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It has been asserted that Lord Edward resisted the dressing of his wound, and, when it was done, tore off the bandages. Be this as it may, he was going on so favourably, that his recovery was fully expected; but, having heard that Captain Ryan was dead, and feeling that there was no escape from the charge of murder, he declined rapidly in body and mind, and died on the 4th of June. His remains were privately interred at Werburgh's church. On the 27th of July, a Bill was brought forward for his attainder by the Attorney-General, and was passed, notwithstanding the opposing influence of the highest personages, even Royalty itself.
Even after this some of the most determined of the rebels continued to lurk about the mountains of Wicklow and Wexford; but they finally disappeared after Hacket was killed, and Holt surrendered for transportation.
The great event of the year 1798 was, however, the sudden and unexpected landing of a body of French troops, under General Humbert, at Killala, in the county of Mayo, on the 22nd of August. Their numbers did not exceed 1100 men; but their commander, making amends for its smallness by the decision and rapidity of its movements, advanced to Castlebar, and gained an advantage over General Lake.
It may be remarked here, that there are, even in the early portions of the correspondence, very interesting details respecting the proceedings of the rebel Irish emigrants in Paris, and which were obtained by the British government from secret sources. Such are the "secret note received by a very circuitous route," August 18th, 1798, and the lengthy correspondence of Messrs. Reinhard, De la Croix, D'Auvergne, &c., on the Irish emissaries and the threatened invasion. As early as on the 25th of July, 1798, Mr. Wickham imparted to Lord Castlereagh intelligence relative to French officers and soldiers, who were endeavouring to find their way over to Ireland, from Hamburgh in disguise, and on the 3rd of August, positive intelligence of a division of the French fleet being at sea avowedly destined for Ireland.
Dr. Macnevin's memorial, also in the "Correspondence," addressed to the French admiral relative to a landing in Ireland is peculiarly Irish. It is precisely what we have seen in our own times in the representations made by Duffy and other rebels to the unfortunate Smith O'Brien. There are in it, such passages as these: "If a landing were effected, the people would rise en masse." "There are not fewer than 100,000 United Irishmen ready to march." "Half of the British cavalry are Irish, and they would to a certainty join their countrymen if there were any appearance of success." "The militia of Ireland amounts to 18,000, or 20,000 men, the finest and best disciplined of the British army. might reckon upon them, if they had a rallying point." artillery is considerable, but it consists almost entirely of men who are devoted to us."
We "The Irish
It is difficult to say which of these statements carries the palm for extravagance. Possibly those in italics constitute the culminating points. It is not improbably from a knowledge purchased by a dearly-bought experience of the intense humbug of Irish rebellions, that the late executive government of Paris refused to act with the rebels of 1848.
What must have been the feelings of Humbert after such promises had been held out to his government, to find himself, after effecting a successful landing at Killala, joined by a mere handful of supporters? Here is the statement of John Jamieson, master of the Margaret, of Greenock, who was captured by the Concorde French frigate, and carried into Killala Bay.
John Jamieson, late Master of the Margaret, of Greenock, declares that on the 21st of last month he sailed from Sligo, in Ireland, for Pulakenny, to load a cargo of kelp for Liverpool. That, on the morning of the 22nd, he was captured by the French frigate Concorde, of 44 guns, in company with two other frigates of smaller force, full of troops: That all the troops were landed on the morning of that day: That he thinks the total number of troops landed did not exceed 1800 men: That his vessel was filled with military stores, and discharged the same at Killala on the morning of the 23rd: That the declarant was permitted to remain on board his vessel all the time that the French were at Killala, and was allowed to go on shore to the Bishop's house with a guard : That he was in the town of Killala on Wednesday last, the 29th ult., about two o'clock in the afternoon, by which time the enemy were joined by a great number of the country people, who were immediately clothed in uniform and furnished with arms and ammunition: That he heard that upwards of 3000 of the country people had joined the enemy at Killala. That he was informed by the Frenchmen that they had landed 60,000 stand of arms: That the French frigates left the bay early in the morning of the 24th, with a contrary wind: That, in the afternoon of the 28th ult., a 64-gun ship, three frigates, and a King's cutter, came into the bay and burnt the brig and some other vessels lying there, and remained there. Declares that, when at Killala, on Monday, the 28th ult., he heard that, on the day before, the enemy had defeated General Lake at Castlebar, and that he saw some of the King's troops brought in as prisoners to Killala.
And that of Captain Taylor, afterwards Sir Herbert Taylor, Private Secretary to the Lord-Lieutenant, dated September 7, 1798.
My dear Lord--The troops arrived here early this morning, after a most rapid march from French Park. Upon our arrival, we learned that the enemy had crossed the Shannon at Balintra; that, during his march, he had been joined by very few of the inhabitants; had been deserted by many, and had thrown over the bridges and into the bogs eight of his guns. He has taken the road to Ballimore, and appears to be directing his march upon Cavan. Lieutenant-General Lake is following the enemy, but unfortunately Major-General Moore, who was sent to support General Lake upon the other point, is now, by the turn which the enemy has taken, one day's march in his rear.
It is Lord Cornwallis's intention to keep to the southward of the enemy, for which purpose we march before daybreak to-morrow, towards Mochill, and his Excellency will use every possible exertion to come up with them. The brigade of Guards is ordered to Mullingar, where, and in the neighbourhood, it is hoped its presence will restore peace and good order.
It is well known that Lake had the good fortune to overtake and beat the enemy before Lord Cornwallis's column came up, and that the Irish troops, instead of turning rebels, as it had been so falsely represented they would, distinguished themselves very much, and these circumstances are made matters of congratulation by the Right Honourable Thomas Pelham, in a letter to Lord Castlereagh, dated September 13, 1798.
At the latter end of the same month, information was conveyed to the Irish secretary, that the Hoche had sailed from Brest with six frigates,* crowded with men and arms, for Ireland; their destination being this time Youghall and Kinsale. The Dutch were also understood to have embarked about 5000 troops in the Texel for the same destination. About the same period the French corvette and privateer Anacreon, Captain Blankman, fitted out by the armateurs of Dunkirk, arrived at the
Captain Countess, of the Ethalion, says, eight frigates.-See letter of Mr. Nepean to Lord Castlereagh, vol. i., p. 380.
little Isle of Rutland, on the north-west coast of Donegal; but getting information of the fate of their countrymen, they re-embarked in a very few hours, and sailed for Bergen, capturing on their way the Langton, of Lancaster, who were retaken the following day, and the Tom of Lancaster, which they took into Bergen. Those on board the Anacreon appear to have been almost solely Irishmen, at the head of whom were General Rae, General Napper Tandy, whose name alone would suffice to give him that notoriety for which he panted, two colonels, and a number of other officers, with about 170 or 180 men, including the crew of the corvette. This Napper Tandy had promised to the French Directory to raise a legion of 10,000 men for them in Ireland, and being importunate, they made him a general provisionally, and started him on board the Anacreon, with one Blackwell, a Jesuit, to look after him. A witness of the whole proceedings relates that this Blackwell had Tandy, like a child, in leading strings. The same witness adds
My opinion of Tandy is, that he is too weak to conduct any extensive plan, too wicked not be abhorred by all who know him-and too insignificant for the British Government to take any other notice of him than to despise him.
His weakness appears very prominent in the following circumstance: he has got a few laced coats, which he is eternally overhauling and gazing on. The day he landed, for a few hours, on the Isle of Arran, at Rutland, he intoxicated himself to such a degree as to be incapable of getting to the boat, and p-d on the shoulders of those who carried him to it; and one of the French officers says he paid him the like compliment in his boots; and, during the action with the Tom, armed merchantman, he squatted on the deck, with a pint bottle of brandy, which he emptied twice.
The only thing in which I saw him imitate the man was, that he had put two eight pound shot in his pockets to leap overboard, in case of striking to the English ship. This action happened near the Orkneys, after which he gave peremptory orders to the captain to bear away for Bergen, in Norway.
Another witness of the same expedition relates of his Irish companions as follows:
There is one circumstance that occurred to us during our passage from Dunkirk, in the Anacreon; and though in itself it may seem little, yet it is
* During his brief stay on the Isle of Arran, this contemptible wretch caused the following proclamation to be circulated
LIBERTY OR DEATH.
Northern Army of Avengers. GENERAL JAMES NAPPER TANDY TO HIS COUNTRYMEN. What do I hear? The British Government have dared to speak of concessions. Would you accept of them? Can you think of entering into a treaty with a British minister-a minister, too, who has left you at the mercy of an English soldiery, who laid your cities waste, and massaered inhumanly their best citizens; a minister, the bane of society and the scourge of mankind? Behold! Irishmen, behold in his hand the olive of peace! Beware! his other hand is concealed, armed with a poignard.
No, Irishmen, no! you shall not be the dupes of his base intrigues. Unable to subdue your courage, he attempts to seduce you; let his efforts be in vain. Horrid crimes have been perpetrated in your country: your friends have fallen a sacrifice to their devotion to your cause their shadows are around you, and call aloud for vengeance; it is your duty to avenge their death-it is your duty to strike from their blood-cemented thrones the murderers of your friends. Listen to no proposals, Irishmen! Wage a war of extermination against your oppressors, the war of liberty against tyranny, and liberty shall triumph.
J. N. TANDY.
in the strongest degree indicative of their principles. They were becalmed off the Orkneys, or, at least, were standing under easy sail: there were a few Dutch fishermen, and, as they came up with them, they regularly boarded them, and carried off their fish and every thing these poor creatures had. They dressed themselves in English uniforms (many of them speaking English), and thus, in disguise, robbed their friends and allies, and laid the blame on those who were innocent of it. I observed to some of the Irishmen on board, "If they used their friends so, what might their enemies expect? With one hand they gave the fraternal embrace, and robbed with the other."
The following more general and comprehensive secret information relative to the plans of the Irish insurgents, and to the objects of the French invasion, was obtained from the same sources :
While Buonaparte's expedition was going forward on the one hand, another scheme was carried on on the other, viz., an attack on England, made through Ireland by the Straits of Portpatrick and Drogheda. The Irishmen in Paris were formed into two parties; one attached itself to Napper Tandy, and the other to General Smith, viz., Theobald Wolfe Tone. The cause of sending so small an expedition from Rochefort was twofold; first, the Irish at Paris were afraid of the French; calculating, from their conduct in Holland and Switzerland, they thought they would be obliged to get rid of their new allies by force, which might cost them some trouble; another reason was, the Irish were so confident of their own strength, that they thought a few troops would do, and, on the part of the French, it was a sort of an essay whether they could land troops in Ireland through the English fleet; the English fleet being so much on their guard since General Hoche's expedition. The latter opinion gains additional credit from the sending of a large expedition immediately after it.
If Ireland should be attacked again, it was to be with from 20,000 to 30,000 men, but which, from the late havoc among their shipping and seamen, is next to an impossibility. The grand object of the French is, as they term it themselves, London. Delenda Carthago is their particular end; once in England, they think they would speedily indemnify themselves for all their expenses, and recruit their ruined finances. The navy of England, crossing them in all their monstrous views, is peculiarly obnoxious to them. One of their most particular reasons for attacking Ireland, with a view to sever it from England, is to strike a mortal blow at the navy of Great Britain, by cutting off, as they say, England's right arm-the seamen and provisions for the navy.
The British navy, in case they should be able to carry their horrid schemes into practice, is to be partly burnt and partly carried into the ports of France, thus clipping, as they say, for ever, the wings of the English Algerines. In case of the failure of the expeditions to Ireland and to the East Indies, and in case of a peace with the continental powers, an attack will be made on England. The French Directory will sacrifice 100,000 men in the attempt, and they are to live at free quarters, as Buonaparte did in Italy, with this difference, that very little restraint will be laid on the soldiery, either as to pillage or morality. The means for landing these men are the various kinds of shipping and small craft in the different ports of France and Holland, from the Texel to Havre de Grace and the time will be the long and stormy nights in the winter season.
On the 11th of October the principal French armament appeared off the coast of Donegal. It consisted of one ship of the line, the Hoche, and eight frigates, with four or five thousand troops. Pursued on the following day by the squadron of Sir John Borlase Warren, the Hoche and six of the frigates were taken. Another squadron of three frigates with 2000 troops, destined to co-operate with the former, anchored in the Bay of Killala, on the 27th of the same month; but on the appearance of some English ships sheered off precipitately for France and escaped pursuit.
On board the Hoche was found Theobald Wolfe Tone, who had distinguished himself by his zeal and talents in the society of the United
Irish. He was tried by a court-martial in Dublin, where he neither denied nor excused his crime, but rested his defence on being a citizen of France, and an officer in the service of that country. Being condemned, he requested the indulgence of being shot as a soldier, instead of being hanged as a felon, and on its refusal he cut his throat in prison, and died of his wound on the 19th of November.
This circumstance drew from Lord Castlereagh, in a letter to Mr. Wickham, by date November 16, 1798, some very judicious observations upon the expediency of military authorities trying by court-martial persons engaged in rebellion. The secretary points out, that whilst the rebels were in field in force, the necessity of punishment by military tribunals was so obvious as not to admit of a question; and that even afterwards, when the rebellion had degenerated into petty warfare, not less afflicting to the loyal inhabitants, the number of persons taken in the commission of the most shocking crimes was such as to render it impossible to trust to the usual administration of justice for the punishment of offenders. Such would indeed appear to been the feeling always entertained, and it is difficult to understand the sentimentality of the present day, which allows men to set all laws at open defiance, to appear in arms against the constituted authorities, to attempt to overthrow the Queen's government, and then shields them by all the technicalities of the law, and uselessly exposes the lives of twelve loyal men, by obliging them on their allegiance, to legislate in a case which ought to have been decided upon at the drumhead. It is always a gladdening sight to see the supremacy of the law established. It is still more gratifying, under such trying circumstances as have been brought about by the example of the continental revolutions, to see that the vigour of the constitution, as by law established and as by law explained, is unshaken throughout the three kingdoms. But still unsophisticated people will smile to hear of day after day being gravely spent in inquiring whether a man found in arms and surrounded with men-a man that headed a fight which lasted three quarters of an hour, against the constituted authorities, was guilty of treason! It is not only that by exchanging the jurisdiction, that from all times and in all countries has belonged to open rebellion, for that of courts of law; the state, as Lord Castlereagh justly remarked, is exposed to have its summary interference for its own prosecutions, deferred or thwarted in a manner most injurious to the public safety; but it is also, that beyond the identification of the prisoner and connecting him with his deeds, trial in such a case is a caricature of justice. We are by no means advocates of a vengeful justice, and still less so of (capital punishment, except in extreme cases. Open rebellion is one of these, and even where we pity and would spare the individual, we would make an example of the man, for the sake of the many dear lives that he would have brought into hazard-the widows and the orphans that he would have made the hearths that he would have left cold and cheerless-and the blood-stains that would have marked the track of his disloyal and treasonable footsteps.
The mischief sustained by the country from this unnatural contest is incalculable. The number of lives lost in it was computed at 30,000. Soon after the commencement of the insurrection, the sum of 100,000l. was voted by the Irish House of Commons, for the immediate relief of such refugees as should appear destitute of the means of subsistence.