.
Said bill was discussed in Committee of the down : Yeas, 101; Nays, 115-as follows:
Yeas-all' the members from the Slave Whole. and the following amendment agreed to : States, with the following from the Free States,
And neither Slavery, nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in said Territory, except for crime whereof
the party shall have been duly convicted. MAINE-Hezekiah Williams-1.
On coming out of Committee, this amend. NEW-YORK-Ausburn Birdsall-1. PENNSYLVANIA:-Samuel A. Bridges, Richard Brod Nays are all Southern, but Charles J. Ingersoll
ment was agreed to-Yeas, 108; Nays, 44. (Tho head, Charles Brown, Charles J. Ingersoll, Lewis C. Levin–5.
Orlando B. Ficklin, and possibly one or two OHIO— William Kennon, jr., William Sawyer-2. others; and all Democrats, but some half a
Illinois-Orlando B. Ficklin, John A. McClernand, dozen from the South, of whom Robert Toombs William A. Richardson-8. Iowa-Shepherd Lefier-1.
has since turned Democrat.) Stephen A. DougTotal, thirteen from Free States ; eighty-eight without further opposition, was read twice in
las did not vote. The bill passed the House from Slave States. (Only two from Slave States the Senate, and referred; and Mr. Westcott, of absent or silent.) Nays—all the Whigs from Free States, and all mittee on Territories; but the session closed
Florida, made a report thereon from the Comthe Democrats from Free States, except those without further action on the bill. named above. So the House refused to concur in this amend. On the 23d, Mr. Douglas again reported his
This Congress reassembled, Dec. 7th, 1846. ment, and the bill was returned to the Senate bill to provide a Territorial government for accordingly. The Senate resolved to insist on its amend. Jan. 11th, 1847, was discussed in Committee,
Oregon, which was read twice and committed : ment, and ask a conference, which was granted, as also on the 12th and 14th, when it was but resulted in nothing. Messrs. Atherton, of resolved, to close the debate. On the 15th, it N. H., Dickinson, of N. Y., and Berrien, of Ga.,
was taken out of Committee, when Gen. Burt, were managers on the part of the Senate, and of S. C., moved the following addition (already insisted on its amendment, organizing the Ter-moved, 'debated, and voted down in Committee) ritories without restriction to Slavery; to the clause forbidding Slavery in said TerriMessrs. Vinton, of Ohio, Nicoll, of N. Y., and
tory: Morehead, of Ky., were appointed on the part of the House. These, after a long sitting, re- thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north latitude, known
Inasmuch as the whole of said Territory lies north of ported their inability to agree, and were dis- as the line of the Missouri Compromise. charged.
The purpose of this is clear enough. It was The bill being now returned to the House, Mr. intended to recognize the Missouri line, not as McClernand, of Ill., moved that the House do limited to the Territories possessed by the United recede from its disagreement. Carried : Yeas, States at the time said line was established, 111; Nays, 106.
but as extending to all that has since been, or Mr. R. W. Thompson, of Ind., moved that the hereafter should be, acquired, so as to legalize House concur with the Senate, with an amend- Slavery in any Territory henceforth to be ment, which was a substitute, extending the acquired by us south of 36° 30'. laws of the United States over said Territories, Mr. Burt's amendment was negatived: Yeas, but leaving them unorganized, —
82; Nays, 114. And that, until the fourth day of July, eighteen hundred The vote was very nearly sectional; but the and fifty, unless Congress shall sooner provide for the following members from Free States voted in government of said Territories, the existing laws there the minority : of shall be retained and observed.
PENNSYLVANIA-Charles J. Ingersoll-1.
IOWA-C. 8. Hastings—1. In all, 5. son, it was carried : Yeas, 111; Nays, 105.
No member from a Slave State voted in (All the Southern members in the negative, the majority. The bill then passed : Yeas, 134; with Levin and a few of the Northern Demo Nays, 35, (all Southern). crats ; the residue, with all the Northern Whigs, Jan. 15.-The bill reached the Senate, and in the affirmative.)
was sent to the Judiciary Committee, consisting The House now proceeded to agree to the of Senate's amendment, as amended : Yeas, 110; Messrs. Ashley, Ark. Berrien, Ga. Westcott, Fla. Nays, 103, (the same as before; the friends of Breese, Ill. Dayton, N. J. the Senate's proposition voting against it, as Jan. 25.-Mr. Ashley reported the Oregon amended, and vice versa, on the understanding bill with amendments, which were ordered to that Mr. Thompson's amendment would exclude be printed. Slavery.)
29.-Said bill, on motion of Mr. Westcott, The bill as thus amended being returned to was recommitted to the Judiciary Committee. the Senate, it refused to agree to the House's Feb 10. Mr. Ashley again reported it with amendment, and receded from its own proposi. amendments. tion; 80 the bill was passed and the session March 3.--It was taken up as in Committee closed, with no provision for the government of of the Whole, when Mr. Evans, of Maine, moved the newly-acquired Territories.
that it be laid on the table. Defeated: Yeas,
19, (all Whigs but Calhoun, of S. C., and Yulee, Mr. Houston, of Delaware, voting in the majority of Florida); Nays, 26, (24 Dem., with Corwin as before: otherwise, members from the Free of Ohio, and Johnson of Louisiana.)
States in the affirmative; those from the Slave Mr. Westcott, of Fla., immediately moved that States in the negative.] the bill do lie on the table, which prevailed: Aug. 3.—This bill reached the Senate, when Yeas, 26; Nays, 18 (a mixed vote, evidently Mr. Badger, of N. C., moved its indefinite postgoverned by various motives); but the nega- ponement: negatived, 47 to 1, (Yulee). It was tives were all Democrats, but Corwin and John- then sent to the Committee on Territories. son aforesaid. This being the last day of the The Senate had had under consideration, session, it was evident that the bill, if opposed, from time to time through the Session, a bill as it was certain to be, could not get through, of its own, reported by Mr. Douglas, which was and it was, doubtless, in behalf of other press- finally referred to a select Committee -Mr. Claying business that many Senators voted to lay ton, of Delaware, Chairman-and by said comthis aside. It was, of course, dead for the ses- mittee reported some days before the reception sion.
of the House bill. It was then dropped. Dec. 6, 1847.-The XXXth Congress assem- Aug. 5.-Mr. Douglas reported the House bled; Robert C. Winthrop (Whig) of Mass. was bill, with amendments, which were printed. chosen Speaker of the House. President Polk, Aug. 10. — After some days' debate, the in his Annual Message, regretted that Oregon Senate proceeded to vote. Mr. Foote, of Miss., had not already been organized, and urged the moved that the billdo lie on the table. De. necessity of action on the subject.
feated : Yeas, 15 (Southern); Nays, 36. Feb. 9.--Mr. Caleb B. Smith, of Indiana, re- On the question of agreeing to this amendported to the House a bill to establish the terri- ment : torial government of Oregon; which, by a vote Inasmuch as the said Territory is north of thirty-six of two-thirds, was made a special order for deg. thirty inin., usually known as the [line of the] Mis.
souri Compromise. March 14th. It was postponed, however, to the 28th ; when it was taken up and discussed, It was rejected : Yeas, 2 (Bright and Douas on one or two subsequent days. May 29th, glas); Nays, 52. it was again made a special order next after the Mr. Douglas moved to amend the bill, by inAppropriation bills. The President that day serting after the word “enacted :" sent a special message, urging action on this That the line of thirty-six degrees and thirty subject. ` July 25th, it was taken up in earnest; promise line, as defined in the eighth section of an act
minutes of north latitude, known as the Missouri ComMr. Wentworth, of Illinois, moving that debate entitled, “ An Act to authorize the people of the Missouri on it in Committee cease at two o'clock this Territory to form a Constitutional and State Govern.
ment, and for the admission of such State into the Union. day.
on an equal footing with the original States, and to proMr. Geo. S. Houston, of Ala., endeavored to hibit Slavery in certain Territories
, approved March 6th, put this motion on the table. Defeated: Yeas 1820," be, and the same is hereby, declared to extend to 85; Nays 89, (nearly, but not fully, a sectional the Pacific Ocean; and the said eighth section, together division). Mr. Geo. W. Jones, of Tenn., moved and declared to be in full force and binding, for the a reconsideration, which was carried : Yeas, future organization of the Territories of the United 100; Nays, 88; and the resolution laid on the states in the same sense, and with the same understand.
ing with which it was originally adopted ; and table: Yeas, 96; Nays, 90. The bill continued to be discussed, and which was carried : Yeas, 38; Nays, 21; as fol
lows : finally (Aug. 1) was got out of Committee ; when Mr. C. B. Smith moved the Previous
Yeas For recognizing the Missouri line as Question thereon, which was ordered.
rightfully extending to the Pacific: Aug. 2.-The House came to a vote on an Messrs. Atchison,
Houston, amendment made in Committee, whereby the
Hunter, following provision of the original bill was Benton,
Johnson of Md., stricken out:
Johnson of La.,
Johnson of Ga.,
King, tled to enjoy all and singular, the rights, privileges, and
Lewis, advantages granted and secured to the people of the
Mangum, Territory of the United States northwest of the river
Mason, Ohio, by the articles of compact contained in the ordi
Davis of Miss.,
Metcalf, nance for the government of said Territory, passed the
Pearce, 18th day of July, seventeen hundred and eighty-seven;
Sebastian, and shall be subject to all the conditions, and restric
Spruance, tions, and probibitions in said articles of compact im
Sturgeon, posed upon the people of said territory, and
Foote of Miss.,
Turney, The House refused to agree to this amend
Underwood-33. ment: Yeas, 88; Nays, 114.
Nays—Against recognizing said line: The Members from the Free States who voted Messrs. Allen,
Dodge, with the South to strike out, were
Hale, OHIO.-William Kennon, jun., John K. Miller-2.
Hamlin, ILLINOIS.—Orlando B. Ficklin, John A. McClernand,
Miller, William A, Richardson-3.
Niles, INDIANA.-John L. Robinson, William W. Wick-2.
Davis of Mass.,
Phelps, Mr. John W. Houston o! Delaware voted in the ma.
Walker, The bill was then passed: Yeas, 128 ; Nays,
The bill was then engrossed for a third read. [This vote was almost completely sectional. ing: Yeas, 33 ; Nays, 22 ; (nearly the same as
before-Westcott of Florida added to the Resoloed, That, as the people in Territories have the Nays—and thus passed).
same inherent rights of self-government as the people in
the States, if in the exercise of such inherent rights the peoAug. 11.-The bill, thus amended, having ple in the 'newly-acquired Territories, by the Annexation been returned to the House, the amendment of Texas and the acquisition of California and New- Mexi. of Mr. Douglas, just recited, was rejected : Co, south of the parallel of 36 degrees and 30 minutes of
north latitude, extending to the Pacific Ocean, shall estabYeas, 82; Nays, 121.
lish Negro Slavery in the formation of their state governYeas from Free States :
ments, it shall be deemed no objection to their admission NEW YORK.-Ausburn Birdsall-1.
as a State or States into the Union, in accordance with PENNSYLVANIA.--Charles Brown, Charles J. Ingersoll-2. the Constitution of the United States. Total-3.
Jan. 21.-Gen. Taylor, in answer to a resoluOtherwise, from Slave States, all Yeas : from tion of inquiry, sent a message to the House, Free States, all Nays.
stating that he had urged the formation of Aug. 12.-The Senate, after voting down State Governments in California and Newvarious propositions to lay on the table, etc., Mexico. finally decided to recede from its amendments to Feb. 13, 1850.-Gen. Taylor communicated the Oregon bill, and pass it as it came from the to Congress the Coustitution (free) of the State House : Yeas, 29; Nays, 23 (all from Slave of California. States).
Jan. 29, 1850.—Mr. Henry Clay, of Kentucky, So the bill became a law, and Oregon a Terri-submitted to the Senate the following protory, under the original Jefferson or Dane Pro- positions, with others, which were made a special viso against Slavery.
order and printed : THE COMPROMISE OF 1850.
1. Resowed, That California, with suitable boun
daries, ought, upon her application, to be admitted as The XXXIst Congress commenced its first one of the States of this Union, without the imposition by Session at Washington, Dec. 3, 1849 ; but the Congress of any resıriction in respect to the exclusion or
introduction of Slavery within those boundaries. House was unable to organize--no person re- 2. Resolved, That as Slavery does not exist by law, ceiving a majority of all the votes for Speaker and is not likely to be introduced into any of the terri.-until the 22nd, when, the Plurality rule hav. tory acquired by the United States from the Republic of ing been adopted by a vote of 113 to 106, Mr. either for its introduction into, or exclusion from, any
Mexico, it is inexpedient for Congress to provide by law Howell Cobb, of Ga., was elected, having 102 part of the said Territory, and that appropriate terrivotes to 100 for Robert C. Winthrop of Mass., in all the said Territory, not assigned as within the bounand 20 scattering. It was thereupon resolved daries of the proposed State of California, without the
- Yeas, 149 ; Nays, 35—"That Howell Cobb be adoption of any restriction or condition on the subject of declared duly elected Speaker;" and on the Slavery. 24th President Zachary Taylor transmitted to in the District of Columbia, whilst that institution con
5. Resolred, That it is inexpedient to abolish Slavery both Houses his first Annual Message, in the tinues to exist in the State of Maryland, without the con. course of which he says :
sent of that State, without the consent of the people of No civil government having been provided by Con-owners of slaves within the District.
the District, and without just compensation to the gress for California, the people of that Territory, im
6. But Resolved, That it is expedient to prohibit, with. pelled by the necessities of their political condition, in the District, the slave-trade in slaves brought into it recently met in Convention, for the purpose of forming from States or places beyond the limits of the District, a Constitution and State Government; which, the latest either to be sold therein as merchandise, or to be advices give me reason to suppose, has been accom transported to other markets without the District of plished ; and it is believed they will shortly apply for the Columbia. admission of California into the Union, as a Sovereign 7. Resoloed, That more effectual provision ought to be State. Should such be the case, and should their consti- made by law, according to the requirement of the Con. tution be conformable to the requisitions of the Consti- stitution, for the restitution and delivery of persons bound tution of the United States, I recommend their applica. to service or labor in any State, who may escape into any tion to the favorable consideration of Congress.
other State or Territory in the Union. And, The people of New Mexico will also, it is believed,
8. Resolved, That Congress has no power to prohibit or at no very distant period, present themselves for admis- obstruct the trade in slaves between the slaveholding sion into the Union. Preparatory to the admission of States, but that the admission or exclusion of slaves California and New-Mexico, the people of each will have brought from one into another of them, depends excluinstituted for themselves a republican form of govern; sively upon their own particular laws. ment, laying its foundation in such principles, and organizing its power in such form, as to them shall seem Feb. 28.-Mr. John Bell, of Tennessee, submost likely to effect their safety and happiness.
By awaiting their action, all uneasiness may be mitted to the Senate the following proposiavoided and confidence and kind
feeling preserved. tions : With a view of maintaining the harmony and tranquillity so dear to all, we should abstain from the introduction of whole country demand that the existing and increasin?
Whereas, Considerations of the highest interest to the those exciting topics of a sectional character which have dissensions between the North and the South, on the hitherto produced painful apprehensions in the public mind; and I repeat the solemn warning of the first and subject of Slavery, should be speedily arrested, and that most illustrious of my predecessors, against furnishing the questions in controversy be adjusted
upon some basis any ground for characterizing parties by geographical which shall tend to give present quiet, repress sectional discriminations.
animosities, remove, as far as possible, the causes of
future discord, and secure the uninterrupted enjoyment Jan. 4.-Gen. Sam. Houston, of Texas, sub- of those benefits and advantages which the Union was mitted to the Senate the following proposition : intended to confer in equal measure upon all its mem
bers; Whereas, The Congress of the United States, possess- And, whereas, It is manifest, under present circuming only a delegated authority, have no power over the stances, that no adjustment can be effected of the points subject of Negro Slavery within the limits of the United of difference unhappily existing between the Northern States, either to prohibit or inter ere with it, in the States, and Southern sections of the Union, connected with the Territories, or District, where, by n:unicipal law, it now subject of Slavery, which shall secure to either section all exists, or to establish it in any state or Territory where that is contended for, and that mutual concessions upon it does not exist ; but, as an assurance and guaranty to questions of mere policy, not involving the violation of promote harmony, quiet apprehension and remove sec- any constitutional right or principle, must be the basis of tional prejudice, which by possibility inight impair or every project affording any assurance of a favorable acWeaken love and devotion to the Union in any part of ceptance; the country, it is hereby
And, whereas, The joint resolution for annexing
Texas to the United States, approved March 1, 1845, con- instructed to report a bill in conformity with the spirit tains the following condition and guaranty-that is to and principles of the foregoing resolutions. say: "New States of convenient size, not exceeding four
A debate of unusual duration, earnestness, in number, in addition to said State of Texas, and having sufficient population, may hereafter, by the consent and ability ensued, mainly on Mr. Clay's Resoof said State, be formed out of the territory thereof, lutions. They were regarded by uncompromiswhich shall be entitled to admission under the provioling champions, whether of Northern or of Southmay be formed out of that portion of said Territory lyingern views, but especially of the latter, as consouth of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north latitude, ceding substantially the matter in dispute to commonly known as the Missouri Compromise line, shall the other side. Thus, be admitted into the Union with or without Slavery, as the people of each State, asking admission may desire; January 29th.-Mr. Clay having read and and in such State or States as shall be formed out of briefly commented on his propositions, seriatim, said territory north of said Missouri Compromise line, he desired that they should be held over withSlavery, or involuntary servitude (except for crime), out debate, to give time for consideration, and shall be prohibited :" Therefore,
1. Resolved, That the obligation to comply with the made a special order for Monday or Tuesday condition and guaranty above recited in good faith be following. But this was not assented to. distinctly recognized, and that, in part compliance with
Mr. Foote, of Mississippi, spoke against them the same, as soon as the people of Texas shall, by an act of their legislature, signify their assent
by restricting the generally, saying: limits thereof, within the Territory lying east of the
If I understand the resolutions properly, they are obTrinity and south of the Red River, and when the people jectionable, as it seems to me, of the residue of the territory claimed by Texas adopt a
1. Because they only assert that it is not expedient constitution, republican in form, they be admitted into that Congress should abolish Slavery in the District of Union upon an equal footing in all respects with the ori. Columbia ; thus allowing the implication to arise that ginal States.
Congress has power to legislate on the subject of Slavery 2. Resolved, That if Texas shall agree to cede, the in the District, which may hereafter be exercised, if it United States will accept, a cession of all the unappro- should become expedient to do so; whereas, I hold that priated domain in all the Territory claimed by Texas, ly. Congress has, under the Constitution, no such power at ing west of the Colorado and extending north to the all, and that any attempt thus to legislate would be a forty-second parallel of north latitude, together with the jurisdiction and sovereignty of all the territory claimed gross fraud upon all the States of the Union.
2. The Resolutions of the honorable Senator assert by Texas, north of the thirty-fourth parallel of north that Slavery does not now exist by law in the Territories latitude, and to pay therefor a sum not exceeding
recently acquired from Mexico; whereas, I am of millions of dollars, to be applied in the first place to the opinion that the treaty with the Mexican republic carried extinguishment of any portion of the existing public the Constitution, with all its guaranties, to all the Terdebt of Texas, for the discharge of which the United ritory obtained by treaty, and secured the privilege to States are under any obligation, implied or otherwise, every Southern slaveholder to enter any part of it, atand the remainder as Texas shall require.
tended by his slave-property, and to enjoy the same 8. Resolved, That when the population of that portion therein, free from all molestation or hindrance
whatsoof the Territory claimed by Texas, lying south of the thirty-fourth parallel of north latitude and west of the
3. Whether Slavery is or is not likely to be introduced Colorado, shall be equal to the ratio of representation in into these Territories, or into any of them, is a proposiCongress, under the last preceding apportionment, ac
tion too uncertain, in my judgment, to be at present cording to the provisions of the Constitution, and the positively affirmed; and I am unwilling to make a people of such Territory shall, with the assent of the new
solemn legislative declaration on the point. Let the state contemplated in the precediag resolution, have future provide the appropriate solution of this inteadopted a State Constitution, republican in form, they resting question. be admitted into the Union as a State, upon an equal
4. Considering, as I have several times heretofore forfooting with the original States,
mally declared, the title of Texas to all the Territory Resolved, That all the Territory now claimed by Texas, embraced in her boundaries, as laid down in her law of lying north of the thirty-fourth parallel of north latitude, 1836, full, complete, and undeniable, I am unwilling to and which may be ceded to the United States by Texas, say anything, by resolution or otherwise, which may in be incorporated with the Territory of New Mexico, ex
the least degree draw that title into question, as I think cept such part thereof as lies east of the Rio Grande and is done in one of the resolutions of the honorable Senasouth of the thirty-fourth degree of north latitude, and tor from Kentucky. that the Territory so composed form a State, to be ad- 6. As to the abolition of the siave-trade in the Districi mitted into the Union when the inhabitants thereof shall of Columbia, I see no particular objection to it, provided adopt a State Constitution, republican in form, with the it is done in a delicate and judicious manner, and is not consent of Congress ; but in the mean time, and until a concession to the menaces and demands of factionists Congress shall give such consent, provision be made for and fanatics. If other questions can be adjusted, this the government of the inhabitants of said Territory suit
one will, perhaps, occasion but little difficulty. able to their condition, but without any restriction as to
7. The resolutions which provide for the restoration of Slavery.
fugitives from labor or service, and for the establishment 6. Resolved, That all the Territory, ceded to the of territorial governments, free from all restriction on United States, by the Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo, the subject of slavery, have my hearty approval. The lying west of said Territory of New Mexico, and east of last resolution-which asserts that Congress has no power the contemplated new State of California, for the present, to prohibit the trade in slaves from State to State-I constitute one Territory, and for which some form of equally approve. government suitable to the condition of the inhabitants
8. If all other questions connected with the subject of be provided, without any restriction as to Slavery. Slavery can be satisfactorily adjusted, I see no objec
6. Resolved, That the Constitution recently formed tion to admitting all California, above the line of 36 by the people of the western portion of California, and degrees 30 minutes, into the Union; provided another presented io Congress by the President, on the 13th day new Sluve State can be laid off within the present of February, 1850, be accepted, and that they be admit limits of Texas, so as to keep the present equiponderted into the Union as a State, upon an equal footing in ance between the Slave and Free States of the Union : all respects with the original States.
and provided further, all this is done by way of comResolved, That, in future, the formation of State Con- promise, and in order to save the Union, (as dear to stitutions, by the inhabitants of the Territories of the
me as to any man living.) United States, be regulated by law; and that no such Constitution be hereafter formed or adopted by the in.
Mr. Mason, of Virginia, after expressing habitants of any Territory belonging to the United his decp anxiety to go with him who States, without the consent and authority of Congress.
went furthest, but within the limits of strict 8. Resolved, That the inhabitants of any Territory of the United States, when they shall be authorized by Con- duty, in adjusting these unhappy differences," gress to form a state Constitution, shall have the sole added : and exclusive power to regulate and adjust all questions of internal State policy, of whatever nature they may be, but one proposition to which I can give a hearty assent,
Sir, so far as I have read these resolutions, there is controlled only by the restrictions expressly imposed by and that is the resolution which proposes to organize the Constitution of the United States.
Territorial governments at once in these Territories, 9. Resolved, That the Committee on Territories be without a declaration one way or the other as to their