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But there are obstacles in his way from which we in Ameri

SCHOOL COMMITTEES AND VISITERS. ci are free; and while we admire the better thatures of Euro

There are few ways in which a person of almost any propean education, we may derive new encouragement in our la- session or situation in life whatever, can do more

re-good with bors at home, as well by appreciating our own superior advan

so small an expense of time and labor, as by performing the tages, as by contemplating the zeal, and perhaps by adopting duty of visiting the district schools around him.

Every call some of the methods displayed in other countries. With all

at the school house, made by a person who feels an interest in the advantages above enumerated, then, there are great oppo- the children and their teacher

, is sure to excite an interest sing influences in the way of common education in France.

among them all. Some of these are more extensive and powerful than would be

Schools are generally so much neglected by parents, and easily believed.

even by the professed advocates of education, that both teachFirst, there is a state of hereditary ignorance pervading a ers and children are tempted to regard them as of very little great part of the nation, from which it is extremely difficult to value. Every depariment of business receives attention; conarouse them; and there is a great scarcity of materials among versation daily turps on various matters, many of which are the people of which to form teachers, as well as school officers, even while many of the latter are paid for their services. The of trifling iniport; but the school and its interests are almost

universally treated with neglect. Children indeed may be aslate minister of instruction, Mr. Guizot, believed that he ac

sured, over and over again, that it is of great importance to complished as much as was possible with the present genera- them to attend school, and to be punctual, studious and obedi: tion, although he found rooin to deplore the small progress be was able to make in the improvements he altempied. In the ent; but they may

sometimes suspect that their elders regard it majority of the nation, are not reconcilable with a thorough clear and manly conception of the real dignity and importance next place, the religious opinions of the governinent, and the rather as a convenient prison in which they may be kepi out of

The teacher, too, unless strongly fortified with a plan of improvement. Their principles and prejudices are at of his daily task, (as many teachers happily are,) will be liable war with the true foundation of such a system. The awful ex: to the danger of considering it, as the public too often do, perience of France during the Revolution, has convinced the merely as a thankless, and ill rewarded branch of business, government that infidelity is its deadly foe; and in compliance tolerable only to those who have no easier way of gaining a with the recommendation of Guizou and others, the king laid the foundation of the system of common education on religious

livelihood. instruction. Books of Bible extracts have therefore been in.

When a visiter enters the school house, actuated by a retroduced into the schools : but this is opposed to the principles gard for the place and its inmates, his presence diffuses a taught by Rome. Infant schools, called in France Salles higher and more agreeable spirit. He shows that he values d’Asyle,” (Halls of Asylum,) are exceedingly popular in Paris of the pupils. He is received with smiles, he leaves satisfac

the character of the instructer, and approves of the daily labors and other parts of the kingdom : but, only about six months cion and encouragement behind him. since, the Pope denounced them, as institutions dangerous 10 the Roman Catholic religion. The “ Journal General de l'Education, remarked on this, that His Holiness must have been

QUESTIONS misinformed, choosing thus to deny his infallibility rather to For the examination of a teacher by a School Committee. discountenance Infant schools. Yet the same journal, in a Such questions have been used with success, and are late number, has been in some way compelled to admit a re

worlhy of general consideration. view of a learned history of the Papacy, by a German Protestant, and to defend the very doctrines which so often

the oppose

(After enquiries about his residence, education, experience improvement of the schools.

in instruction, intentions for the future, whether to continue Now, if we turn from this view of things in France, to con- in the profession or not, and a careful examination of his cersider for a moment our happy freedom in this state, from such tificate of moral character, some record of his replies may be formidable difficulties as there exist, how encouraging is the made. The teacher may then be requested to write an applisight! Here is a population trained in common schools, with cation to the Committee for employment in their school. This all their feelings and opinions warmly in favor of education will afford a good test of his hand-writing, posture, orthography, universal education-education founded on the Bible. We syntax, command of language, and acquaintance with received are a people who regard the love of intelligence, virtue forms. He then may be asked how he would frame a quarter and freedom as the chief honor of our ancestors, and would be bill, or a weekly report to a parent, of the behavior of his ashamed to think ourselves incompetent to hand then down child. A few of his words may be given him to parse and to our children.

define.) But we hasten to notice, though very briefly, the last of the

Education is properly divided into three kinds :-intellectuthree French publications alluded to above.

The Friend of al, moral, and physical. A teacher should practice them all *Infancy, an Infant School Journal, (L'Ami de l'Evfance, Jour every day and hour. What belongs to each of these kinds ? nal des Salles d’Asyle.) It is a pamphlet of about 50 pages, (Would you call arithmetic a part of moral education ? If a published once in two months, by the Infant School Commit- teacher furnishes his pupils with comfortable seats, good air

, tee, under the sanction of the Minister of Public Instruction. and timely exercise, what kind of education does he attend to ?) The contents of it are very interesting, as they comprise official

Why is il important for a teacher to know something of the acts, reports, methods of instruction, and accounts from Infant human frame, and the way of preserving healih?

What do Schools in different parts of the continent of Europe, where you know of the bones or muscles, or any other part of the they have recently been much extended : chiefly in France, body, which would lead you to be careful about the seats or Switzerland, Italy and Prussia.

desks-about opening or shutting windows, changing the posIn December last, a long report on the Infant Schools of Pa- tures of children, &c.? ris, was presented to the Central Committee of Public Instruc Is it important whether children are made to learn by one tion, by Madame Millet, Special Inspectress of those institu- motive or any other? For what reason? Is fear the best motions in the Department of the Seine, from which we learn, live? Why? Is emulation, or a spirit of rivalry, the best that the system was introduced from England in 1827, when motive ?, Why? Is the approbation of the teacher, or friends, she was sent to London by a Committee of Parisian Ladies

, the best? Why? Is the hope of getting money, or honor, 10 acquaint herself with the schools of that metropolis. Schools the best? Is the wish to please God, and to learn of Him, of the same class, but on a plan somewhat modified, soon mul- and to be like Him, the best? Why ? Do you

think a school tiplied in Paris. They now amount to twenty-three, and have may

be successfully governed and caught, by one who depends lately been placed under the supervision and direction of the chiefly on this motive, duty to God ž Mention, if you can, Minister of Public Instruction. The report of the Inspectress

some of the ways in which children may be taught to feel that is circumstancial in respect to all these schools, and highly in-| Gud requires them to obey their teachers, to treat their comteresting.

panions kindly, and to be studious and conscientious. Our readers may expect to find in our future numbers occa

Do you think the mind can be well caught any branch, merely sional extracts from these and some other foreign journals, on by learning to repeat words from memory?

How do you begin subjects important alike on both sides of the Atlantic.

to teach reading? Why do you prefer that method? What
do you think of the practice of teaching the lotters Arst, and

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the whole spelling book next, before the child is allowed to jectionable aspect when carefully examined. It has a direct
read or write at alŤ? Do you think writing on slates, or other- tendency to enlist men of influence in the details of school op-
wise, may assist in learning letters, spelling or reading ? erations, and in a manner compels even those who chiefly seek
Why? May definitions be advantageously taught before a popularity, to appear as the advocates of education.
child can read? When and how ?

The pecuniary interest appealed to, is that of the public: 10
At what age may a child be allowed to begin to learn desire which, and to labor for it, is generous and laudable in
writing? In what manner ? Would you use slates ? The an individual, provided it interferes with no right. And this
blackboard ? Why? How do you teach a child to sit while interest is placed by the law in a secondary rank, as subservi-
writing? How to hold a pencilor pen ? How long should a ent to the schools. Whoever has anything to do under the
writing lesson continue? How often should the lessons be re- law, must feel that education is its great end, and the im-
peated ? Should drawing lines or pictures be practised, 10 aid portance of education must be raised in his esteem.
in teaching to write, or for any other purpose ? Write a speci Thus the principle on which the law of the state of New York
men of sach large hands as you would wish your pupils to was founded, not only seems an active one, but experience has
write. Then small hands. Would you connect writing proved it to be so. It has not accomplished all which some
with spelling? Defining? Arithmetic ? Reading ? Geog- have hoped, nor which many may, now suppose : but it has
raphy? How?

brought about a great and salutary change in a very few years, At about what age would you have the study of arithmetic and in the only proper and useful manner, viz., by the voluntabegun? In what manner? Would you depend entirely on ry agency of the people. The small amount annually distribubooks in teaching any part of arithmetic? Why? By whatted among the districts, has induced them to spend many times means may arithmetic be made familiar and useful in the daily more, besides enlisting thousands of respectable men in.more concerns of life? How would you teach the ready use of or less systematic labor every year in behalf of the schools. weights, measures and money?

The results have been overrated by some writers both at home When and how would you begin to teach grammar ? How and abroad, and that is unfortunate. Intelligent friends of would you make it practically useful ?

education in the state are sensible of the imperfections of the

system, and the various abuses which have prevailed in differIMPROVEMENT OF SCHOOLS IN THE STATE OF

ent places; yet its excellence is great, and its advantages are

seen in the wonderful, and perhaps unprecedented change NEW YORK.

which it has produced. Much attention has been attracted to the progress made in But, as was binted above, the New York law should be nocommon schools in the state of New York. Both in America where exactly copied, unless in a state where education is in and in Europe, the annual reports made by the superintendent the condition in which it was there a few years ago. The same to the legislature, have excited much interest; and that for principle may probably be used elsewhere with success; but it good reasons. By the adoption of a particular system, found- must be applied under modifications wisely adapted to the ed on an active, practical principle, that state succeeded, in a state of things to be improved. The law already requires alfew years, in inducing her inhabitants to organize disiricis, teration in that state. indeed, the superintendent of Common erect school houses, provide teachers, assemble almost all the Schools of New York, several years since, began to recommend children, and make regular returns on the various important that new and higher conditions should be imposed on the dispoints required by law, so that official reports were readily tricis. This is evidently desirable; for now that the first made, every session of the legislature, of the state of the terms required have been generally complied with, no farther schools, and with a facility that exciied general surprise, as progress is made in improving education. Things remain well as gratification.

stagnant, because no inducement is offered to proceed. The Il probably appears to many, a matter of wonder how all this motive bas lost its moving power, because it has reached the can have been done, and is still doing, in a state until lately end of its range. If every district in New York were now reso differently situated from our own and Massachusetts. I quired to prove that the school house, if new, has been built While New Jersey and Pennsylvania, though lying adjacent, in a good spot, and according to a given plan, -or if old, has have remained in their hereditary indifference to common been prepared for ventilation, furnished with approved desks schools, how has it come to pass that they are found in such a and benches, supplied with books, slates, black boards, maps, state of prosperity in New York ?

a library, globes, and other necessary apparatus,-if these or The legislature had the happiness, it may have been the other improvements were required, and more occasionally foresight also,) to adopt a principle in making school laws, added to the list, there is reason to presume that the progress which has great vigor in it, and which, it is to be presumed, of the state would be progressive. The reason we have to yader appropriate application, may hereafter be made to pro- question whether the legislature of that state were really acduce still greater effecis in other states. They offered a small quainted with the nature of the principle alluded to, when they sum out of the interest of their school fund, to each district introduced it into their system, arises from the fact that ihey which should comply with certain terms; and those terms show little disposition to make a new application of it, and so were such as were judiciously suited to the condition of the little intelligence by delaying to adapt it to present circumstanstate. School officers were to be appointed in each district, a

ces and wants. school room provided, a teacher enıployed who had been furpished with a certificate by the inspectors within twelve

VIEWS OF FELLENBERG CONCERNING THE USE OF tonths, a census of the children taken, &c., all was this to be reported through the regular channels, to the superintendent

THE BIBLE IN SCHOOLS. before a specified day, on penalty of losing all claim to the The following is an extract frora " Travels on the Continent school money of the state.

of Europe," by President Fisk: A little reflection will convince the reader, that this pecunia “Mr. Fellenberg expressed his very great surprise at the y motive might operate with effect, at least, in some cases. neglect of religious instruction in our schools in America; that Por if the people of a district desired to obtain their share of the Bible was excluded as a regular text book; in short, that the money, and failed through the negligence of an inspector, in the United States, among a religious, a protestant, an enA commissioner or the teacher, censure would fall where it lightened, a free people, man should be educated so much in was due ; and the next year the ground of complaint would view of his physical wants, and his temporal existence, while naturally be avoided. Or if a portion of the inbabitants were the moral feelings of the heart

, and our religious relations to willing to raise the money required of the district, and another God and eternity, should be left so much oui of our schools. opposed to it, when the time arrived for the annual distribu But, he said, the great principles of our religion would come tion of the income of the fund, the latter party would be very into collision with no man's views who believed in Christianlikely to be charged with the public loss. Now experience ity; and that, at any rate, party views were nothing in comhas proved in New York, that this principle is extensively use- parison with the importance of religious training; and thereful when so applied; and, although it may at first strike us fore every good man ought to be willing to make some sacrifas mercenary, and in some sense unworthy to be employed to ces of party views for the great benefits of an early religious favor the noble object of common education, it loses its ob- education.' How true are these sentiments! How worthy of

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the philanthropist of Hofwyl! When will the citizens of the Warm air rises. Breathing air warms it, and so does the Uniteil States feel their force ?"

heat from our bodies. The air around us, therefore, and still It will gratify many of our readers, we have no doubt, to more that coming out from our lungs, is continually rising. hear so decided an expression in favor of that great fundamental When we are in a light room, it rises to the ceiling, and there feature in the school system of our ancestors, viz., the use of remains, at least until it becomes cool, and warmer air goes the Scriptures in schools, from the excellent Mr. Fellenberg, the up to take its place. founder of the noble institution of Hofwyl, in Switzerland. Let it be borne in mind here, that air once breathed is not It is gratifying, also, to hear it approved hy our much respected well filled to be breathed again, and never will be, until it has countryman, President Fisk. We are happy to say, however, got among the leaves of living plants, and remained there thai the Bible is becoming used more and more every year in some time. This is owing to certain changes which we have our schools, and that although too extensively neglected, it is not now time enough to explain, but which the science of probably less so than Mr. Fellenberg supposed.

chemistry makes known in a most interesting manner.

Now the air which comes from the lungs of a school full of SCHOOL HOUSES,

children, rises towards the ceiling, and in a short time a larga Most of the school houses in this state may be considerably quantity of warm, breathed air will be collected in the upper improved without much expense, and indeed with none at all part of the room, while that in the lower part may be pure. There are two reasons why many improvements are not made But in an hour or two, or half an hour, according to the size which would prove both cheap and important. The first is, of the room and number of scholars, the impure air will fill

supene little care has been taken to point out their defects to those the whole room, and the children must begin io breathe it over

3 He who would have been likely to remove them; and the second again. Even if the lower sashes of the window are kept open, is, that bad habits are apt to blind the eyes, so that we over the air by that means: for that which is above the level of the

the evil is only partly remedied. It is impossible to change all look evils to which we are accustomed. Desks and benches should be so formed, as to make the openings is left without any means of escape, or can be

ITALG children who use them as comfortable as possible. By saw

driven out only very gradually, by a slow intermixture with ing off a few legs, till the children can sit and place their feet the fresh air

, which produces some commotion by its entrance. on the floor, and lay their arms on the desks while writing;

The air in the upper part of a room will not come down and without raising their elbows, much comfort and good writing teachers, as well as other people, seem to think so.

go out of
a window as soon as it is opened, though some with of

But make
may be secured.
The teacher should never forget, that he himself requires

an opening any where in the upper part of the room, and the such arrangements as these for his own comfort, and would upper air will pass out as soon as air from without can enter to

!B. W think it a hardship if denied them for a single day. He should supply its place. remember also, that he never sits upright an hour or two, with

Any person who may wish to understand these operations,

e pupil out wishing to lean his back against something. Yet he is may try experiments when the room has been filled with dust far more able to sit without leaning, than children are. The

or smoke. "Let him try one day to get rid of the annoyance muscles which hold their bodies erect, are much weaker, and by opening the windows only from below, and the next day sooner wearied.

by lowering the upper sashes on both sides of the room, or

The He probably has a back to his seat, and often uses it; let

upper on one side, and the lower on the other. He will him make similar provision for his pupils. He will find them then be able to perceive the advantage of the practice here much more studious, and more easily governed, by every such recommended in daily ventilation,

"The attention to their natural weakness and wants. Some benches

The late report on school houses, made by Horace Mana, may be moved to the back of a desk, and those who sit on it, Esq: superintendent of common schools in Massachusetts, permitted to lean. When that cannot be done, the children the inprovement of school rooms and buildings,

forcibly urges this practice, and many others connected with may be made to change their places for a time, during recitation, for instance.

INFANT SCHOOLS, Standing affords po relief to the back, though some may suppose it does. The whole trunk, head and arms must still Among the improvements made, within a few years, in difbe held in an upright position by the power of the muscles be- ferent departmenis of education, is to be ranked the whole syslow the short rihs. Observe a child who needs rest for those tem of Infant schools. In this country, it is true, infant schools muscles while standing, and pature will declare it. He throws have been opened and conducted for a time in some towns, the weight of his frame on one foot; that affords relief to the where they have afterwards been closed and abandoned; and muscles on the other side ; then he changes, 10 rest the other not a few of their early friends are now, in some degree, indifmuscles in their turn. He needs a temporary resting place for ferent, and indeed opposed to them. his back; and even a few minutes will commonly suffice. In some of our principal cities, however, infant schools still

It would be well if the teacher would sometimes sit as long exist, and have their warm friends, whose esteem for the syswithout leaning, as his children do, and lean only while they tem appears to increase, rather iban 10 decline, from year to lean. Many teachers have not thought particularly on this year. Those friends, it is believed, generally regard many of subject, and therefore give it so little attention.

ihe experiments heretofore made in different parts of the Union, One improvement which most school houses require, is such as unfair; and certainly almost all the teachers opened their a change in the window casing, that the upper sashes, (or at schools with very little previous experience; while most of the least some on boih sides of the room,) may be lowered at managers and directors were no beiter prepared for their duties. pleasure. In many instances this may be provided for with It is a fact which seems to claim attention, that where Infant great facility. It is, however, not sufficient without daily at- schools have been most known, they have received the most tention on the part of the teacher, as many school houses bear approbation; and that both teachers and managers, who have witness. Some of the best school rooms in Boston, (and in been most active in their direction, and best acquainted with other places 100,) are rarely well ventilated, although the win the details of their results, have become their most decided addows are fitted for it, because the lowering of the upper sashes vocates. It is believed that these remarks would be found true, is neglected.

if careful inquiries were made in New-York and Philadelphia Windows should be so made and used, on more accounts especially, and in Paris, and several other principal cities of than one. When the lower sash is raised, the wind blows in Europe. Another fact is important to be considered, yiz. that horizontally upon the papers, and often gives the children where infant schools have existed, they have produced imporcolds. But the most important advantage afforded by lowering tant improvements in other schools. Even 'in some places the upper sashes, is this: that it lets out the impure air, while where they have been given up, and where prejudices exist įt lets in the pure. Many persons do not clearly understand against them, surrounding schools are better, in some respects, how this change is effected: even some who have heard it ex- than they were before. The reason of this may be easily point. plained do not appear fully to apprehend it. Let us say what ed out. has often been said before on this point, with the hope that Infant schools, though they are very different from such othteachers and school visiters will pay strict attention to the ven- er in a variety of respects, generally agree in a few material tilation of our school rooms hereafter.

particulars, Low senis with backs are provided, expressly fut

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the comfort and convenience of small children; healthful and In the month of May, 1835, on the proposition of the pleasing exercises of the limbs and body are practised; the Count de Rambuteau, Prefect of la Seine, President of the Censinging of hymns and moral songs is a frequent occupation; tral Committee of Primary Instruction, the municipal council the study of natural history is pursued to some extent, either having unanimously voted for instruction in singing in all the by means of sensible objects, such as stones, wood, leaves, commercial schools of Paris, it was immediately begun in thirfruits, shells, &c., or with pictures of them, or at least with ty schools more. books which give intelligible accounts of animals, plants, min The same branch is now taught in fifiy schools of mutual erals, &c. with questions adapted to recitations. Writing, and instruction, in a number of schools of simultaneous instruction, often drawing, on sand or slates, is generally practised; the and in ten evening classes of adults.-[Journal General de manner of teaching is more varied, enlivening and parental l’Instruction. than in some other schools; and the discipline is commonly more mild ; while religious and moral instructions are more

THE DAILY USE OF THE BIBLE IN SCHOOLS. frequent and familiar.

Probably no teacher ever entered an Infant school for the The schools of this Slate were founded and supported chief. first time, without receiving hints of importance on some pointly for the purpose of perpetuating civil and religious knowledge of instruction or discipline. Certain it is that many, and those and liberty, as the early laws of the colony explicitly declare. of much experience too, have found something to approve and those laws, some of wbich were published in the first number to imitate. Hence it has come to pass, that the influence of of this Journal, as clearly declare, that the chief means to be such schools hassome times remained with others after they used to attain those objects, was the reading of the Holy Scriphave ceased to exist.

tures.

In many schools, in later years, the Bible has not been used : MUSIC TAUGHT IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF PARIS, though there is reason to believe that the ancient custom of our AND TO WORKMEN.

venerable ancestors has recently been gradually reviving. CirTranslated for the Connecticut Common School Journal ]

cumstances have favored its restoration ; and increasing light

on the principles of sound education cannot fail to establish it On the 6th of May, the general meeting called the Orpheon every where. was held in the Hotel de Ville. It consisted of the young pu Certificates are in our bands, from experienced instructors pils of the free schools, who had been formed into singing class out of this State, which bear strong testimony to the happy ines by M. B. Wilhem, general inspecting director of vocal mu- fluences exerted in their schools, by the daily use of the Scrip; sic of the primary schools of the city of Paris.

We may perhaps publish some at a future time; and Those pupils from the male adult schools who had been would request others who have paid attention to the subject, taught in music classes, were joined with the children, for the to favor us with communications for our information. tenor and bass, so that voices of very different ages and char Different teachers we have seen who used the Bible in difacters rendered the orchestra the more complete.

ferent ways: some as a class book, some as a text book; and The choir, in number above 400, performed in admirable it is interesting to see in how many forms it may be brought time and harmony, several select pieces, without any instru- into use. Some teachers, with a map of Palestine before them, meatal accompaniment, which were received with general ap- will give most interesting lessons on almost any book in the plause: “The Invocation, by Sacchini; "the Romanesca,” a Bible, by mingling geography, history, ancient manners and piece of the 16th century; the “Spectacle of Nature," by customs, with moral and religious considerations. Others Tscharner; a vocal symphony, by Chelard; "the Little Board- make the Bible the law book of the school; and by showing ers,” &c. The exhibition was concluded by two of the chef that they consider themselves and their pupils equally bound d'ouvre of Michel and Philidor, &c. Several of the pieces to conform their lives and thoughts to its sacred dictates, exerwere repeated by request. The Hall of St. John was filled ; cise a species of discipline of the happiest kind. Others still, by and among the spectators were the Prefect of La Seine and the aid of printed questions, or some systemaiic plan of study, his family, several mayors of the arrondissements and their as- employ the Bible in training the intellect, storing the memory, Bistants, M. Orfila, member of the Council of Public Instruc- and furnishing the fancy with the richest treasures of literation, and several other members of the University, the celebra ture. Others think that the various styles found in the sacred led composer Berton, and some of the members of the Acade- volume, offer the very best exercises for practice in reading my:

with propriety and effect; while a critical attention to the The success of this meeting promises much for the well or- character, situation and feelings of the speakers which such ganized introduction of vocal instruction; and reflected the exercises' require, has favorable moral influences. Finally, highest honor on the respected officer who has the direction of other teachers believe that the daily reading of the Bible in that branch.

schools, is of essential benefit to the pupils in various ways; The introduction of vocal music into the education of the and that the frequent repetition of the word of God in the people, is a more important point than we might at first be hearing even of those too young to read, is an inestimable blesinclined to believe. Besides the development which it sing-a part of the birthright of every child in a Christian land, gives to a precious organ, and the relaxation it affords to the which cannot be rightfully withholden. laborer after his work, the display it makes of talents which To these views our readers may add their own as they often would otherwise have remained unknown, or might never have and seriously consider the subject. It is one which will probaexisted, and its creating new branches of business for the in- bly be ever esteemed a vital one in Connecticut; and if Moudustrious, music supplies a pure and noble species of pleasure, sieur Cousin so warmly urged upon the government of France, in place of amusements too often gross, ruinous and even crim- to make religious instruction the corner stone of their national ioal. It tends to soften and purify the manners, and is in fact system of education, and urged with success the example

reat step towards the moral improvement and melioration of of Prussia, we may with greater confidence invite the peothe lower classes, which, in our age, ought to be the object of ple of our state to supply their schools with tbe Scriptures, and all the friends of the human race. We may add, that by means point to the laws passed by their fathers for this very end, of it, will gradually be effected the musical education of France, nearly two centuries ago, and (so far as we have the ability to which country, to the present time, has remained so inferior in comprehend so vast a subject,) to the noble effects produced this respect to Germany and Italy, and which may perhaps even by their imperfect observance. toon have as little reason to envy its neighbors on this point as on any other.

THE AID OF NEWSPAPERS Gratuitous and popular instruction in vocal music in Paris, was commenced in September, 1819, by the first use of M. Will be highly important to the success of the Connecticut Wilhem's method, in the communal school of the street of St. Common School Journal, in the operations to which it is devoJean de Beauvais. This method, which was adopted in March, ted. In our first number it was remarked, that such a paper as 1820, after a report by Messrs. De Gerando, de Lastoyrie, Fran- this would be “needed, in connection with the public prints, caur and Jomard, was successively introduced into the two as an organ of communication between the Board and their schools of the society of elementary instruction, and the nine Secretary and the public.” schools of the city of Paris.

It will be easy to show in what manner the newspapers in

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the philanthropist of Hofwyl! When will the citizens of the Warm air rises. Breathing air warms it, and so does the Uniteil States feel their force ?"

heat from our bodies. The air around us, therefore, and still It will gratify many of our readers, we have no doubt, 10 more that coming out from our lungs, is continually rising. hear so decided an expression in favor of that great fundamental When we are in a tight room, it rises to the ceiling, and there feature in the school system of our ancestors, viz., the use of remains, at least until it becomes cool, and warmer air goes the Scriptures in schools, from the excellent Mr. Fellenberg, the up to take its place. founder of the noble institution of Hofwyl, in Switzerland. Let it be borne in mind here, that air once breathed is not It is gratifying, also, to hear it approved by our much respected well filled to be breathed again, and never will be, until it has countryman, President Fisk. We are happy to say, however, got anong the leaves of living plants, and remained there that the Bible is becoming used more and more every year in some time. This is owing to certain changes which we have our schools, and that although too extensively neglected, it is not now time enough to explain, but which the science of probably less so than Mr. Fellenberg supposed.

chemistry makes known in a most interesting inaoner.

Now the air which comes from the lungs of a school full of SCHOOL HOUSES.

children, rises towards the ceiling, and in a short time a large Most of the school houses in this state may be considerably quantity of warm, breathed air will be collected in the upper improved without much expense, and indeed with none at all. part of the room, while that in the lower part may be purp. There are two reasons why many improvements are not made But in an hour or two, or half an hour, according to the size which would prove both cheap and important. The first is, the whole room, and the children must begin to breathe it over

of the room and number of scholars, the impure air will fill who would have been likely to remove them; and the second again. Even if the lower sashes of the window are kept open, is, that bad habits are apt to blind the eyes, so that we over the air by that means: for that which is above the level of the

the evil is only partly remedied. It is impossible to change all look evils to which we are accustomed.

Desks and benches should be so formed, as to make the openings is left without any means of escape, or can be children who use them as comfortable as possible. By saw: the fresh air, which produces some commotion by its entrance,

driven out only very gradually, by a slow intermixture with ing off a few legs, till the children can sit and place their feet on the floor, and lay their arms on the desks while writing;

The air in the upper part of a room will not come down and without raising their elbows, much comfort and good writing go out of a window as soon as it is opened, though some may be secured.

teachers, as well as other people, seem to think so. But make The teacher should never forget, that he himself requires

an opening any where in the upper part of the room, and the such asrangements as these for his own comfort, and would upper air will pass out as soon as air from without can enter to think it a hardship if denied then for a single day. He should supply its place. remember also, that he never sits upright an hour or two, with

Any person who may wish to understand these operations, out wishing to lean his back against something. Yet he is may try experiments when the room has been filled with dust far more able to sit without leaning, than children are. The

or smoke. Let him try one day to get rid of the annoyance muscles which bold their bodies erect, are much weaker, and by opening the windows only from below, and the next day sooner wearied.

by lowering the upper sashes on both sides of the room, or He probably has a back to his seat, and often uses it; let the upper on one side, and the lower on the other. He will him make similar provision for his pupils. He will find them then be able to perceive the advantage of the practice here much more studious, and more easily governed, by every such

recommended in daily ventilation, attention to their natural weakness and wants. Some benches

The late report on school houses, made by Horace Mana, may be moved to the back of a desk, and those who sit on it, forcibly urges this practice, and many others connected with

Esq., superintendent of common schools in Massachusetts, permitted to lean. When that cannot be done, the children may be made to change their places for a time, during recita

the improvement of school rooms and buildings, tion, for instance.

INFANT SCHOOLS, Standing affords no relief to the back, though some may suppose it does. The whole trunk, head and arms must still Among the improvements made, within a few years, in difbe held in an upright position by the power of the muscles be- ferent departmenis of education, is to be ranked the whole syslow the short ribs. Observe a child who needs rest for those tem of Infant schools. In this country, it is true, infant schools muscles while standing, and nature will declare it. He throws have been opened and conducted for a time in some towns, the weight of his frame on one foot; that affords relief to the where they have afterwards been closed and abandoned ; and muscles on the other side ; then he changes, lo rest the other not a few of their early friends are now, in some degree, indifmyscles in their turn. He needs a lemporary resting place for ferent, and indeed opposed to them. bis back; and even a few minutes will commonly suffice. In some of our principal cities, however, infant schools still

It would be well if the teacher would sometimes sit as long exist, and have their warm friends, whose esteem for the syswithout leaning, as his children do, and lean only while they tem appears to increase, rather than to decline, from year to lean. Many teachers have not thought particularly on this year. Those friends, it is believed, generally regard many of subject, and therefore give it so little attention.

ihe

experiments heretofore made in different parts of the Union, One improvement which most school houses require, is such as unfair; and certainly almost all the teachers opened their a change in the window casing, that the upper sashes, (or at schools with very little previous experience; while most of the least some on boih sides of the room,) may be lowered at managers and directors were no beiter prepared for their duties. pleasure. In many instances this may be provided for with It is a fact which seems to claim attention, that where Infant great facility. It is, however, not sufficient without daily at- schools have been most known, they have received the most iention on the part of the teacher, as many school houses bear approbation; and that both teachers and managers, who have witness. Some of the best school rooms in Boston, (and in been most active in their direction, and best acquainted with other places 100,) are rarely well ventilated, although the win- the details of their results, have become their most decided addows are fitted for it, because the lowering of the upper sashes vocates: It is believed that these remarks would be found true, is neglected.

if careful inquiries were made in New-York and Philade?pbia Windows should be so made and used, on more accounts especially, and in Paris, and several other principal cities of than one.

When the lower sash is raised, the wind blows in Europe. Another fact is important to be considered, yiz. that horizontally upon the papers, and often gives the children where infant schools have existed, they have produced imporcolds. Bui the most important advantage afforded by lowering tant improvements in other schools. Even 'in some places the upper sashes, is this: that it lets out the impure air, while where they have been given up, and where prejudices exist ịt lets in the pure. Many persons do not clearly understand against them, surrounding schools are better, in some respecto, how this change is effected: even some who have heard it ex- than they were before. The reason of this may be easily point. plained do not appear fully to apprehend it. Let us say what ed out. has often been said before on this point, with the hope that Infant schools, though they are very different from such othteachers and school visiters will pay strict attention to the te er in a variety of respects, generally agree in a few material tilation of our school rooms bereafter.

particulars, Low senis with backs are provided, expressly fur

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