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heard of such a thing! I never thought of any thing but giv. And here we are tempted to add, that some experienced and ing him trouble and pain. I wonder who told him I could successful teachers of large schools, strongly insist on ihe im. make whistles ? He would find too, that the new enjoyment portance of frequent and careful drilling their pupils in simulis far higher and purer than the old, and would have little dis-ianeous movements; and it can hardly be questioned, that ten position to relurn lo the latter.

minutes a day spent in making all rise together, sit, take their "I do not mean, by this illustration, that such a measure as books or slates, replace them, take slate pencils, face, march, this would be the only notice that ought to be taken of a wilful &c. at the ring of ihe bell, or other signals, will save far more disturbance in the school. Probably it would not. What than an equivalent, through the prompt obedience, order, stillmeasures in direct reference to the fault committed would be ness and study which such an exercise will promote. necessary, would depend upon the circumstances of the case.” OUTLINE MAPS.'

LESSON ON THE ATMOSPHERE. Those who have used outline maps in the study of geogra

Teacher. What have you been studying?

Scholar. About the atmosphere. phy, can need no recommendation of them. To such teachers as have not yet introduced them to their pupils, we may warm- posed?

T. Of how many ingredients, or parts, is the atmosphere comly recommend them. Oulline maps may be readily made, S. Principally of two. There is a very minute portion of a third. and at very small expense, by tracing the boundaries, rivers, T. What are they; and in what proportions do they exist ? lakes, mountains, &c. on one or more square yards of coarse S. About twenty parts in every hundred are orygen ; about sevenwhite muslin, omitting the names. A camel's hair pencil may ly-nine parts are ozole or nitrogen ; and about one part carbonic acid be used, with a mixture of lamp black, Gum Arabic, and gas;

T. Do these different parts equally support life? water. The gum will prevent the fluid from spreading, even on unsized paper.

S. No. The oxygen only supports life. The azote or nitrogen

neither susta'ns life nor injures it. The carbonic acid gas is a poison; A few such maps, hung on the walls, may be used with and were we to breathe that alone, there is perhaps no poison, except great advantage, in recitations or examinations in geography, prussic acid, which would kill us quicker. and as copies in map drawing. The following is also a good T. Is the air, when thrown out from our lungs in respiration, in the way of using them.' Let a pupil have the names which have same state as when we draw it into them ? been omitted, written on slips of paper, and be required to pin

S. No. When the air is thrown from the lungs, it has, in different them in their places Then send another and another to ex- than when inhaled; and it has as much more of the carbonic acid, or

persons, from four to seven or eight parts in a hundred, less of oxygen amine them, and report errors.

poisonous gas, as it has less of oxygen. Large lettered maps may sometimes be used like outline or

T. What ihen would be the consequence of breathing the same air dumb maps, by placing the pupils at such a distance that they over and overagain? cannot read the names.

S. Were we to breathe the same air only four or five times over,

life would be destroyed just as quick as though we were immersed in SIGNS IN SCHOOL.

T. Suppose the air we breathe in the school-room, instead of passSome months ago we witnessed some exercises of a class of ing off, mixes with the air which we have not breathed, and is thus, in twenty-five girls, in the primary departmeni in the Stone school part, breathed again? house in Hartford, which we thought very well worthy of be

s. Then we should approach death, through stupidity, faintness, ing known. The number of children in the room being large, and vertigo, just in proportion to the quantity of bad air in the room, and several lessons being taught at the same time in different and the lengih of time we breathe it. Is not this the reason we often classes, it was very desirable to preserve silence as much as out of doors at play? Folks scold us, and tell us welike play better

feel so dull and lifeless over our books, and so lively and frolicksome possible, to prevent mutual interruption. One of the teachers than our books; but I believe it is often because they give us, not the stood by a black board in front of her class; and the exercise breath of life, but the breath of disease and death, in the school-room. being in addition, she marked down several numbers in rapid T. How is it known that the air, which is invisible, and which we succession, and, after waiting a moment for them to perform cannot grasp in our hands to examine, is composed of different parts ? the process mutually, gave a signal with her hand for ihem to S. Chemists are able to separale the different parts, and put one begin. The girls expressed the sum by raising their fingers; part into one bottle and another into another bouile, as easily as I can and, with a glance of the eye, she was able to detect any mis- separate cents from quarters of dollars. take.

T. How is it known that the part called carbonic acid gas, is

poison ? For example-if she gave out the numbers 7, 6 and 9, the S. The experiment has often been tried on animal life. There is a girls, with regular motions, moved both hands up and down grotto in Naples, where this gas issues from the ground, and, as it is twice, with all the fingers open, and then one hand with two heavier than the common air, it runs along on the ground in a stream, fingers open, to signify 22. "The sum of 8, 12, 9 and 7, they and some cruel persons, who act as guides io the persons who go there would have expressed by raising all their fingers three times, to see the curiosity, carry dogs with them, and they thrust the noses of and then one hand open and the other with but one finger, to the dogs down into the gas ;-the dogs are immediately seized with con

vulsions, and would die in two minutes, if not released. When the It has been thought, that in some cases, spelling might be dogs see their masters going towards the grotto with a stranger, they taught with advantage, by the occasional use of the manual drag them along with a rope, in order to try the inhuman experiment alphabet adopted in our Deaf and Dumb institutions. The ex- upon them. And if dogs try to run away from the grotio, where they ercise would be noiseless; and it is a sound principle in in- are compelled to breathe poison, why should not children try to run struction, that the greater variety of associations offered to the away from those schools where they are compelled to breathe poison ? mind to assist the memory, the better.

If they do not, they have not so much wit as dogs. A dog would not Some years ago, while visiting a school in Paris, we were go to such a place after the best food ; and why should a child go to much struck with the quietness and facility with which a boy such a place after the pleasantest learning ? asked and obtained leave from the master to go out. Few only to life, but to health, to vigor and cheerfulness of mind. And what

T. You are very right. A sufficiency of fresh air is necessary, not schools at that time, in our country, had adopted such a prac- I wish you to understand further, is, how immense a quantity of it has tice, and it presented itself 10 us, as it now might to some of been created for us, by the goodness of God. There is an ocean of it our readers, in the light of a novelty. Many, we well know, almost fifty miles deep all round the earth; it is ten times higher than have long been familiar with the use of signs for such purpos- the top of the highest mountain, and more than ten times higher than es; but there are schools in which the old practice of asking any eagle ever flew. No man can go so high towards the sky as to riva voce, still prevails. To the teachers of such schools we get above it, nor so deep into the earth that it will not surround him. would merely say, that they may easily require their pupils to making or for transportation. It cools us in summer—it sustains our

It is not only giren, but delirered to us. It costs nothing either for raise the right hand, when they wish to obtain leave to quit the fires in winter. It carries ships across the ocean. It is called the free room, and the left hand for such other purpose as they may air, because it is free, without money and without price, to every body; choose to signify by such a signal. A single touch of the bell and nothing but folly and unthankfulness can deprive us of so great a may serve as a signal for general stillness; two or three sounds blessing. Please ask your father if he does not think it best to have for closing books, rising, marching, or any other general evulu. some ventilator in the school-room.-- Massachusetts Common School tion.


express 36.

LONDON SOCIETY FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF ward humors among his pupils which are likely often to emVOCAL MUSIC AMONG ALL CLASSES.

barrass him in the instruction or government of them. Since the publication of our article on the introduction of Children frequently enter the school room in a frame of mind singing into the public schools of Paris, we have received unfavorable to study or orderly behavior. The fear of punishfrom London the Constitution of a Society recently formed ment, or the influence of the teacher's presence, may overawe there, with the title above given, together with five numbers of or suppress the exhibition of their feelings: but this state of “The Singing Master," a work designed for use as a manual mind is not the best for study or improvement of any kind. In of teaching, and comprising a collection of tunes.

many cases the child is not to blame, or but partly so, for what This book contains some good melodies, with songs of a

he feels. He may be weary, or ill, or suffering under ill treatmoral character, written in good taste, and calculated to make ment received at home, or from a school-mate ; and frowns or excellent impressions on all classes. We are happy to men- blows, though they may prevent him from saying or doing what tion the name of Mr. E. Hickson, of London, to whose pen he feels inclined to, will not give that desire for his books, or most of the original poetry is due: as it is evident that he ap- that docile disposition which are necessary to the most successpreciates the importance of inculcating pure, elevated, and ful prosecution of his tasks. useful sentiments with pleasing airs, and has engaged in the

Now a tranquillizing exercise, like that of singing some cheertask with spirit and success.

ful, or solemn hymn, if introduced at his entrance into the school The Society direct their exertions partly to the encourage- room, will often accomplish the desired change in his feelings, ment of teachers of vocal music, by offering premiums of five reverse the course of his thoughts, cause his irritation tu subor ten guineas to such as present classes of pupils capable of side, excite sentiments of kindness and affection towards his singing at sight new written music, in one or more parts, &c. teacher and his fellows, kindle a desire for knowledge, impress &c. As one great object is to promote the regular practice of bin with views of his Maker and his duty. singing in schools, they aim at the multiplication as well as

Besides, music, if taught scientifically, is truly and eminentthe improvement of teachers of music, and restrict the offer of ly an intellectual branch of instruction; and is of great use in their premiums to no class of applicants. The Society pro- training the mind to attention, observation and systematic deceeds on the presumption, that general instruction in the art duction, &c. and science is the proper way to prepare for a thorough im

Vocal music also requires a very healthful exercise of the provement of inusic in the country at large.

muscles of the chest and throat, and therefore deserves to be As a specimen of the moral songs, composed by Mr. Hick- ranked among the most important branches of physical educason, for use in the schools in that metropolis, we have copied lion. It renders an uprighi posture necessary, and gives the the following from “The Second Class Tune Book," or "The chest a strong and frequent expansion, introducing a large supSinging Master, No. 4." The tune to which they are set is ply of air into the lungs, strengthening the voice by use, and "Danby."

accustoming the organs of speech to a deliberate, strong and THE MIGHTS AND THE RIGHTS.

correct mode of enunciation, greatly favorable to good habits of

pronunciation. 1. May ev'ry year but draw more near

Those teachers who are able to sing, should begin, without The time when strife shall cease;

delay, to teach their pupils a few hymns and moral songs, to be And truth and love all hearts shall move, To live in joy and peace,

sung daily in school; and those who know anything of the sci

ence of music, will find still greater account in adding occasionNow sorrow reigns, and earth complains, al brief instructions in the elements, with the aid of the blackFor folly still her power maintains:

board. The use of slates by the pupils is recommended in this, But the day shall soon appear,

as in many other exercises. We ean assure our readers, from When the might with the right and the truth shall be ; many aciual observations, as well as from experiments we And come what there may

have made in numerous instances, that one hour in a week is To stand in the way,

sufficient to teach a large school much important knowledge That day the world shall see.

and skill in the elements and practice of singing. 2. Let good men ne'er of truth despair,

In many districts, we doubi not, choristers or other capable Though humble efforts fail;

teachers of rousic, may be found, who will cheerfully assist in O give not o'er until once more

preparing children for the performance of appropriate pieces for The righteous cause prevail.

daily use in school. Even learning to sing by rote is far better In vain and long, enduring wrong,

than neglect of this branch ; and schools might be mentioned, The weak may strive against the strong:

in which one of the older children successfully leads the rest. But the day, &c.

In the New-York Alms-house School on Long-Island, the

house-keeper leaches about five hundred children simultaneous3. Though inl'rest pleads, that noble deeds

ly, by rote; and their performance is very creditable, while The world will not regard:

the influence of the exercise is evidently highly useful. To noble minds which duty binds

If friends of education would occasionally enter the common No sacrifice is hard.

schools, and encourage the teachers to introduce or give familThe brave and true may seem but lew, iar instruction on the principles, they would find ihemselves But hope has better things in view:

welcomed with joy, and their own knowledge of music inFor the day, &c.


There are methods of teaching which are to be preferred to VOCAL MUSIC IN SCHOOLS.

others; and we may recommend attention to the books of Mafond than singing; and none, perhaps, better calculated to however, even with but a limited acquaintance with the subject,

There is no exercise of which children are generally more son, Ives, Zeuper, Jones, Dingley, and others, to persons lookmake them like their school. Singing bas also a harmonizing will soon suggest many pleasing and efficacious expedients. influence on the feelings; su that it is almost impossible for bad The great rule in this, as in other branches, is to keep the pupassions to hold a predominance in the hearts of companions, pils provided with something to do which they are able to rerwhile their voices are mingling sweet sounds. It is an inter- form, to present an interesting variety, to be pleased yourself, esting and a wonderful fact, that, by our physical constitution, and never to try to teach what you do not understand. we are almost incapable of singing well while our feelings are excited by evil influences of any kind; and, at the same time,

LYCEUMS. with the attempl to sing naturally, we make an exertion to suppress any feelings of discontent or vexation which we may ex The increase of active and well conducted Lyceums in this perience.

State, and at this season, is much to be desired, as one of the The Teacher should bestow some attention to this subject; most direct and effectual means of directing the attention of and, if he becomes convinced of what appears to us to be true the people to the importance of improving the schools. When beyond contradiction, he will be anxious to avail himself of so any person begins to seek for insiruction, he begins from that easy, pleasant and clicacious a remedy for many of the unio- moment to hold in respect those who possess it; and the far



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ther he proceeds, the greater does his appreciation of them and most familiar presence in the soul. It is a real power, though for education become.

some deny its existence. 21. To cultivate the religious senLyce'ins are associations formed for the mutual improve-timents. We will not do injustice to this portion of the adment of their members, and the common benefit of society: dress, by the meagre report we could furnish of it at this moThe members meet on frank, cordial and equal grounds. All ment, and at this distance of time, for we took no notes. Sufdeclare, by joining a Lyceum, that they wish to extend their fice it to say, it was received with almost breathless attention, knowledge; and, from the manner in which they associate, by a large audience, many of whom were standing, for want each may become, by turns, a learner and a teacher. All un- of room to sit. 3d. To cultivate the intellectual powers. necessary formalities, as well as expenses, are to be avoided, There was less danger these should be omitted than any of that the way of learning may be rendered as free as possible. the others, for men saw the use of the mind. It gare bread, " What is that ?” “How did this happen ?" “ What is the distinction, wealth and power. Men were willing io lay great use of that?" Such questions are encouraged, by being heard stress on this; still, too much could not be done. Then 41h, with respect and readily answered.

the sense of the beautiful was to be cultivated. He spoke of More than twenty Lyceums in Connecticut were reported the reality of this sentiment, and the beautiful provision made from, at the eighth annual meeting of the American Lyceum, for its culture, by the Author of pature. Only a small part of which was held at Hartford in May last; and we believe there the things in the world, were designed to feed, clothe or warm is a considerable number more in the State. Their plans are man, but all were beautiful, from the little shell to the cloud various, but all have useful ends in view, and their establish- and ihe rainbow. This sense could be cultivated by meditament and support reflect honorably on the intelligence, and ting on the works of nature, and arl. He supposed a man to generally the self-denying spirit of their most active friends. find, in a rude cottage, the works of the great masters of de

Whoever engages in such an enterprize, should determine to sign, paintings, statues ; and to be told that from year to year
keep ever in view the important object of promoting intellectu- no eye looked at them. How he would lament. But the beau-
al and moral improvement. He must prepare for active and ties of nature were as little noticed by many men. They saw
persevering labor, to act without the supports and countenance no beauty.
of some who ought to stand and work with him side by side. Il. The means of this erlucation. A man's trade taught
He should even be prepared to meet with suspicion and oppo- him. He did not consider it a figure of speech that a man was
sition, from some who may misapprehend his measures or his taught by his trade. Education was the unfolding of the mind,
motives. It is an enterprize which may well enlist ihe purest a trade educates the mind, as far as it calls it into exercise:
Christian principles; and, if planned and prosecuted with the some trades do this as well as any of the learned professions.
proper spirit, may powerfully contribute to such iniprovements So, as well educated men may be found in trades as in profes-
as the Christian will regard with unmingled pleasure. sions. Besides, education is not merely a development of the

An association may be formed in almost any village or neigh- mind, but of the moral, religious and social affections, and
borhood, by a few friends of knowledge; and by meeting with humble stations in life afford often the best opportunity for
an audience once a week through the winter, delivering lec- the exercise of the great virtues of charity and self-devial, such
tures in a familiar manner, exhibiting and conversing on mine- as the rich man cannot practice, from the nature of the case:
rals, plants, &c. inviting enquiries, requesting aid in collecting so the best specimens of human nature, or in other words the
and arranging them, furnishing communications on similar greatest men, may be found, where we least look for them;
subjects to the editors of newspapers, contributing books for a in the lowest walks of life. Here he made some remarks on
library, arranging for their delivery, &c. &c. and a visible im- true greatness, which, to our humble sense, seemed the truest
provement will be made in the aspect of society before the and the noblest teaching we ever heard, except in the great
next spring Lyceums may be abused, like any thing else, if and good volume. He thought the greaiesl man in this city
neglected by the wise and good, and abandoned to the bad and might be found in some lowly tenement; all unknown to idle

lookers on ; plying some humble calling ; sustaining a family

by his labor, and every day doing duties, difficult to be done, SELF-CULTURE-DR. CHANNING'S LECTURE BEFORE and braving crosses, hard to be borne, which would give a man THE FRANKLIN LYCEUM.

the fame of greatness, is borne in a conspicuous station. Here In continuation of what we have before said in reference to he spoke of some of the obstacles in the way of culture, and Lyceums in general, we will add a few words in respect 10 particularly intemperance, the deadliest foe to it. He suggestLectures. These may be made a most efficient means of call-ed reading. A man could purchase the works of Milion and ing public attention to the subject of popular education, and we Shakspeare, for a small surn, and though excluded from good rejoice to see that so much has been already done, and is to be society, have the society of those sacred authors, in his lowly done, in our own State and in States about us, in this way. dwelling. He enlarged on this means of improvement. Spoke In looking over the courses of Lectures to be delivered in seve- also of Schools ; of the great interest now felt in erlucation in ral of our larger cities, it is a cheering symptom of an awaken- our State; of the great service rendered by the present Secreing interest in popular Education, to see that some of the most tary of the Board of Education, and one gentleman who gave eminent minds in the country are at this time maturing and treasure to establish a Normal school. But the present state uttering their opinions on some of the varied topics bound up It is possible that the poorest should one day have better means

of education was not satisfactory ; much remained to be done. in this mighty subject.

Some friend has sent us from Boston. a number of the Chris- of self-culture than the richest possess at this time. The poor.. tian Register, containing a brief notice of Dr. Channing's est. man has better means of self-culture than Homer, or Lecture on Self-Culture, before the Franklin Lyceum, It is a Pythagoras. He proposed that the Public Lands should in noble theme, and we should think from this notice, that it was some way be appropriated to this great work. He spoke also nobly treated:

of conversation as a nuble instrumeni for cultivating the whole

man-as an amusement, and ins'ruction it was above price. Dr. Channing began by stating his design in addressing the It was little noticed, because every body could talk. He dwelt audience, viz. to set before them the Ideal of human culture; on the importance of beginning early. Here lay the secret. the means of obtaining that ideal; and to reply to some ob- If one commenced late, great energies and hardy efforts might jections commonly brought against the idea of educating the do much, but want of early culture would always retard ihe mass of men. Before sketching the plan of his address, he en work, so the duty of parents was plain. larged with singular beauty and effect on the great dignity of III. Reply to Ol,jections. Some say uncultivated laborers human nature; the worth of man, as man, a value so great, are the best laborers, (an argument worthy of Hobbes.) An that all distinctions between classes of men vanished in a mo- answer to this is found in the state of agriculture and the arts, ment; they were as drops io the ocean. He then proceeded, in the southern States, where the laborers were slaves, and of in a very eloquent manner to unfold the idea of culture; what course uncultivated. Some say laborers have not time. But for a man should design to do for himself. He should aim ist, what do men live? Besides, cultivation creates time, by deTo cultivate his moral powers. These were of the noblesi vising easy methods of doing the work of the community. order. The sentiment of the Just, the True, and the Good, Witness the steam engine, and a thousand other machines. connects us most intimately with God. Conscience is God's The tendency of civilization is to make the head sare the

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hands. So time is set free to grow wise and good in. Some the acquisition of knowledge. A letter has lately been put into my other popular (at least common) objections were answered, hands, bearing date the sixth of September, so interesting in itself, and which we will not mention."

so strongly illustrative of this point, that I will read a portion of it;

though it was written, I am sure, without the least view to publicity. THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF HOLLAND,--MR. BROOKS

" I was the youngest,” says the writer, "of many brethren; and my

parents were poor. My means of education were limited to the adLECTURE,

vantages of a district school, and those again were circumscribed by Mr. Brooks, of Hingham, who delivered two excellent and valur- my father's death, which deprived me, at the age of fifteen, of those able lectures before the School Convention for Hartford county, deliv- scanty opportunities which I had previously enjoyed. A few months ered a third before the Hartford Young Men's Institute on Friday the after his decease, I apprenticed myself to a blacksmith in my native 23d of November, on the School System of Holland. As we propose yi'lage. Thither I carrird an indomitable taste for reading, which ! to devote an Extra number of this Journal to the School System of Hol- had previously acquired through the medium of the society library; all land, and another to that of Prussia, with copious extracts from Prof. the historical works in which I had at that time perused. At the expiSiowe's and Cousin's Reports, we can here give only a few of the in-ration of a little more than halfmy apprenticeship, I suddenly conceivteresting facts contained in Mr. Brooks' Lecture. The present system ed the idea of studying Latin. Through the assistance of my elder of Holland had its origin in a voluntary association for this purpose, brother, who had himself obtained a collegiate education by his own excalled "the Society for the Public Good,” formed in 1785. In a very ertions, I completed my Virgil during the evenings of one winter. Affew years it branched off into district associations, and numbered over ter some time devoted to Cicero and a few other Latin authors, I com7000 members. This society spurred the government to action, and in menced the Greek. At this time it was necessary that I should devote 1901 the first law of public education was passed. Amendments were every hour of daylight and a part of the evening to the duties of my adopted in 1803 and 1806, but so wisely were they formed, so adapted apprenticeship. Still I carried my Greek grammar in my hat, and oftto the wants and habits of the people, that it has survived unharmed en found a moment, when I was heating some large iron, when I could three great revolutions. It has only acquired a firmer and fuller de place my book open before me against the chimney of my forge, and Felopment by these trials and the lapse of time.

go through witho tupto, tupteis, tuptei, inperceived by my fellow-apThe studies pursued are nearly the same as in Prussia. The suc- prentices, and, to my confusion of face, with a detrimental effect to the cessful working of the system is secured by the thorough examination charge in my fire. Alevening, I sat down unassisted and alone to the of teachers, and a wise and energetic inspection of schools. There is Iliad of Homer, twenty books of which measured my progress in that a Minister of Public Instruction for the whole kingdom-an Inspector language during the evenings of another winter. I next turned to the appointed by him for each of the 77 provinces or districts into which modern languages, and was much gratified to learn that my knowledge the st ite is divided, besides local boards of superintendence for each of the Latin furnished me with a key to the literature of most of the school. These are all linked together, and through them there is a pe- languages of Europe. riodical report of every school in Holland, to the Head Minister, by

"This circumstance gave a new impulse to the desire of acquainting whom it is published.

myself with the philosophy, derivation, and affinity of the different EuWhen a young man wishes to become a teacher, he must upply, at ropean tongues. I could not be reconciled 10 limit myself in these ina fixed period, to the inspectors assembled, before whom he undergoes vestigations to a few hours after the arduous labors of the day. I therean examination as to his attainments, natural ability, and moral char-fore laid down my hammer, and went to New Haven, where I recived acter. These approved, he is, in the first instance, allowed to act as an to native teachers, in French, Spanish, German, and Italian. I return. assistant in any school to which he can gain admittance. After a few ed at the expiration of two years to the forge, bringing with me such months he again applies to the same body to be admitted on the list of books in those languages as I could procure. When I had read these teachers of the lower rank; is again examined, and if approved, re- books through, I commenced the Hebrew with an awakened desire for ceives permission to become a candidate for the mastership of a village examining another field; and by assiduous application I was enabled school. After a few months more, devoted to self-improvement, and io in a few weeks to read this language with such facility that I allotted actual teaching, he again presents himself for further examination; to myself as a task, to read two chapters in the Hebrew Bible before and if again approved, is admitted to a rank higher, and becomes eligi-| breakfast each morning; this and an hour at noon being all the time ble either for a village or a city school

. His first examination would that I could devote to myself during the day. After becoming somerelate chiefly to moral character and general ability; his second, to his what familiar with this language, I looked around me for the means of acquaintance with the arts of reading, writing, and arithmetic, with initiating myself into the fields of oriental literature, and to my deep recomposition, grammatical analysis, te history of his own country, gret and concern, I found my progress in this direction hedged up by and generally with the science of education; third would embrace ge- the want of requisite books. 'l'immediately began to devise means of ography in iis various branches, and the more advanced stages of ac. obviating this obstacle; and, after many plans, I concluded to seek a quirements previously demanded.

place as a sailor on board some ship bound to Europe, thinking in this The results of the system are most cheering to those who believe way to have opportunities of collecting at different ppits such works in that a thorough public instruction, embracing the head and the heart, the modern and oriental languages as I found necessary for this object. will narrow the dominion of vice and crime. And all this has been I left the forge and my native place to carry this plan into execution. brought about in less than a half century. Out of a population of I travelled on foot to Boston, a distance of more than a hundred miles

, 2,500,000, the number of juvenile offenders under eighteen years of age to find some vessel bound to Europe. In this I was disappointed, und in confinement in 1836 did not exceed 150. Contrast this with the while revolving in my mind what steps to take, accidentally heard of state of things in London, where in 1836 there were 3,132 boys under the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester. I immediately bent sixteen who were not educated, and who probably only left the prison- my steps towards this place. I visited the hall of the American Antihouse (as the prisons of London are managed) to pursue a downward quarian Society, and found here, to my infinite gratification, such a colcourse of vice and crime.

lection of ancient, modern, and oriential languagės as I never before Mr. Brooks concluded his lecture with a stirring and eloquent ap- conceived to be collected in one place; and, sir, you may imagine with peal to the Youny Men of the Institute and of the State, to take up the what sentiments of gratitude I was affected, when upon evincing a de improvement of our common schools with united hands and with en- sire to examine some of these rich and rare works, I was kindly intilightened zeal. Would to God we could enlist every one of this noble ted to an unlimited participation in all the benefits of this noble instituarmy who are to bear upward and onward, we trust, the cause of civil tion. Availing myself of the kindness of the directors, I spent about and religious liberty, in this patriotic and religious work of educating three hours daily at the hall, whiclı, with an hour at noon, and about all the children of our State and of our land, so as to best fit them in three in the evening, make up the portion of the day which I appropristrength, morality, and intellect, to enjoy their own existence, and to be ate to my studies, the rest being occupied in arduous manual labor. most useful in their several spheres of employment and duty.

Through the facililies afforded by this institution, I have been able to add so much to my previous acquaintance with the ancient, modern, and

oriental langnages, as to be able to read upwards of fity of them, with SCHOOL LIBRARIES.-A BLACKSMITH'S LETTER,

more or less facility.” From a Speech of Governor Everert, of Massachusetts, at a meeting this letter, and the gentleman to whom it was addressed, for the liberty

I trust, Mr. President, I shall be pardoned by the ingenious author of of the friends of Education, in Bristol county.

which I have taken, unexpected, I am sure, by both of them, in thus It is a great mistake to suppose that it is necessary to be a profession-making it public. It discloses a resolute purpose of improvement, (unal man, in order to have leisure to indulge a taste for reading. Far oth- der obstacles and difficulties of no ordinary kind,) which excites my erwise. I believe the mechanic, the engineer, the husbandman, the tra- | admiration--I may say my veneration. It is enough to make one who der, have quite as much leisure as the average of men in the learned has had good opportunities for education hang his head in shame. professions. I know some men busily engaged in these different callings of actual life, whose minds are well stored with various useful knowledge acquired from books. There would be more such men, if

LESSON IN NUMERATION. education in our common schools were, as it well might be, of a higher order; and if common school libraries, well furnished, were introduced

315. What does the figure 5 stand for bere ? Dors it stand into every district

, as I trust they soon will be. It is surprising, sir, for five hundreds ? Does it stand for five tens? Whialuces how much may be effected, even under the most unfavorable circum-) the 4 stand for? Does it stand for four ones? Four thoustances for the improvement of the mind, by a person resolu:ely bent on sands? What shows the whole meaning of it? What does

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the 3 stand for? What do all these figures means ? Read or time to time, for the purpose of being qualified as Teachers in nimerate them.

this or any other country.” Now consider and tell what good reason there is, why this The schools of this society are open to visiters every day. number should not be wriven out in our so, 300, 40, 5. Would The system is the simultaneous, and partly mutual. Readit be as convenient? Alnost every thing in arithmetic is done ing, writing and arithmetic are taught. The reading lessons because it is the most easy or convenient way.

are extracts from the scriptures; no catechism or pecular Make three dots on your slate, in a row, so, . : . If you tenels are taught; but every child is enjoined to attend worwere going to write down the number two hundred and sixty-ship with his parents: Teachers are admitted, even if they do five, where should you put the two hundred? There is the poi design to instruct entirely on the plan of the Society's place for the hundreds. How can you always find the place schools. for hundreds ? Write two hundred on the dot where it be The British Society has a large number of auxiliaries, and longs. Where and how must you write the number sixty ? has greatly promoted the extension and improvement of educaHow many is sixty? Why do we not call it six tens instead tion, both in Great Britain and in her dependencies, principally of sixty? Is it not likely to be because it is easier to say sixty by supplying educated Teachers. Their great, central instituthan six tens, and pleasanter to hear ? It is well for children tion, is called the Borough Road School, and is directed by an to remember ibat ly at the end of a word meaning a purber, able educator, the Rev. Mr. Dunn. “The principles of the signifies ten. Such words must always be written in the place Society,” remarks one of their late reports, are at once libeof tens. Now place toe five in its place.

ral and scriptural, religious and unsectarian." The right of the Make four dois, and write down this number: six thousand, poor to education, the duty which rests upon the educated to two hundred and twenty-nine. Write these: four thousand instruct the ignorant—the wisdom of in parting instruction to and one. Five thousand. Eight thousand and fifty-five. A all classes with a liberal band, 'not grudgingly, but as cheercipher or nought means that the figure on the left hand side of ful givers,'--the necessity of basing all that is taught upon the it means ten times more than it would without it. The cipher sacred scriptures, of fairly and fully inculcating the whole takes one place, and the figure must take the next higher. counsel of God,' uostained by the spirit of party, undefiled by

05 Is this cipher of any use ? Does it change the mean- sectarianism, without the aid of human creed or human formuing of the 5? Does it signify any thing itselt?

lary, and through the agency of persons, themselves, it may be Lesson in Carrying. 29 Here is a sum in addition. I hoped, (as far as men may judge) under the influence of Diam to put twenty-eight 16 and sixteen together, find how vine grace:" these were ihe views expressed by the founders large a number they will make, and write it under the of the Society; and after many years of practice under them, two other numbers. I say, six and eight make fourteen, and the present directors give their full and decided approbation. set down four and carry one. Now why should I put the 4 We have not room in this paper, even to give an outline of the under 6 and 8? Then tell what I mean when I say I carry Society's operations; and must limit ourselves here to adding one, and what I must do.

merely, that the central Association of the Society hold geneI will explain these. 8 and 6 here are not eight tens and six ral meetings, at which information is communicated in the tens, but eightones and six ones. Therefore they do not make form of essays; and extracts from these, with other matter, are fourieen tens, but fourteen ones. Well, fourteen ones are the published in a pamphlet called the British Teachers' Monthly same as one len and four ones. Teen means ten. There. Reporter. The following summary of principles and methods fore I must set the 4 ones in the place of ones or units, so, 28 recommended at large by essayists at the third general meetand I must put the one ten in the place of the tens. But if 16 ing, we copy from a number of that pamphlet, published a few I put the ten there now, I must soon rub it out, because there is another number soon to be pul with it. So I will 4

From the British Teachers' Monthly Reporter. first find what that number is, and then add them together and! We think our readers will agree with us in considering the then write thein in one figure. When I say I carry one, I Third General Meeting of the Association fully equal in intermean that I carry il to its own place. This one is a ten, and est to the former ones. Many valuable hints were thrown out not a hundred nor an unit. So I carry it to the place of tens, during the discussion which followed the reading of the Eswhere it belongs.

say. We can only refer to a few of them, and we do so by But I will show you how I can do this sum in a different selecting and arranging them in the order in which ihey occur. way, and set down all that I have done in my mind. I write 1. It requires a good teacher to keep boys perfectly quiet. the two numbers to be added, as before, so, 28 Then I say, Ten minutes a day is well spent in teaching boys to be motionsix and eight are fourteen, and set down 16 the four ones less, when it is wished. under the 6 and 8 ones, and the teen or ten under the 2 II. Ingenuity in instruction is requisite in a master. He and 1, which are tens, so, 28 Now I have to add together must avoid dull monolony, small things with men being great 2 and 1. They make 3, 16 and I put that in the place of things to boys. ten, because it means three tens. Then it would stand III. The habits which a child forms in school are more im28 thus. Now I must 14 put these tens together and portant than the amount of knowledge he obtains. 16 place them by the side of ihe 4, so that I have another IV. Moral evils must be corrected by aiming at the heart

sum in addition to do. I draw a line and do it, so, 28 and conscience. “Thus saith the Lord,” is more weighty than
14 This is a longer way than the other, and that is the 16/" I say so."
3 reason why it is not commonly used. The rules of V. 'We must teach the unknown by the help of the known,
arithmetic are made to save trouble. There is some good 14 following the example of the Saviour, who taught his disciples
reason for every one of them; and we ought to know the 3 he unknown and hidden mysteries of the kingdom of heaven
reason, or we cannot understand the rule well.

by the aid of that which was near. familiar and obvious.
44 VI. Quotations from Scripture should be cautiously intro-

duced as illustrations of the meanings of words. Unless holy

Scripture be introduced with becoining seriousness, we are
likely to do mischief. We degrade the word of God in the es-

limation of children when we make it subservient to the com-

munication of secular knowledge, instead of making every oihThe British and Foreign School Society was instituted in er study elucidate and coforce the dictates of this holy book. London, about thirty-five years ago, for “promoting the educa vir Children will often explain and illustrate the meaning tion of the laboring and manufacturing classes of societvof of Words far better than adulis. The story of the chimneyevery religious persuasion.” The third article of the constitu- sweep and the dog (see page 30) is an admirable example of rion requires, that they “ shall maintain a school on an exten- this ability. svescale, lo educale children ;” and that “il shall support and VIII. Visible illustrations far exceed in value any descriptrain up young persons, of both sexes, for supplying properly in- tions whatsoever. We can never be quite sure that children structed Teachers to the inhabitants of such places in ihe Brit- form just conceptions of that which we describe to them.ish dominions, at home and abroad, as shall be desirous of es: The long nose of the badger, (page 30,) which escaped the attablishing schools on the British system. It shall instruct al tention of the teacher, was the very first thing to attract the nopersons, whether tatives or foreigners, who may be sent from lice of the children.

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