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and who could trace it to a Kaffir kraal, to retake it, if necessary, by force,- caused to be hanged, in the presence of the chief and of his whole tribe, a Kaffir who had been convicted of robbery and murder within the colonial boundary,-and finally, expelled Macomo from his location at the Kat River, in the "Ceded Territory," as a punishment for his turbulent conduct, robberies, and encroachments on the colony.
On the death of Gaïka, which took place in 1829, the government of that portion of the Hahabee Kaffirs, now generally known as the "Gaïkas," devolved on his infant son, Sandilla; who,-in right of his mother Sutu, the "great wife" of Gaïka,- was entitled, according to Kaffir usage, to the chieftainship, in preference to his elder halfbrothers Macomo and Tyalie, who were, during Sandilla's minority, entrusted with the regency, and then openly assumed so hostile an appearance towards the colony, as to require the governor's presence on the Eastern frontier.
Sir Lowry Cole succeeded in allaying for a while the long-boding storm, which, however, shortly after his resignation (in 1833) burst forth with such unrestrained fury, as to call into immediate action all the energies and skill of his successor, Sir Benjamin d'Urban.
The foregoing outline of our transactions with the Kaffirs has brought us to the eve of their devastating irruption of 1834; and although the limits of this paper do not admit a relation of the many immediate causes which gave rise to that disastrous event, and to the consequent war of 1835;-of that system of traitrous tampering by a set of mischievous and meddling individuals, which so excited these barbarians, that thus urged to avenge imaginary wrongs, they, without warning or provocation, precipitated themselves in overwhelming masses on this illfated colony-of their subsequent well-merited chastisement and forfeiture of territory to the British crown ;-of the shameful intrigues and misrepresentations which set aside the just and advantageous treaty of Sir Benjamin d'Urban, removed that gallant veteran from his commandand by establishing the "Stockenstrom" system of policy, eventually led to the last ruinous war of 1846-7;-though want of space permits me not to enter into all these details, they are fully given in the undermentioned writings, to which the Reader is referred for ample information on the subject.
* See "Authentic Records of the Cape," compiled by Donald Moodie, Esq.; "Account of the Kaffir Irruption of 1834-5," by the Editor of the "Graham's Town Journal" (Godlonton) with the "Introductory Remarks" to the same; also Chase's Cape of Good Hope." But, above all, the reader is referred to Sir Benjamin d'Urban's admirable letter of justification to Lord Glenelg, together with Colonel, now Sir Harry, Smith's communication to the former both in the "Blue Book,” containing "Parliamentary Correspondence" for 1836-7, relative to the colony of the Cape of Good Hope. The letters above alluded to, are in themselves a history of the Kaffir war of 1835, together with that of its origin and causes ; clearly exposing at the same time the fallacious system then pursued with respect to the Cape of Good Hope, together with the intrigues and misrepresentations which led to such misgovernment ;-in short, these documents should be perused by every one interested in the affairs of this important colony-doubly important at a moment, when so likely to become the grand focus of emigration from the Mother Country.
THE ADVENTURES OF MADAME DU BARRI.
BY DUDLEY COSTELLO.
The Château de Luciennes-How Louis XV. passed his Time there-Madame du Barri's Costume-The Contrivances of Ledoux-The Baigneuse-Madame du Barri's Portraits-Louis the XV.'s Breakfasts-The Favourite's Freedom of Speech-The Parc aux Cerfs-" Mon cher France"-Fine Situation of Luciennes-The Library-The Blue Bed-room-Madame du Barri's Cook— Bouret's Surprise-The Visit to Chantilly-The New Year's Gift-The Parody on the Lord's Prayer-Dismissal of the Duke de Choiseul-Madame du Barri's Marriage Project-Voltaire's Compliments-The Abbé de Beauvais' SermonThe Governor of Luciennes-The Midnight Fêtes-The King's Illness and Death-The Lettre de Cachet-Madame du Barri's Seclusion-Her PardonHer Gratitude-Betrayal-Execution.
Of all the presents made by Louis XV. to Madame du Barri, the pavilion of Luciennes expresses most clearly what were the frivolous and ruinous tastes of the royal lover and his beautiful mistress; it is, moreover, the only one that has survived their guilty intimacy. Luciennes was built after the image of the fantasy which inspired it. The magnificent tenderness of Louis XIV. for Mademoiselle de la Vallière created Versailles; the sensual and faded passion of Louis XV. raised the pavilion of Luciennes; the former has the grandeur of a sentiment,-the latter, the petitesse of a caprice. If of the works constructed by Louis XIV. there only remained the Orangery and the Baths of Apollo, they would alone suffice to represent the calmness and majesty of his reign; were Luciennes the sole vestige of the follies of Louis XV., it would serve of itself to give a complete idea of the corrupt manners of his time. To describe Luciennes, is, therefore, to wipe off the dust from a picture which may serve hereafter to compose the history of the eighteenth century.
The Pavilion of Luciennes, or Louveciennes, was built by the famous architect Mansard for the Comte de Toulouse, the legitimised son of Louis XIV. and Madame de Montespan. At his death, his son, the Duke de Penthièvre, became the possessor of this charming domain, and resided there for a considerable period, but on the death of his son, the Prince de Lamballe, he took an aversion to the place, and offered to sell it to Louis XV., who bought it for his mistress, and she occupied it, not only during her career of fortune, but up to the time of her tragical death in 1793. It was at Luciennes that the Terrorists came to seek and conduct her to the Abbaye, and from thence to the scaffold.
The grounds which surround the château are of limited extent, and owing to their being shut in by the Seine on one side, and the high road from Marly to Versailles on the other, could never have been susceptible of much extension. From this want of space there resulted an inconvenience which the clever favourite knew how to turn to advantage. The inconvenience was this, that the king, when he came to pay his visits, ran the risk of being met within its narrow precincts by some courtier, or of being seen by some intrusive servant. It was necessary to avoid this at whatever cost, for without some degree of mystery there is no pleasure, a truth felt even by Louis XV. When Madame du Barri took
possession of Luciennes, she shut out the stables and all the offices beyond the walls, and suffered nothing to be seen by her royal lover but the château which she occupied and the celebrated pavilion in which she received him. But her system of isolation did not stop here. During the whole time that she remained alone, her only attendants were her negro Zamore and one femme de chambre. Not a valet or servant of any description was visible, and the solitude was as complete as the approaches to the seraglio at Constantinople; nor was it less dreaded. In the retreat of Luciennes nothing troubled the impenetrable calm or the egotistical happiness of the two lovers, who gave themselves up, without witnesses, to their unalloyed pleasure in this terrestrial paradise.
To give a perfect account of Luciennes it is necessary to describe the manner in which a single day was passed there by Louis XV.
On his arrival, the king went directly to the château, in which he only remained just long enough to adjust his dress, a little out of order, perhaps, from the exercise of travelling or hunting. This toilette took place in the large saloon, which is on a level with the terrace. Zamore dressed his hair, brushed and powdered him, and handed him easier shoes to walk in the park. In summer the king changed his coat; and after taking off his waistcoat and sword, put on a light linen jacket, and, if the heat was great, washed his face and hands in a rich silver-gilt ewer. This saloon, which was very lofty, was most luxuriously fitted up: : on the walls were four large pictures, by Vernet; and on the chimney-piece, of exquisite workmanship, were vases of Dresden china of the most delicate fabric, which, at a later period, when Luciennes was dismantled, found their way to London. On leaving this apartment, Louis XV. proceeded to the pavilion of his mistress, through an avenue of limes. These trees have disappeared, all except a small double alley, still very pretty, which enables the visitor to reconstruct the whole plan.
At the same moment that the king descended the steps of the château, Madame du Barri set out from the pavilion to meet him. Affairs were regulated after this fashion, though etiquette was not very rigorously observed at Luciennes, and this was but a fair compromise on either hand, Louis XV. being King of France, and Madame du Barri the handsomest woman in his dominions.
Summer and winter, Madame du Barri wore at Luciennes loose dresses of coloured cotton or white muslin, which permitted her arms and beautiful shoulders to be visible; her waist was confined by a cordelière, and her whole appearance may be imagined by recalling the most charming figure in one of Watteau's pictures. To this invariable costume, of which the king was passionately fond, she added a broadbrimmed straw hat, ornamented with corn-flowers and poppies, and in this guise she welcomed her royal guest to the pavilion, which gleamed like one of the marble temples of old Greece, through a grove of orange trees, taken from Marly to adorn Luciennes. These robberies committed upon Marly were of frequent occurrence; whatever was rare or beautiful there soon found its way to Luciennes, in spite of the remonstrances of the old gardeners, who rigidly adhered to the old régime.
The pavilion of Madame du Barri was in the form of a temple, of miniature size, and was perched on the brink of a miniature precipice, of which the steep declivity was covered with the softest turf, where its
terrors were not hidden by clumps of rhododendrons, laurels, laurestinas, and many flowering creepers. It was built in the course of three weeks by the architect Ledoux, who was at infinite pains to satisfy himself and the capricious beauty who had ordered its erection. Amongst the many plans which he conceived, one is still extant. He had an idea of raising in front of the pavilion a colossal arch of red brick, broken at one of its extremities. Through the opening of this arch would have been seen at a distance, and as it were at the end of a telescope, the pavilion of Luciennes, with its dazzling façade, its four columns of opal, and its airy gallery. This was a thought worthy of Italy, even with the architect's own embellishments, but the climate, little better than our own, and affected by its proximity to the Seine, afforded him little scope for indulging in long perspectives, and renouncing his arch, Ledoux contented himself with constructing the pavilion such as it remains to this day, with its graceful form and fluted Ionic columns, crowned by an open gallery.
It is a temple dedicated to any of the goddesses-Venus, Juno, or Diana-but not a regular dwelling, for it requires more than a complaisant imagination to see in it a habitable house, though it contained a dining-room, saloon, bed-room, kitchen, cellar, and even a garret. But these domestic denominations wrought no change in the character of the building, which is perfectly Greek within as well as without, and therefore very unfit for people of the present day. All the principal rooms are circular. This graceful form-very ill-adapted, however, for modern furniture, is the sole beauty which they have preserved after the lapse of half a century. There is no longer any gilding-no glasses, no pictures remain all have disappeared. The walls alone have remained, and owing to the pavilion having been almost always occupied, are in good preservation. Between the brilliant fetes of Madame du Barri and the dramatic soirées given by a contemporaneous member of the Chamber of Deputies, the last occupant of Luciennes, there intervened to its detriment only the dark days of the reign of terror, the place having always been the property of wealthy and distinguished people.
Right and left, on the outside of the pavilion, were two admirably executed marble statues of Allegrain; one represented a nymph leaving the bath, the other Diana surprised by Acteon. The poet Guichard wrote the following distich on this charming group :—
Sous ce marbre imposteur, toi que Diane attire,
The statue of the baigneuse attested no less strikingly the taste of Madame du Barri in the selection she made of the works of art which she placed at Luciennes before the eyes of the king. Hear how Diderot speaks of this nymph, writing of it 1767:-" Belle, belle, sublime figure, la plus parfaite figure de femme que les modernes aient faite. La critique la plus sévère est restée muette devant elle. Les belles épaules! qu'elles sont belles! comme ce dos est potelé! quelle forme de bras! quelles precieuses, quelles miraculeuses vérités de nature dans toutes ces parties! comment a-t-on imaginé ce pli au bras gauche? Ce sont des détails sans fin, mais si doux, qu'ils n'ôtent rien au tout, qu'ils n'attachent point au dépens de la masse; ils y sont et ils n'y sont pas; que de choses que l'on sent et qu'on ne peut pas rendre! J'ai dit que la sculpture, cette année, était pauvre. Je me suis trompé. Quand elle a produit une pareille figure, elle est riche. Cette statue est pour le roi." He should have said for
Madame du Barri. Diderot has said much more on the subject, which we have not space to transcribe here, but he has not gone beyond the truth, and posterity has confirmed his opinion. Many an English traveller has no doubt often stood before this statue, now in the sculpture gallery of the Louvre, lost in admiration of the lovely baigneuse, ignorant of whence it came, and, haply, imagining that he was gazing on one of the marvels of Greek art. The Louvre, however, ran the risk of losing this treasure only a few years back, for one of the heirs of Madame du Barri commenced a law-suit for its recovery, but it either failed or Madame de Neuville, the claimant, received an equivalent, for the statue is still in the gallery.
In the peristyle of the pavilion was a fine bas-relief by Lecomte of Bacchanalian children, of exquisite grace and harmonious proportions.
The apartments of this abode are few in number, but sufficiently spacious to allow of the display which was demanded by furniture richer than was ever seen at Trianon, at Marly, or even at Versailles. Before we speak of the interior, it is but just to say that Madame du Barri royally rewarded the architect. Ledoux was named inspector of the salt-works in Franche Comté, with a salary of 8000 livres. The vestibule, which served as a dining-room, was ornamented with pilasters of gray marble, and round it were ranged four galleries for the musicians of the countess on her gala days. In the same hall were several fine pictures by Greuze, who was commissioned to paint them by Madame du Barri-her fulllength portrait by Drouet, and her bust by Pajou. Madame du Barri must have been surpassingly lovely; we may believe so without difficulty, since her enemies-and no man or woman ever had so manywho have attacked her birth, the virtue of her mother, the reputation of her father, and of her husband, who have, in short, libelled her in every possible way in every public print in Europe-all, even the executioner, into whose hands she fell at last, unhesitatingly admitted her beauty. And how beautiful she must have been ! Those who have not seen her portrait, may fancy the original from the following description by Madame le Brun :
"Elle était d'une taille moyenne; des cheveux cendrés et bouclés comme ceux d'un enfant, descendaient le long de son visage d'une coupe admirable. Sa gorge était très forte, mais très belle, et ses yeux allongés, jamais ouverts, lui donnaient quelque chose d'enfantin."
The portrait of Madame du Barri by Drouet (or Drouais) is incontestably a chef-d'œuvre; Vandyke has few superior to it. It bears the stamp of a perfect likeness, and this merit is heightened by an incomparable sweetness of drawing and colouring. The eyes and mouth have all that sleepy air ascribed to them by Madame le Brun; the forehead is high and fair, and the graceful figure is enveloped in a species of polka, (or Rhingrave, as it was then called,) which partially opens in front, reveals a lace frill, and a snowy bosom. There was also a fine portrait of her by Madame le Brun herself, which is still at Luciennes.
Madame du Barri was not only beautiful, but her beauty was enduring. In 1781, at six-and-thirty years of age, she produced an impression on the Comte d'Allonville-never very favourably disposed towards herwhich he thus describes in his Memoirs :-"I saw Madame du Barri at the time of her going into Normandy to pay a visit to the Duke de Brissac. As I examined her appearance, I could not at all reconcile what I had read of her and what her countenance expressed; not the slightest