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APPENDIX NO. 3 and 4.
Abstract showing the condition of the Winter Schools in the several Counties and the AGGREGATE for the State.
No. of School Societies
male No of scholars of all ages in all schools returned female
male Average wages paid per mo. exclusive of board
female No. of Male Teachers who have taught same school before No. of female No. of teachers who have taught any where over ten seasons No.of do.
over five seasons Amount of Local and Society School Funds returned Annual income of do. Whole amount of Town Deposite Fund Annual income of
, appropriated to the support of Schools Amount of School Fund Avails of, for she year ending March, 1839 Number of children in private schools Estimated amount paid for private tuition, over
33 31 27 29 31 18
211 27 21 201 22 28 16 16 15
167 266 224 218 250 309 132 178 129
1,706 253 212 215 232 297 129 166 126
1,630 200 143 157 160 225 113 114 106 1,218 14,689 12,420 12,252 14,554 11,346 7,236 8,139 5,046 85,692 14,625 12231 12,140 13,836 11,150 7,114 7,937 4,944 83,977) 12,403 8,963 9,539 9,984 9,301 6,667 5,829 4,155 66,841 5,354
3,439 4,236 4,187 4,601 3,182 3,003 2,266 30,338 2 657
3,324 3,079 3,559 2,695 2,415 1,842 24,222 10,005 6,096
7,266 8,160 5,877 5,418 4,108 54,550 178 109 164 80 128 141
1,033 446 273 564 305
289 440 404 3,438 8,225 4,732 5,762 5,110 6,056 4,540 4,076 3,331 41,832 712 326 613 1,075 636 461 770 137
4,730 17 16 18 20 16 18
18 162 100 154 119 154 104 108
996 68 52 28 34 76 16 8 14
296 $15 59 $16 90 915 45 $15,87 $15 27 $15 52 #15 22 $14 06 $15 48 $8 35 #8 31 $9 44 $10 30 $721 $8 17 $7 33 #7 53 $8 33 55 21 47
79 27 21 20 25 28 12 101 22
165 64 491 52 50 62 351 32 45
3891 $102,000 00
$6,000 00 $764,670 61
$30,000 000 $2,028,531 20 $104,900 00
12,000 $200,000 00
APPENDIX NO. 5.
SPELLING BOOKS AND DICTIONARIES,
1 Webster's Dictionary,
10 Walker's Dictionary,
6 5 5 4 4
“ Easy Reader,
is used in 127
Farner's School Book
HISTORY. Goodrich's United States,
19 Parley's, Tytler's,
9 Whelpey's Compend, Davenport's, Emerson's,
3 History of Connecticut,
8 Ancient and Modern History,
3 Child's First Book of History,
3 History of England, Barber's,
1 Butler's Compend,
1 NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. Comstock's,
2 CHEMISTRY; Comstock's,
10 ASTRONOMY. Blake's, Wilbur's, Parley's.
ALGEBRA. Day's, Totten's, Colburn's, Davies'. In addition to the above, Watts on the Mind, Abercrombie on the Mentul Powers, Gallaudet's Natural Theology, Sullivan's Moral Cluss Book, are used in several Societies, and various authors in Book-keeping. Botany, Surreying, Geometry, Latin, Navigation, Music, Composition, &c.
The following is the form of a Weekly Report used in several of the Common Schools in Hartford and vicinity. WEEKLY REPORT for M The Parent or Guardian is requested to examine and sign this Report weekly.
J. T—-, Principal.
APPENDIX No. 7.
" It is pleasantly located on High-st., at the head of 6th-st., on a lot 90
feet front, by 100 feet deep, considerably elevated above the street, the SCHOOL HOUSES.
rear of which has a sufficient number of forest trees to afford ample With a view of obtaining accurate information respecting the con- shade. The building was erected in the spring of 1537,-is of wood, dition of school houses, a series of inquiries touching their condition in 50 ft. front by 30 ft. deep, with two wing entrances 10 ft. by 8 ft., -is more than forty particulars, were prepared, and have been filled up one story high, 127 ft. posts
, with a tower for a bell, which is not
yet by teachers and oihers, for more than 800 districts. The following purchased, -16 windows of 24 lights, 9 by 12, each casement having extracts from these returns and communications exhibits but too a spring. The outside is painted white, the inside imitation oak. A faithfully the condition of many of our district school houses.
is divided into 2 rooms, one 30 ft. by 29 fl., the other 19 ft. by 29 ft. "I have visited 62 school houses in person and give you the follow- Height of the rooms 114 ft., ceiled to the windows, which are 3 it from ing summary of information collected.
the floor, above which it is plastered. The larger room contains 42 Locatim.Nineteen out of the 62 are located entirely in the highway, single, framed desks, besides well formed seats, or benches, with recliand that the ground on which the others stand cannot be worth on an ning backs. The desks are stained and varnished, and are arranged average $12 for each. Thirteen were bounded by two roads. Sixteen on each side of the room, 3 deep, facing the middle. Sufficient space is were in noisy and improper neighborhoods. None had any shade left between the tiers of desks for the scholars to pass. The seats are trees or any of those adornments which are resorted to, to make our
so arranged that the front of one desk is used as the back for the seat homes pleasant and healthy.
in front. The lids are permanent, an opening being left in the State of Repair. 26 were in good repair ; 19 were much out of re- back, in which the scholar deposites his books. The teacher's desk, pair ; 176 squure of glass were broken; and very few were sufficiently or table, is situated in front of the inner door, (which is half of glass, protected from cold air from beneath ; 25 had crevices to admit the giving him
a view of the entry) on a platform elevated 14 inches above wind from every quarter.
the floor, which is level. Around the table is room for reciting classInterior management. 38 had never been white washed-in none
The other room is for the smaller children, and is well furnished were there blinds and other arrangments to admit the proper degree of with benches with reclining backs, calculated for 5 or 6, of different light-little or no provisions are made for securing habits of neatness heights, corresponding to sizes of the children. The rooms are furand order by proper places for hats, cloaks, &c. &c.-in 48 instances nished with black boards, and arrangements are made to provide the desks are attached to the walls so that scholars sit with their backs globes, planetariums, and such other apparatus as shall be thought to the teacher while engaged in their studies--and when they face him proper. The rooms are warmed by wood-burning close stoves, they are obliged to lean, if they rest at all
, against the edge of the having basins of water upon them. The wings are provided with desk for support-in 52, the seats were without backs, and that in clothes hooks, sinks, wash basine, water pails, &c., with a scraper at most, the seats were not of proper elevation for children of different each door. A work house, and two other necessary buildings stand sizes, nor were they so adapted to the desks that the scholars coulil in the rear of the lot. In erecting this building, the district intended to not write without violating the laws of this organization, and indu- provide a convenient, and every way comfortable, and pleasant cing deformity and ill health-38 out of the 64 were altogether unpro- school house; the cost of which has been about fifteen hundred dollars, vided with the means of ventilation, except through the crevices about exclusive of the lot, estimated at four hundred dollars. Blinds are yet the floors and sides of the room.
to be attached to the windows, and the ground enclosed. The school In another county out of 50 school houses taken at hazard from the house has beeen occupied nearly two years, and has been kept in fine returns for the county, 10 were all or in part in the public highway- condition. It has not been marred or disfigured, either on the out or 12 were in situations which were wet and disagreeable-not one of inside, and the desks afford abundant testimony that the pride of the these had any play ground "except the gardens and orchards” of scholars is in full exercise, for a scratch or mark is hardly to be found neighbors but iwo were ventilated by an opening in the ceiling-in on one of them." 30 the scholars faced the walls, or the windows which were in all cases Description of a school house in the CENTRE DISTRICT of without blinds or shades-in 5 only were the seats and desks properly « It is located near the foot of a very steep hill, on wet, muddy arranged and of proper heights, so as to favor the health, the comfort, or
ground, in the middle of the highway, some 40 rods below the church, the progress of ihe pupils-and in all the dimensions of the room were where the good people of the town worship, and which they have altogether too contracted for even the average attendance of the district.” spared no pains or money to make neat and comfortable for themselves.
In another county, out of 40 school houses, but one has any pro- in answer to the question, "how long has it been built ?" as far as I vision for ventilation; but seven have seats with backs in any case;
can ascertain, it has always stood there the memory of the oldest inthe average height of the school rooms is 7 feet; the average breadth habitant ronneth not to the contrary.” It is one story high, and pre7.1-2 feet; the average length 18 1-2 feet, while the average attendance sents a broadside to the most travelled road in the town. As you de is over 30 children to each.
scend the hill from the church, it presents one end with three windows " In 104 districts which I have visited in New London County, and a door. One window, sash and all, is gone, but is partly closed there are 31 school houses which may be considered as being in very up by some boards on the inside. The other iwo are only in part good repair, and 73 of which are more or less out of repair. Among broken. The clapboards are off some distance from the ground, and them there are but 7 which are constructed in such a manner as to be thereby very uncharitably exposing to view rotten timbers. The comfortable and convenient. In 3 the scholars all face the teacher, and entrance is near the corner. The floor is neither a slope nor a level, in 6 or 7 others, they sit so as to face the centre of the room. In the
but undulating, and affords free ventilation for fresh air, from beneath. others the desks are confined to the walls on three sides of the room, The district could not afford a broom, nor a shovel and tongs for the and have seats in front of them. By this arrangement the larger first three weels, and wood was so scarce in the depth of winter, that scholars sit with their backs to the teacher, except while engaged in the teacher declares he was obliged to suspend his school twice “ for the reading and spelling. In the first position they have no support at want thereof." The desks are ranged round the sides of the room all for the back, and in the latter the edge of the desk is all that is the seats are without backs and so high that the pupils must sit in an afforded. The younger scholars are seated in the centre of the room uncomfortable position when they write-there is no provision for on low seats, which in 80 districts are provided with backs. In the ventilation by an opening in the ceiling, although there is no lack of remaining 24' districts, these seats have not backs. In 8 districts 2 fresh air from innumerable crevices from below and around--there is rooms are occupied by the school, and in 96 districts only one room.
none of the ordinary conveniences in the house or out of it, with The rooms used, will average about 20 feet square, and 8 feet in height. which every school-house should be furnished.” In 75-districts close stoves are used for warming the houses, and in 23
, stoves and fire places, and in 6, fire places alone. In none of these Extract from a communication from one of the most experienced and houses has any provision been made for ventilation. In 4, the win
devoted friends of education Middlesex county. dows let down from the top, and 2 have green blinds. In 39 districts "There are many cases in which repairs in the school houses, and the windows are furnished with outside shutters.
a proper provision of fuel, have not been made. I have been in several In no case is a scraper, or a mat for the feet provided. In 100 dis- school houses where the stove doors were without hinges and fastentricts they have no play ground except the highway, or the land of ings. I know of a school house which has stood about half a century, individuals
. In about 40 districts a few shade trees may be found in which there has not been for several winters, and in which it is inwithin 20 or 30 rods of the school house. 89 houses stand in the high- sinuated there never was such a thing, as a pair of tongs or a shovel. way, in all or in part. One district has provided globes for the use In not a few cases there are only parts of what may have once been a of the school, and made arrangements for proeuring philosophical pair oftongs or a shovel, or one or other of them; but how long it was and chemical apparatus. 29 districts have black boards, and 3 have after Tubal Cain instructed men in iron and brass they were made, it some maps, and 1, a clock. All are destitute of a library, thermome would have puzzled an antiquarian to tell. Sometimes benches are ter, and recitation rooms. In country districts the entry serves as a found with three legs, if they have more than two or one; and if they wood room, and place for hats and cloaks. In country towns from 30 ever had desks, they are wholly or partly split off. New panes of to 50 scholars are usually crowded into a room calculated for only 20 glass are not put into the windows where the old ones are lost, and the or 25."
boys are called upon to volunteer their hats and cars to keep out the The following descriptions are selected, contrasting a good and a bad windy storm and tempest, at the risk of having them frozen to their school house. I wish it was in my power to refer to many as pleas- heads while going home. The wood, instead of being brought reasonantly located, properly furnished and arranged, as the first, and that I ably, cut, split
, housed and dried, is permitted to be brought when in. could pronounce the last an exaggerated account of an extreme case, dividuals in the district see fit to bring it, and that may not be until the but, alas, there are too many liable to the same condemnation. school is out of wood, and suspended for the want of it, one, two, or
three days, or a week. Then when in fact brought, in addition to the flourish under such teachers ? While here and there a man may beforegoing evils, it may not be at once cui and split, but left for the come a good teacher without regular training, and in some rare instanscholars to prepare, and the neighbors may be fretting because the boys ces a man may become a good mechanic without serving an appren. are teazing them for their axes, dulling, and breaking them. Perhaps ticeship, yet it is quite too much to expect that teachers generally will most is left out until a snow comes down from Canada and buries it in be skillful and efficient unless they are trained for their work.” a bank, or until it is incased in ice. After all, it may be green, soft “ It seems to me desirable that the examination of teachers should wood, much of it, perhaps, chestnut, which lightning will scarcely be by a different board from the present; when the children of proignite.
fessional men, of influential parishioners, clients, and patrons, come
before them, there are too many professional and local considerations APPENDIX No. 8.
at work to permit the examiners to be as independer.t as it is desirable
they should be. Were a board of examiners appointed for each county, REPORTS OF SCHOOL VISITERS, EXTRACTS FROM were the teachers to appear before them on a given day, and at a speciCOMMUNICATIONS, LETTERS, &c.
fied place or places, the prospect of examination under such circumGUILFORD, SECOND SCHOOL SOCIETY.
stances, would lead to a more thorough preparation, and the examiners " The common schools in our society have never sunk so low as they such a board, could be made sufficient for the county, and for a longer
would be more likely to be strictly impartial. A certificate given by are represented to have done in some plac's in our State.
lime than now.” The same plan is suggested in a letter from Abingthe present board of visiters have been in office more than thirty years, and we can perceive a manifest though gradual improvement in thai ton, Windham county.. "The appointment of a general committee, time. Grammar, geography, and arithmetic, which were scarcely of all applicants, at their expense, and under proper regulations, would
either state or county-wise, to examine and certify io the qualification taught at all, are now taught, to some extent, in all our schools, while rend much to advance common school education. The present mode at the same time, the pupils are better readers and spellers than former- is somewhat objectionable, fiom neighborhood, family, local and interly. Our schools have also been visited almost uniformly according ested influences. The painful duty of rejecting a young man, with to law, and a degree of interest has been kept up in them. Our schools influential connections, a popular character, but of unsuitable qualificafor the last season, have felt some impulse from the general movement cions, who may wish to devote the winter to teaching, is seldom per: in the State. The visiters and teachers were organized into an asso-formed. Rather than incurthe displeasure of wealthy and respectable ciation, which met weekly for more than three months. At these individuals, the visiters will allow him to enter the school on trial, and meetings, modes of instruction, government, and general managment, the same motives will continue him there till the expiration of the term, were discussed; questions brought up by the teachers were solved; to the utter loss of time to the pupils, and money io the state and disexercises in reading and parsing were practised ; and if we mistake trict. Besides, it is difficult to find, in most of our school societies, a not, a spirit of emulation and enterprize was excited in the teachers, sufficient number of visiters, (however sound may be their judgment which in some degree reached the schools. Our schools have appear in other respects,) competent properly to examine teachers; those who ed better at the last examination than we have known them to do at any previous time, and we are encouraged to hope for much greater and are excused from serving. Now if a committee of three for each
are competent, have become tired of the thankless and unpaid office, improvement hereafter. We would express it as our deliberate opinion, that the great thing distinctly the branches which each applicant is qualified to teach, the
county could be appointed, who should examine critically, and certify needed to advance education in our common schools, as well qualified school visiters could tell by the certificate whether he had been found teachers, and we see no prospect of a supply of such teachers withou? to possess the qualifications which they wanted, either for summer os seminaries for the purpose. The art of instruction and government is winter, for common or high schools." These are most important sug. not instinctive.
The qualificd teacher must have learned the art from gestions, I have no doubt of their wisdom or their practicability; this others or be self-taught. The process of learning by one's own expe- is done in Ohio, and works well. ence is slow, and the majority will not have ingenuity and enterprize to learn in this way at all."
LITCHFIELD." In some of the towns of our county the friends of the cause have taken hold of the subject with commendable zeal and effi
ciency the past season, and the result of their labors are such as to " The visiters are of the opinion that the present method of visiting cheer' the hearts not only of those who have labored, but of all who the schools is decidedly faulty and disadvantageous. The usual plan have witnessed their efforts. and the one which was followed this year, is to divide as equally as In several of the towns, public examinations were had of all the possible, the business of visiting the several schools among ihe com- schools collectively, near the close of the winter term. These examinamittee of nine, and thus no one visits more than two or three of the lions were attended by large collections of the parents of the scholars, ten different schools, and as a matter of course, no comparison can be and of the communities generally; and if I may be permitted to speak drawn among them either in regard to excellence, proficiency or order, of them all from the one I attended in Salisbury, I must think, with the and indeed the present plan can be considered little more than a formal happiest effect. ity. As a substitute for this plan, the visiters would recommend that It was truly interesting to witness the spirit manifested by all con. the committeee of nine be hereafter authorized to depute two of their cerned on the occasion to which I allude. The examination was such number, or such other persons as it may be thought expedient, to visit as reflected very great credit to both teachers and pupils, as well as all the schools, and take a general supervision of the schools and school the school visiters. It may perhaps be questionable whether an equal books. If the school society should think proper to adopt this sugges- number of what may emphatically be called good schools, could have tion in the future management of the schools, they will doubtless feel it been assembled in any town in the state. And children, teachers, incumbent upon them to allow a reasonable compensation to the sub-parents, and the whole community, seemed to participate in the joy and committee for their services. This plan has been practised in some good feeling the occasion was calculated to inspire. The morning sestowns of the State, and is thought with marked advantage.
sion was occupied with the examination; and in the afternoon approWhere two or three small districts can be associated, it seems advi- priate relógious exercises and addresses; the singing both morning and sable that they should have one good competent male teacher who afternoon was performed by the scholars of two of the schools under should take charge of the larger scholars, (during the winter season the direction of their teachers, much to the satisfaction of the audience. at least) whilst one or two or more fenales may be employed to take In this town (Salisbury) the board of visiters choose two of their charge of the smaller ones. This plan might be followed during the number to take the whole oversight of the schools, and the town paid winter season, and the present one during the summer, if it is thought them for their services at the rate of one dollar per day; thus an effi. advisable. This plan we think might be adopted by the first, second, cient and energetic supervision was secured to the schools, and the benand tenth districts, with decided advantage.
eficial effects were clearly manifest. The visiters esteem it essential to the well-being our schools, that
It has been a question with some, whether we most need better qualisome standard, uniform elementary works on all the various branch-fied tcachers for our schools, or a more healthful tone of public senties taught in common schools, should be introduced and universally ment, attended by corresponding action on the part of the proprietors adopted.”
and overseers of the schools. The result of my observation in the HADDAM.-"School-houses must be made more convenient; a choice matter is, that one can hardly exist without the other-that a correct selection of elementary books must in some way be secured ; teachers public feeling will create a demand for competent teachers—and that must be more thoroughly trained and more amply rewarded; and child-demand will, as a matter of course, create a supply. On the other Ten must be kept at school a greater portion of the year. To drop a hand, nothing is so well calculated io bring into exercise this correct thought or two upon the third particular.
public sentiment, as the persevering, untiring efforts of laborious, com“Young men now seek employment in schools in very many instan- petent teachers acting on the minds of their pupils, and through them ces, not because they have made any special preparation for this busi- on the parents. ness, or because they expect to pursue it as the means of living or The truth is, we must have both, or our common schools will never usefulness, but just to help themselves to a little ready money that be what the exigencies of the case demands. The philanthropist and the they may prosecuie an education for some other employment, or which legislator who would effect anything salutary in this department, must they may expend for some other object. They do not lay themselves keep both in his eye, assured that when he touches one efficiently, he by out as they would were teaching contemplated as an employment for a sympathetic chord moves the other also. Teachers' seminaries, or years, or for life. They may have but little acquaintance with books, departments of this sort, attached to schools now existing, are very and with men: may have never read a treatise on teaching, or the much needed; where the art of teaching may be taught, as also the government of children, or any kindred topic. How can the schools artof governing—and the philosophy of mind may be studied."
AN ACT CONCERNING SCHOOLS.
and until the district committee shall certify that the public Passcd May Session, 1880.
money received by such district, for they ear previous, has Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre-been faithfully applied and expended in paying the wages of sentatives in General Assembly conrened, That each school suc! teacher or teachers, and for no other purpose whatever. society shall have power to establish and maintain common
Sec. 9. The inhabitants of school districts in lawful meetschools of different grades, to build and repair school houses, ing, assembled, shall have power to lay taxes on all the to lay taxes, and make all lawful agreements and by-laws to real estate situated in their respective districts, and upon the secure the free, equal, and useful instruction of all ibe youth polls and other rateable estate, except real estate situate withthereof.
out the limits of such district, of those persons who are resiSec. 2. No school district shall hereafter be formed our dents therein, at the time of laying such tax, and said real esof any existing district or districts, with less than forly child-tate shall not be taxed by any school district besides the one in ren between the ages of four and sixteen, ncr shaliany existing which the same is situated ; and said tax shall be made out district, by the formation of a new one, be reduced below the and signed by the district committee from the assessment list same number.
of said town or towns, to which said district belongs, last comSec. 3. Whenever any school district shall be formed or pleied or next to be completed, as said district may direct, altered in any school society, it shall be the duty of the com-and be collected by the collector of the district in the same mittee of the society to fix and describe the boundary lines of manner as town taxes. such district, and cause ihe same to be entered on the records Sec. 10. Whenever real estate situated in one school disof the society; and in any case where such boundary lines are trict, is so assessed and entered in the grand list in common not now fixed and described, it shall be the duty of said com- with other estate situated out of said district, that there is no mittee, on application of the district, to designate and define the distinct or separate value put by the assessors upon the part same, as above specified.
lying in said district, then said district wishing to lay a tax as Sec. 4. Every legally constituted school district shall be aforesaid, may call upon the assessors for the time being of a body corporate, so far as to be able to purchase, receive, hold the town in which said district is situated, to assess, and ihey and convey any estate real or personal for the support of school are hereby authorized and directed on such application to ing in the same, to prosecute and defend in all actions relating to assess, the value of that part of said estate which lies in said the property and affairs of the district, and to make all lawful district, and to return the same to the clerk of said town; and agreements and regulations for the management of schools notice ihereof, shall be given in the same way and manner as within said district.
school meetings are warned ; and at the end of fifteen days after Sec. 5. There shall be a meeting in each school district said assessment has been lodged as aforesaid, said assessors and annually on the last Tuesday of August, at the school house of society's committee shall meet in such place in said district as such district, or, if there be no school house, at such other said commiitee shall designate in their notice, and shall have place as the district committee may designate; and notice the same power in relation to such list as the board of relief ihereof shall be given at least five day's previous, by the district have in relation to lists of towns. When such list shall be committee, in one or more newspapers published iherein, or by equalized and adjusted by said assessors and society's commitputting the same on the school house, or on the sign post, or on tee the same shall be lodged with the town clerk, and said such other places, and in such other mode as the district may assessments shall be the rule of taxation for said estate by said designate for this purpose.
district for the year ensuing; and said assessors shall be paid by Sec. 6. A special meeting shall be held in each district said district, a reasonable compensation for their services. whenever called by the district committee, in the manner spe
Sec. 11. The visiters or overseers appointed by any cified in the case of annual meetings; and it shall be the duty School Society, may prescribe rules and regulations for the of said committee, or any member thereof, or in case of failure management, studies, books, and discipline of the schools in or relusal of the same, of the clerk of said district, lo call a said society, ard may appoint two persons, one or both of meeting on the written application of any five residents there whom shall be a committee to examine into ihe qualifications in who pay taxes; and every notice of a district meeting, shall of all candidates who may apply for employment as teachers state the purpose for which said meeting is called.
in the common schools of such society, and shall give to such Sec. 7. At the annual meeting of any district the legal persons, with the evidence of whose moral character, and voters thereof shall elect, in addition to the officers now requi- literary attainments they are satisfied, a certificate setting forth red, a committee, to consist of not more than three residents the branches he or she is found capable of teaching, provided of the district ;-and said committee shall discharge all the that no certificate shall be given to any person not four.d qualidoties now required of the district committee appointed by the fied to teach reading, writing and arithmetic, thoroughly-and school society ; shall employ unless otherwise directed by the the rudiments at least, of grammar, geography, and history;-10 district one or more qualified teachers; provide suitable school visit each of the district schools in said society, during the first rooms; visit the schools by one or more of their number, twice two weeks after the opening of such schools, and also during at least, duriag each season of schooling ; see that the scholars the two weeks preceding the close of the same, at which yisits are properly supplied with books, and in case they are not, and the committee may examine the record or register of the the parents, guardians, or masters bave been notified thereoi teacher, and other matters touching the situation, discipline, by the teacher, to provide the same at the expense of the dis-mode of teaching, and improvement of the school ;-and trict, and add ihe price thereof to the next school tax or rate of subject to the rules and regulations of the school visiters, may such parents, guardians, or masters ; suspend during pleasure or exercise all the powers, and discharge all the duties of said visexpel during the current season from school, all pupils found iters; and such committee shall receive one dollar each per guilty on full hearing of incorrigbly bad conduct; and give such day for the time actually employed in discharging the duties information and assistance to the school committees and visiters of their office, and such other compensation as said society of the society, as they may require, and perform all other lawful may allow, to be paid put of the income of the town deposite acts as may from time to time be required of them by the dis. Fund accruing to said society, or in any other way which said trict, or which may be necessary to carry into full effect the society may provide. powers and duties of school districts.
Sec. 12.' No teacher shall be employed in any school supSec. 8. Each school district shall have power at the an-ported by any portion of the public money, until he or she has ngal, or any lawful meeting, to build, or otherwise provide received a certificate of examination and approbation, signed suitable school rooms ; to employ one or more teachers ; to fix by a majority of visiters of the school society, or by the committhe different periods of the year at which the school shall be tee by them appointed, nor shall any teacher be entitled to taught; to appropriate such portions of the public moneys ac-draw any portion of his or her wages, so far as the same is cruing to such district for the use of schools, to such parts of the paid out of any public money appropriated by law to schools, year, as the convenience of the district may reqnire ; provided unless he or she can produce such certificate, dated previous to ihat 'no school district shall after the first day of January next, the opening of his or her school-provided that no new certificate be entitled to any portion of the public money, unless the shall be necessary, when the teacher is continued in the same school or schools of such district have been kept by a leacher school mo than a year, unless the visiters or overseers shall reor teachers duly qualified, for at least four months in the year-quire it.