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sections of the Union, are waking up to the consideration are what we want, and the sooner we can procure them, of their vital interests in the still more general diffusion the sooner we shall be able to carry forward, with effi. of useful knowledge, and of the principles of sound mo- ciency and increased success, our system of Common rality and patriotism, among the great mass of the people. School Instruction, whether it remains in its present form, One after another, they are constituting, for the accom- or receives some partial modification. plishment of this object, distinct bodies of men, and ap Impressed with these truths, and believing that they will pointing the proper individual, as an official organ and be fully appreciated by the people at large, the Board of agent, to devote to these mighty concerns his entire time Commissioners of Conimon Schools are anxious to take and talents. Surely, then, Connecticut, whose very name such prompt and efficient measures for the fulfilment of calls up before the mind the whole subject of Common the trust reposed in them, as will meet the expectations of School instruction, and popular intelligence, will, at least, the friends of popular education throughout the State. In be anxious to know where she stands in this onward march carrying out these measures, they will have to rely, unof intellect;-whether she is fully keeping pace with it, der Providence, very much on their Secretary. His and whether she is sustaining the elevated rank, in this personal agency,--calling into exercise all the suggestions respect, which she has, for a long time past, felt herself which the Board may be able to impart, all the resources authorized to claim, and which has not been denied her. of his own talents and observation, and the counsels of
She ought to know, and that speedily, the actual condi- the wise and experienced among his fellow-citizens,-is tion of her Common Schools. It is due to her dignity and indispensable to success. It is proposed that lie shall visit, her welfare to know it. If her schools are in a sound and as far as practicable, all parts of the State, in order to acflourishing condition ;-if the systein she has established complish the great object which the Board have in view,is wisely adapted to this end ;-if, while all the world the ascertaining the actual condition of the schools, and of around her, (the States of our own country, and the very popular education, with its various and deeply interesting monarchies of Europe,) are claiming to make great and statistical details ;-an accurate inspection of the practical important improvements in the department of popular edu- working of the System as now in operation ;-and the cation, these improvements are not equal, or at any rate, devising of such modifications of this System, if found to superior, to her old and long used processes; then she be needed, as the great mays of the community, by comought to know it, that she may justify herself to the world paring their opinions and views, may deem expedient to and to her own citizens, for adhering to these processes, be recommended for the future action of the Legisla. and that she may push them forward with still greater perti- ture. County conventions will also be held, at suitable nacity and vigor. But she cannot know this, without a !īmes and places, to aid in carrying forward this great faithful inquiry into the state of the schools. No such work; at which the Secretary, and some one, or inore inquiry has, as yet, been thoroughly and satisfactorily members of the Board will be present. Efforts should be made. There has been no efficient instrumentality for ma- made in all the towns to send delegates to these convenking it. The investigations at various times attempted, tions. School Committees and Visiters should attend; have been very incomplete. And no organization other teachers; the clergy of all denominations ; individuals in than such an one as will result in having an appropriate public stations, and the friends of education generally. individual devoted to this inquiry, acting under the di Circulars from the Secretary of the Board, and notices rection of the State, and, as is now our case, by the late in the public prints, will give timely information of the act of the Legislature, under a Board of Education, will holding of the conventions. These circulars will contain erer effect this important object.
a series of inquiries, with regard to facts and views on the Put if, on the other hand, the result of such an in- subject of popular education; the answers to which, and quiry should be, that, with all the acknowledged and nu- the discussions elicited by them, will contribute greatly merous benefits resulting from it, our system of Common to the stock of materials from which, before the next sesScbools is susceptible of some modifications and improve- sion of the Legislature, the Board expect to prepare the ments,—that there are some evils in its practical opera- Report which they are required to make to that body. tions to be remedied,--and that now is the propitious By these conventions it is hoped, also, that a vigorous imtime to attend to the subject, no good citizen, we think, pulse will be given to the cause of Common School inwill regret that such an inquiry has been made. We struction throughout the State; and that its friends, by shall , then, be sure of arriving at the knowledge of the this interchange of sentiments, and acquaintance with
This will lead to harmony of opinion, each other, will form new bonds of sympathy and chanwhatever may be the issue of the investigation. If a few nels of united effort in promoting its success. It will be have decried our schools too much, it will show them their good and pleasant for the citizens of one republic thus to error; and if some have regarded our system as a per- come together for an object so dear to them all; to feel fect one, it may lead them to see that every thing that is conscious of the equality of freemen; to reciprocate the human has its defects, and that it is the part of true wis- most kindly feelings; to find that they have a common indom, as well in States as in individuals, to ascertain their terest; to provide for the improvement in knowledge, in defects, and apply the safe and judicious remedies. Facts usefulness, and in piety, of the thousands of children
facts in the case.
and youth who are soon to take the places of their fathers; als in official stations; the conductors of the public jourto forget the distinctions of party and of sect; and to in- nals, and the contributors to their columns; the friends voke the blessing of the Almighty upon their deliberations of education generally; the children and youth with their and doings.
improving minds and morals; the females with their gentle
William W. ELLSWORTH, ANDREW T. JUDSON,
CHARLES W. ROCKWELL, an organ of communication between the Board and their
LELAND HOWARD, Secretary, and the public. It will aim to give informa
HENRY BARNARD, 2ND.,
HAWLEY OLMSTED, tion of what is doing in other States, and other countries,
WILLIAM P. BurralL. with regard to popular education. It will hope to assist in forming, encouraging, and bringing forward good teachers. It will contain the laws of the State in reference to This first number of the Journal is sent to individuals in difCommon Schools. It will assist School Committees and ferent parts of the State, who, it was thought, would feel an inVisiters in the discharge of their duties.
It will be one
terest in the object that it is designed to promote, and give
their aid to extend its circulation. Among these, the Board means of ascertaining the real deficiencies that may exist in the Schools, and of suggesting the suitable remedies. lying with confidence on the members of the Legislature of
of Commissioners have considered themselves justified in reIt will endeavor to excite and keep alive a spirit of efficient 1837, because the Journal contains the results of inquiries and prudent action on the subject of popular education, which that Legislature instituted, respecting the condition of and to introduce upon its pages, from time to time, such the Common Schools; on the members of the last Legislature, other kindred topics as will subserve the promotion of this because this measure, and others to be pursued, are but the important end.
carrying out of their intentions on the subject of popular eduPeculiarities of local convenience and interest, render cation; on persons in official stations ; on the clergy of the vasuch periodicals desirable in each State. They already rious religious denominations ; on teachers generally, who
will receive it, so far as their names and places of residence exist in different States, where they have a wide circu
can be ascertained; and on the postmasters of the different lation. The one in Ohio is published by the authority of towns throughout the State, who will, also, receive subscripthe Legislature. Our own State will, it is hoped, sustain tion-papers, which it is earnestly hoped they will find it conby a general and generous support, this important auxilia- venient to present to the friends of the cause, and transmit to ry to all the other efforts which may be made for the the Secretary of the Board. If those of our fellow-citizens, benefit of its Common Schools. The teachers, and the and all others who take an interest in promoting the prosperischools themselves, will reap their full share of its advan- ty of our schools, will but come forward to sustain the im
pulse which seems now most happily to be given to some tages. In concluding this address, the undersigned deem it judicious and efficient movements on this subject
, that imunnecessary to enlarge on the importance of popular edu- pulse will not be lost. It will lead to action-to that kind of
action which will receive permanency and success, under cation, and of elevating our Common Schools to the highest the blessing of Providence, from the plain, practical, common degree of excellence of which they are susceptible. Were sense of New England. they to begin on this theme, they know not where they would end. Its scope is commensurate with all that we THE CONNECTICUT COMMON SCHOOL JOURNAL hold dear in time andin eternity. It must be, that the free
WILL BE PUBLISHED EVERY MONTH, men of a State like this, understand and appreciate its
AT THE PRICE OF FIFTY CENTS A YEAR, importance. It must be, that, as soon as the opportunity Payable at the end of the first six months for the first year, and in ad
vance for subsequent years. is afforded them, they will show that they do, by sus
Should the public patronage warrant it, it will be published semitaining and cheering those whom they themselves have ap- monthly, and with a larger number of pages, at the same price.
Its object is to ascertain the condition, increase the interest, and propointed to be their instruments in conducting such a glori
mote the usefulness of the Common Schools of Connecticut. ous work to its completion.
Persons wishing to subscribe, can forward their names and remittan
ces, to the member of the Board of Commissioners for their County, The Board, then, looking first to Almighty God, and or to the Secretary of the Board at Hartford, or to the postmaster of inviting their fellow-citizens to do the same, for his the town in which they reside.
An eleventh number will be forwarded, if desired, to the person who guidance and blessing in the further prosecution of their shall procure ten subscribers, and, in all cases, where the friends of labors, feel assured that the public will afford them all the cause can make remittances in advance, it will tend much to proneeded encouragement and aid. Let parents and teachers; School Committees and Visitors; the clergy, and individu
Case, Tiffany & Co., Printers,
PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF COMMON SCHOOLS.
HARTFORD, SEPTEMBER 1, 1838.
CONSIDERATIONS CONNECTED WITH PUBLIC EDUCA INQUIRIES BY THE SECRETARY OF THE BOARD OF
TION IN CONNECTICUT.
Many serious and interesting reflections naturally arise in The following inquiries will be appended to a circular of the our minds, when we take a pen and hegio to write for the JourSecretary of the Board, which it is bis intention to address val now before us. How different the considerations which through ihe next No. of the Journal to school teachers and visi- are suggested, from those which might naturally arise if anothlors, the clergy of all denominations, individuals in public sta- er subject, on a different object were presented ! How different, tions, and all persons who desire to promote the more extensive indeed if these were the same, and only the scene were chanusefulness of vur common schools, inviting their attendance ged! at a convention which he proposes to hold in the several Common Schools are in themselves a species of institutions counties of the state, as soon as he is enabled from further con- of a most important character; and after the numerous illussultation 10 designate the most suitable time and place for trations of their usefulness which we have witnessed from our each. Written answers to all or any of these inquiries, are childhood, to find them now ranked by the most intelligent respectfully requested, and in as particular a manner as the con- men of all enlightened countries among the chief blessings of venience of the writer will allow. If they cannot be brought, a nation, is enough to make us dwell upon the name with pethey may be forwarded to the convention, addressed to the culiar emphasis. But when associated with New-England, Secretary. They are inserted bere, in order to bring them common schools awaken peculiar feelings; and hence it is earlier before such persons as are practically acquainted with that we all wish success, and with enthusiasm, too, to the first the workings of our present school system, or who have be- step taken for the improvement of schools in this ancient dostowed any reflection upon these or kindred topics. They are minion of education. not intended to exclude the consideration of other subjects. We have been so familiar with common schools all our lives, On the other hand, written or oral communication, on any other that we naturally underrate their value, and their effects. Who!opic which may be deemed important by anyfriends of the cause, ever would learn the full worth of a plough, should go to Italy, is earnestly, solicited, so that from a comparison and inter- or some other degraded land where it is unknown, and use change of views and opinions, proper remedies for defects, and such implements as he finds in the bands of the people. Let efficient and acceptable plans for improvements in our system, him observe, in the same wretched lands, the state to which may be proposed for the future action of the Legislature. hereditary ignorance has reduced them, and, if he pleases, at
1. Does ihe present organization of your Board of school tempt to educate his children there, and he will begin to realvisiters secure a thorough examination of teachers, or an ade-ize what coinmon schools are. quate supervision of the schools during each season of schooling? Our common schools had their origin in the Parochial Schools
2. Is there any system of classification adopted in your of Europe which were established by the Reformers. The obschool society or district in order to put the younger children ject of both was the security of political and religious liberty, under a separate teacher or teachers ?
which were and must be inseparable. Our ancestors advan3. Has your school society availed itself of the provisions ced beyond the example of their European models, but they of the law so far as "10 insiitute a school of higher order for acted on their principles. Like later generations in the Prothe common benefit of the society ?" and if not, do you contestant parts of Europe, we have relied too much on the enersider it practicable and advisable so to do?
gy of the institutions of our ancestors, and neglected their ex4. Is there any voluntary association on the part of parents amples in actively supporting them.' In Prussia the schools to visit the schools where their children are educated ? and if had decayed like our own. The Prussians have revived the not, could not such associations be organized for the future? spirit of iheir fathers, and so may we.
5. Is any inconvenience or discomfort suffered from the location and construction of school houses ? 6. Are your schools furnished with apparatus for instruction
FEMALE TEACHERS OF COMMON SCHOOLS. such as maps, globes, blackboards, &c.
It is a question in which the friends of popular education 7. Is any provision made for society or district libraries, for must feel a deep interest, by what means well qualified teachthe use of teachers or scholars ?
ers are to be furnished in any susficient numbers, to meet the 8. Are there any peculiar excellencies in the mode of gov- increasing demand for them which exists in all parts of our ernment, or process of instruction in your schools, which it country. We may wake up the spirit of improvement in the would be desirable to have generally iniroduced ?
department of common school instruction, and do every thing 9. How many select schools are there in your school socie- else that is needed to promote its prosperity, but if an adequate ty? and what do you think has been their' influence on the supply of good teachers is wanting, there will be a proportionpublic schools ?
ate failure in the efforts that are made. A defective system of 10. What measures are taken to secure the punctual attend- popular education, with many imperfections and inconvenienance of the children at school ?
cies in itspractical movements, may nevertheless do an incalcula11. To what extent have you employed female teachers, and ble amount of good, wherever it is carried into effect by comwith what success?
petent and skilful teachers. While, on the other hand, the 12. Do you experience any inconvenience from the multi-best system and the most ample provision of all the other plication of districts ?
necessary means for conducting its operations, will accomplish 13. In what manner has your Town appropriated tlie interest but little if it is not carried on by those who are thoroughly of the " Town deposite Fund”? If for the promotion of edu- qualified for their work. cation in the common schools, on what principle is it distribu In these remarks, the writer would be far from discouraging ted?
the noble exertions which are making in our own and other 14. Is it desirable to increase the number of studies ? states, to promote the cause of popular education. May they
15. How many of your teachers follow teaching as a regular go forward with increasing strengih, and reach every part of profession?
this great field of enterprise, on the success of which the des16. In what manner is moral instruction communicated in linies of our country, under God, depend. But while the other your school?
parts of the enterprize are carried on with vigor, it ought ever io be remembered that nothing will end so much and so rapidly
to consummate it, as to furnish a larger supply of first rate present ihemselves, inspectors to examine them, nor even pa-
every direction. Let tliose, then, who are to be benefitted by How shall we get good teachers for our district schools, and good schools, take up in earnest the improvement of their own. enough of them? While we should encourage our young men
The virtuous babits and intelligence of a people make land io enter upon this patriotic, and I bad almost said, missionary valuable more than its natural strength of soil. "Where there field of duiy, and present much bigher inducements to engage is an industrious, moral and educated population, there is a dothem to do so, I believe every one must admit, that there is mand for the fruits of the earth, a supply of hands to produce but little hope of attaining the full supply, or any thing like it, them, and the laws made to protect property are powerful, befrom that sex. This will
always be difficult
, so long as there cause they are regarded. A good school may do more than are so many other avendes open in our country to the accumu some persons may suppose, to ease the value of land, and lation of property, and the aliaining of distinction. We must, of other kinds of property also. The schools of Connecticut; I an persuaded, look more to the other sex for aid in this which have had so great an influence in promoting intelligence emergency, and do all in our power to bring forward young and steady habits among the people, have doubtless increased women of the necessary qualifications to be engaged in the the value of real estate within its limits many millions. business of common school mstruction. The writer hopes to We would by no means wish to degrade education, by meabe able to furnish some further thoughts on this interesting topic suring its worth only by a standard of pecuniary profit : but, in in the subsequent numbers of the Journal. T.H. G. enumerating iis advantages, we ought not to overlook, or un
derrate its natural tendency to increase the supply of human NEWSPAPERS
conveniences and comforts, and to secure us in the enjoyment
of them. One of the first evidences of improvemenis in education in If the improvement of our schools were seen to be as necesthose states which have begun to do something on this subject sary, to us as the improvement of our neglected roads, all would in earnest, has been shown by the newspapers. Editors ought combine, and the work would be done. to be able to appreciate its value, if any class of citizens can; and the diffusion of useful knowledge, and the support of mor
LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. als and religious principle being the legitimate objects of their profession, surely they may be confidently relied on for co
Common Schools have received a great and salutary imoperation and support
pulse in some places, through the influence of lyceums, and We would invite the editors of Connecticut papers, there-, literary associations of a kindred character. fore, to yield us that aid which they easily may, by noticing
In Worcester, Massachusetts, a few years since, a lyceum our enterprize, copying sach of our columns as they may ap- friends of the young, and formed a committee appointed to vis
was formed, comprising a few intelligent men, who were active opinions raay differ. We will endeavour to do justice to the it the district schools, and devise means for their improvement. noble subject to which our pages are devoted, at least in courte- They proceeded to their task, with great zeal and equal judgsy of style, if we have not all the ability we might desire.
ment. They first made a call at each school, and by their kind No reflecting man can doubt, that we may easily obtain a that they had at least a few sincere and disinterested friends.
manners, and conciliatory conversation, made the teachers feel homo and abroad, which will be more acceptable to the intelli- | They soon after proposed occasional meetings for the teachgent people of Connecticut, than a large part of the matterlers, which produced excellent and speedy results. At one of poured out from day to day by the presses of our commercial the earliest of them, a sketch was given of the plan on which eapitals . Many of the papers in the United States are prepar: lution was passed, to devote the next meetings to hearing re
a good school was conducted in some other place; and a resotainly way be presumed, that whatever papers are adapted to ports from ieachers, of the plans adopted by themselves. the elevated intelligence, marality and taste of Connecticut, proved, that the schools in all the districts were speedily im
The following meetings were interesting; and the reports will be liberally supported by the people.
proved, and many of them remodelled, in conformity with the
hints thrown out as above mentioned. THE CARE OF EDUCATION IS THE PEOPLES OWN
Who cannot see wisdom in devising measures like these ? · WORK.
Information of improved methods was furnished, all were pre It is highly important that the inhabitants of all our states the amicable
manner in which they had been approached, and
disposed to make experiments with them, in consequence of should strongly feel this great truth. Until they feel it, nothing effectual can possibly be done to diffuse that instruction changes without delay:
for they were all to report the actual
a motive was offered to induce the teachers to make useful which is so greatly neeiled.
Let us imagine for a moment that well devised laws had condition of their schools, and must report old plans or new been passed by all the legislatures; but that the people remain The case was urgent, and indolence and procrastinaed indifferent and inactive. Such laws could not be well ex
tion were overcome. ecuted, and must remain without effect in the statute books. of Worcester an eminence which they retain, it is believed, to
But various other changes were made, which gave the schools Even if districts were organized, school houses constructed and the present time. Through the influence of the Lyceum, or furnished with bouks, the laws could not compel teachers to
some of its members, and the obvious improvement of the
schools, persons of wealth were persuaded to become the liberal so ill calculated to keep them interested, that probably many patrons of education, and soon learned that they benefitted teachers of such schools may think the difficulties above spoken iheir own estates and prospects by money so well laid out. of can never be obviated. When it is possible, the small chil
But, without extending remarks on this subject, beyond the dren may be placed in a separate room, with great advantage, limits of our columns, we would earnestly recommend to ly under the care of a female: but in many districts this is not ceums, (of which there are many in the state,) to see 10 the easily done. schools: to appoint committees to attend to ihem, to invite It happens, however, that some schools in different places teachers to join them, and to admit deserving youth to their have been so improved, both in arrangements and methods of lectures and libraries.
teaching, that these evils have been almost entirely removed.
We will give a brief account of one such school, hoping that YOUNG TEACHERS
some teachers will try experiments for their own benefit and
that of their pupils. of the most promising character are all marked by one trait: they eagerly seek for instruction in their profession. The task try village, complained that the little children, (many of whom
A few monihs ago the teacher of a district school, in a counof teaching is one that requires not only a passable acquaint were sent to his school to be kept out of the way,) greatly in. ance with ihe branches of knowledge which are 10 be taught; terrupted his discipline and instructions. To the eye of a visitbut a thorough and a ready familiarity with them.
er they indeed presented a painful spectacle, being left almost This is not all. A teacher must know another branch, viz. entirely to themselves, with pothing to do which they could that of instruction. He should well know bow to convey bis understand, and seated on benches so high, that they feared a knowledge to his pupils. Every body does not see the differ- fall, and not unfrequently got one. The weakest were often ence between learning and teaching; and it is an unfortunate crowded, or otherwise oppressed and irritated, by the strongest; thing, that so many people suppose an instructor needs nothing and their complaints and cries, sometimes mised with laughto fit him well for his office, but 10 be able to read, write, ter, confused the master, diverled the attention of the other chilcipher, and bear an examination in grammar, geography, &c. dren, and displeased tbe specialor, When a sensible young man begins to keep a school, he
A few weeks afterwards, at another call, the visiter found begins to feel that he has undertaken a business with which he three or four low benches placed in one corner of the room, and is not acquainted. If a young teacher does not feel this, it all the small children seated on them, some with slates and must be owing to his ignorance or self-conceit. He is incom- pencils. They were attentive, cheerful and silent Their litpetent, and he must see his incompetency if he be not blind.
ile feet rested on the floor, they could lead back when weary, Now young teachers inay, be aided in their business in four and every fifteen or twenty minutes the teacher, or one of his ways: ist, by publications devoted to education : 2d, by occa- most trustworthy and capable elder pupils, gave words of com, sional instruction given by persons of experience; 34, By prac-mand, or some signal, and they rose, clapped their hands, faced tical experiments under the direction of well qualified direct- to ine right and left, and made various motions in imitation of ors; 4th, By Teachers' Seminaries.
him, Then they would sing some little hymn or song they There are several publications which may be recommended had learnt; and 'afıerwards repeat the addition or muliiplica for the use of our teachers: The Annals of Education, publish- tion table all together, or hear a story read about the cow, lion, ed in Boston, a monthly magazine, price $2 per year; 20. The eagle, or some other object, while a picture of it was held up Ameriean Common School Assistant, published in New-York before them. monthly, price 50 cents; and, 3d, the papers printed by the The teacher said that he had derived indescribable relief Boards and Superintendents of Education in Ohio, Massachu from this change in his school; and that, after the few first days, setts, and Connecticut. It is of great importance that every in the other scholars were not disturbed by the exercises. structor should read some publication of ihis kind: for they all contain information which he needs, and is not likely to obtain from any other source. The reading of a single page, or even
FRENCH JOURNALS OP EDUCATION, a single line, has probably given many a teacher some impor There are three periodical publications in Paris, which contapt knowledge, such as he could use with advantage in his tain mueh information wortby of being known in the United school, and which he might never have obtained if left to him- States. self. It ought therefore to be regarded as one of the first ob Ist. The General Journal of Public Instruction and of the jects, to have one or more publications devoted to education Scientific and Literary Courses
. It contains eight large pages, regularly received in every school district, and read at least by and appears twice a week, under the direction of the Minister the teachers.
of Public Instruction, Mr. Salvandy; and gives information of Beside journals of Education, a number of books may be the progress of all the branches of education under his charge, warmly recommeņded for the use of instructors, which we which are more extensive and comprehensive than is general have not room to describe, nor even to name at present. We ly supposed. would here remark, however, that a few dollars given by any 2d. The General Manual of Primary Instruction, a monthly friends of education, to purchase some of the best works, for pamphlet of about fifty pages
, uuder the same high official díuse in bis district, would do great good.
rection, devoted 10 the lower classes of schools. In the next number of this journal, the reader may expect to These two publications have done much for the improvement find some remarks on the advantages and means of procuring of education, being extensively circulated, especially among occasional instruction for teachers, from friends of education. teachers, inspectors
, committees, &c. They give the laws and
official acts relating to education, accounts of public examinaHINTS CONCERNING SMALL CHILDREN.
tions of schools, teachers' seminaries, (called Normal Schools,)
approved methods of instruction, notices of books for libraries Some of the greatest difficulties which many teachers have and schools, anecdotes of faithful teachers, with sketches of to meet, arise from the youngest children. It is often pleasant education in foreign countries. to see their eagerness to go to school with their brothers and
The “Scientific and Literary Courses" alluded to, are consisters; and their smiles sometimes add cheerfulness to the ducted by the Academies of Science, Literature, &c., but ber place, without interrupting business: but more frequently they long to the great system of Public Education, which was cause disturbance, and baffle the teacher in all his efforts to founded a few years ago in France, with a general resemblance keep the others attentive and orderly. Many teachers suffer small children to attend their schools, great points which are kept in view are, to render education as
to that previously adopted in the state of New-York. The out of respect to their parents, or for some other reason, while common and as thorough as possible. The general plan is a they feel that they get ljutle good and do much harm. Intelli- noble one, and is carried on with a zeal and activity truly laugent persons know, too, that the trouble they give is not gene-dable. The minister of public instruction has ever at bis comrally intentional, but arises out of some natural cause: such as mand the services or counsel of many of the scientific and liter inconvenient seals, want of change, of exercise or of appropri-rary men of Paris, with many other facilities offered by the arale occupation.
Now most district schools are so ill provided for the comfort is is the libraries, &c., the dignity of his office, and the money of young ehildren, and most of them are conducted on a system