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periority its proper station, long since its laws would have regarded may unbappily find themselves still left to their own exertions, ihe profession of teacher, as one in a great degree invested with paternal we have a few remarks to make. and religious rights. If there be many instances in which ieachers themselves have derogated from this dignified position, and converted sentions, and sometimes produced a lasting dislike between in
Associations among teachers have too often given rise to distrade, it is only
the natural result of our unwise and niggurd legislation, dividuals of that profession, which ought, if any, to feel and and belongs not to the profession, nor to the men.
act with the sentiments of friends and brothers. Such sad efThe teacher must not only be perfect master of the various branches fects may be well guarded against, by avoiding the plan most of education which he is called on to teach, but he must also, in addi- i commonly adopted in the foundation of Teachers' Associations, tion, be thoroughly acquainted, both theoretically and practically, with viz. that of making them mere debating societies. the art of education itself. He must understand the science of mind, A few ill-judging members, a little irritability of temper, or the principles of instruction, the best methods, the latest improvements; forgetfulness of the important objects of the society, in an unand not only must he understand them, but he must have so repeatedly happy hour, may lead to injurious and even ruinous results. exercised them, that their practice shall be as familiar as their thcory: Not a few associations have been broken up, in consequence of For his moral duties a still more elevated scale will be requisite. He must be strongly penetrated with the importance of his sacred trust.
some such unioward influence. Many of these may yet have His religious and moral convictions must be profound-he must make produced more good than evil; but it is important to avoid exhimself ihoroughly acquainted with the nature of the youthful heart, posure to similar occurrences. If discussions are admitted, and with the best expedients for its correction and improvement; his iherefore, it is better to make them but one feature in the plan, rebukes must be tempered by modesty, patience, evident justice, good and 10 guard them carefully against abuse. This may be done sense, and, above all, by unwearied kindliness ; abstaining, in every by allowing only one or two speeches to an individual, and but instance at all practicable, from punishment, and never allowing himself to be transported by passion or harshness. His praise should be a fixed length of tiine to each, except in cases in which the simple and measured. He must remember that it is not sufficient to chairman or society may grani a special privilege. reward success-he must not dishearten exertion. His manners must
Other exercises should be provided for; as the collections of be grave, but not austere. Above all, he must be constant, equable, libraries, the reading of essays, the exhibition of pupils trained certain-an inexorable regard to truth in the minutest trifle, (if, indeed, on different methods, the communication of facts and opinions, any thing be a trifle where truth is concerned,) and an honorable eleva- visits to each others' schools, the production or description of tion above all selfish and interested motive, must be his distinguishing apparatus, new books, &c. &c.; and on these or other subjects, characteristics. It is needless to say that his private life must be irre- standing or special committees may be appointed. proachable. If moral teaching be necessary, what teaching is like We may remark, also, that common school teachers are less example? Unless he be all this, he may be a school-master, but he is no true instructor. If he be incapable of discharging these duties, and exposed to suffer from those unhappy jealousies, which somefulfilling these obligations, even to the letter, (whatever may be his times appear between persons of one profession. They are not talents,) he will fail in the high object of his vocation. He may form and cannot be rivals of each other to any great extent, because clever and well-instructed men, but men, in the true acceptation of the they cannot encroach upon each other's districts. This is a word-never. Such qualities are, indeed, rare, but they ought not to circumstance favorable to teachers' Associations. be so, nor would they be so, if proper means were adopted to insure them. They will not grow of themselves, but with proper culture ALWAYS TEACH SOMETHING, AND BUT ONE THING they may be made to grow. This proper culture' ought to be insisted
AT A TIME. on; if not to be had it ought to be provided. Schools for teachers ought to be the first object with whoever undertakes to assure to a class or (From "Practical Education, by Maria Edgeworth and Richard Lov. a community a good education. The nature of the qualifications re
ell Edgeworth.” 550 pages 12 mo.-P. 66.) quired, points out the nature of the school. The assurance that a candidate' has passed through these schools, will, of itself, be the best out understanding them, yawn and writhe with manifest
“Children who have the habit of listening to words withpledge to the public of his competency.
The high importance of previous qualification necessarily implies symptoms of disgust, whenever they are compelled to hear the necessity of sustaining it, at least to the same level: this is difficult sounds which convey no ideas to their minds. All supernu: without books, and communication with men engaged in the same merary words should be avoided in cultivating the power of pursuits. Each school ought, therefore, to have its teachers' library, attention. and each district its teachers' conferences, where all may meet at specific periods. Nor should the teacher neglect occasional visits to the London. He wished to amuse, and at the same time to aston
“ A few years ago, a gentleman brought two Esquimaux to model or teachers' school of the capital, to discuss the interests and ad- ish them, with the magnificence of the metropolis. For this vancement of his and their common profession, or any similar means; purpose, after having equipped them like English gentlemen, by which he may refresh his information, and still further augment he took them out one morning, to walk through the streets of and improve the methods which he has in use.
Such a teacher, so prepared, and so disposed to add on every occasion London. They walked for several hours in silence; they exto his means, will be worthy of his high functions,
pressed neither pleasure nor admiration at any thing they saw.
When their walk was ended, they appeared uncommonly melTEACHERS' ASSOCIATIONS.
ancholy and stupified. As soon as ihey got home, they sat
down, with their elbows upon their knees, and hid their faces A free and friendly intercourse or correspondence among the between their hands. The only words they could be brought teachers of a town, county and state, is an object greatly to be to utter were: 'Too much smoke—too much noise—too much desired. Out of it must naturally grow, wherever it exists, an houses-too much men—too much every thing.' important elevation in their views, a great and progressive im "Some people who attend public lectures on natural philosprovement in knowledge and skill, and an account of intellectu- ophy, with the expectation of being much amused and instructal and moral benefit to the public which those only can proper-ed, go home with feelings similar to those of the poor Esquily estimate who attentively consider and personally feel the maux: they feel that they have had too much of every thing. effects.
The lecturer bas not had iime to explain his terms, nor to reIn some townships, it is to be feared, the teachers may not peat them till they are distinct in the memory of his audience. speedily find Common School Associations so efficient as we With children, every mode of iustruction must be hurtful, could desire, at least in affording them opportunities for mutual which fatigues attention: therefore a skiHful instructor will, acquaintance and consultation, for the inspection of each others' as much as possible, avoid the manner of teaching, to which schools, the perusal of books and journals of education, to at- the public lecturer is in some degree compelled by his situatend anniver: aries or other meetings of school societies, lyce- tion.”
In such cases we should hope to see the teachers acting together, for themselves, and, as far as circumstances
PRACTICAL EDUCATION, may recommend, for society around them. Many of them, we presume, will find the school officers and other leading men soon should not only put his pupils in possession of the rules of arith
It is highly important that the teacher of a public school enlisted, with citizens of all classes, in school associations, and metic, grammar, morals, &c., but that he should prepare them hastening to inquire into the wants and wishes of the teachers. for the r ready use, their daily application, to the business of Many of them, we hope, will ere this time have libraries at life. There is greater difficuliy in accomplishing this end than their command systematic visits to each others' schools arranged and provided for, and plans adopted for their greater ac
some imagine. commodation, improvement and usefulness. But io such as
In certain branches the task is not so difficult, and its success not so rare. In reading and writing, for example, it is
more common to find youth qualified for the practical applica- | lead them to this distinction, however, I usually introduce them
a boy is good or bad; or has been sent to his seat; or has learnt But the case is far different with several other important well
, or will come or go or do something else by and by. Now branches. How many youth may there be, who, on engaging in such words as these, which mean doing or being, are very imbusiness, do not find it necessary to betake themselves anew? portant, and are called verbs. Which of these words is a verb They may have proceeded far in the rules, and possessed a then? A horse runs. The dogs bark. How can you tell a creditable familiarity with the processes while engaged in the verb from a noun ? daily practice of them: but from the time when they begin to "In this manner," said the teacher, "I proceed with other disuse them, they begin to forget them.
parts of speech, as occasion demands and opportunity permits. So in grammar. Even some of the children who have been in similar ways also I illustrate the changes of case, mood, most intelligent and proficient in that branch of study, have tense, &c., and thus the principles of Etymology and Syntas been found to set the rules at nought in conversation through become known before the pupil comes to the rules in which lise, and it is a plain fact, that our common schools, as at present those principles are embodied. conducted, are not of sufficient force to hold in check the lan And, by methods equally natural, simple and interesting, we guage of the mass of the people.
may add, a teacher who knows how, may lead a pupil over the If we turn to the geography and history, we shall find, that threshold of every branch of education. The mind was never although these branches are much more extensively and-better formed to be driven blindfold to knowledge. If it goes at all, taught than they were thirty years ago, the effect is far less im- it very naturally requires that it walk in the light. How portant in a practical point of view ihan could be desired, and important, then, is it, to communicate, in grammar, for examought to be expected. What youth, leaving the highest class ple, ideas of the subject, the predicate and the classes of words in a public school, and proceeding on a journey in almost any which modify them! How important, at the same time, in atdirection, does not find that his conceptions on these subjects tempting to convey such ideas, to avoid the confusion inevitahave been extremely crude, if not erroneous ? How many a bly produced in the mind by an injudicious use of technical person of such a description has been glad to correct his own terms! views by those of a more practical though less instructed fellow traveller!
WRITING Now we do not intend to have it understood, that such results are not often produced by imperfect methods of instruc
A difference of opinion has been expressed, in England and tion in private schools, academies, and even colleges. We are France, concerning the proper angle for the slope of the letters certain of the contrary.
We wish however that all our com- in writing; What has been called in France"la pente Anmon schools may soon enjoy the advantages of improvements glaise,” (that is, the English slope,) is about thirty-four degrees which might be introduced ; and have no doubt, that a sugges- from the vertical line. This has been objected to, as too great, tion will be sufficient to direct the attention of some reachers and has been reduced by some teachers in Paris to about 370; to it, and to lead them to measures appropriate to the end. Im- or, as it has been stated with singular precision, 26° 33' 50". portant elementary principles, having been once clearly embra- Notwithstanding this, however, Monsieur Lavaud, a teacher ced, often, and we hope generally, will be retained, not only and author in Paris, adopted and recommended the greater dethrough school days, but for life.
viation of 45 degrees, or the diagonal of a square.
We introduce this subject at this time, because it seems to IMPORTANCE OF INTRODUCTORY LESSONS IN GRAM.
be a maiter of some importance, to direct the attention of teach
ers generally to the principles of writing, in such a manner as MAR, &c.
to lead them to reflect upon it with intelligence and independ“ It is in vain, or almost in vain,” said an old teacher, "10 ence. The mere recommendation of a particular slope, size or attempt to teach English Grammar as many do, by requiring forin, is not sufficient to claim imitation, let it be proved from the rules to be learnt and recited, and the book to be thus gone any authority whatever. There are so many opinions, meththrough, before parsing is commenced. On this plan I was ods and directions, that no teacher can reasonably expect to treated, and thus I formerly taught. I have now a large school, choose the best, who does not bring his own judgment into containing more than one hundred boys; with several classes exercise, and decide for himself. in grammar; and I teach them with far greater satisfaction to It is evident that the letters should not slope too much, bemyself, because with greater success, and greater interest to cause, as is remarked in the “ Journal de l'Instruction Prithem.
maire," that will throw the long letters too much upon one “ I take care to give each class, and each pupil, at the outset, another, and give a very confused appearance to the writing. a clear apprehension of the nature of the branch entered upon, Neither should they be too nearly upright; for that makes the its utility, and the reasonableness of its rules. I find, by expe- manuscript look stiff
. What then should be the degree of inrience, that this can be done, and that, by pursuing a similar clination? To us it appears more important to lead the teachcourse in other cases of difficulty presented by the books, all er to decide this question by experiments and reflections of his parts of grammar are made intelligible, and in a good degree own, than to attempt to do it for him by expressing our own pleasing
opinion: To aid him, however, in forming conclusions, we "For example, I ask a boy, or a class, to look around the will make a few remarks. school room, and name some of the things which they see. And first, the origin of running hand should be considered: They soon vie with each other in saying desk, bench, pen, It was invented for convenience sake. The forms, size, slope &c. Then I say, names of things are sometimes called of the letters, and indeed almost every thing connected with Nouns. Look round again, and give me a few more nouns. writing, must be influenced, more or less, by convenience in They add
perhaps window, door, floor, stove, book, and buy. I writing. It would probably be thought better to make all the say, these are common nouns, that is, each names a thing of letters vertical, if it were as convenient. Why is it not so ? some particular kiod. There are many books, stoves and boys, Perhaps many writers have never asked themselves this quesin the world : and these nouns mean some one of each kind, tion. It is because the form of the human hand naturally gives but do not show which. How do you tell me which boy you a pen or pencil a direction oblique to that in which the written mean? They soon understood that they can most easily do it lines naturally run. If you attempt to give a different inclinaby calling his name. Then I tell then this is a proper noun : tion to the letters, you will soon find it attended with some inthat is a name belonging to one particular person. Before I convenience. While you follow the natural angle, on the con
trary, the easiest motions of the fingers will continually direct cured, well adapted to their use. There are however many, it the slope aright and make it uniform. But you should bear one is to be presumed, who are able to sing, and are disposed to thing in mind, viz., that if the hand is carried too far from the lead in their schools in that pleasing and improving exercise. body towards the right, the slope will increase; and therefore, It may be recommended to such teachers as are not accuswhen the page is wide, the paper should be moved a little to the tomed to singing, to enquire among their pupils for one or more left as you approach the right margin. Children often fall into of the best singers, and to propose the singing of a hymn or this natural fault, without knowing why. The intelligent moral song as a daily exercise. Those who have never made teacher will never attribute it to wilfulness or careless ess, un- the experiment will probably be surprised at the facility and less the pupil has been cautioned against it by an explanation good effects with which such a change may be made, even unof the cause.
der such circumstances. In the next place, the command of the hand, which means Much has been said in favor of the scientific instruction of the control and easy direction of the motions of its numerous children in music; and it certainly is highly desirable to have joints and muscles, may be greatly improved by proper exer- them taught, as well and as much as may be. At the same cise. No set of copies which we recollect to have seen, ap- time, it is important that they should be taught something, if pears to have been devised for this object. Besides, the vari- they cannot be taught much ; and especially that they should ous movements of which this curious, complex and wonderful enjoy the moral influence of frequent and harmonious vocal machine, the human hand, is capable, is so imperfectly under- exercises. Besides, it should be known and remembered, that stood, that perhaps few men are yet qualified to form such a se- some of the best practical judges, in our own and other counries of lessons. We therefore recommend, that various hands tries, recommend the early practising of music by the ear only, be allowed to pupils in writing, with various sizes of letters ; either a part of the time, or wholly, until a certain age. and that drawing be practised, as frequently at least as no oth We would hint once more, that persons may be found in aler pleasing exercise is found for the occupation of idle or listless most every district, pretty well qualified to lead a little choir, moments. In early childhood, as we have before remarked, either with or without the use of notes and systematic drilling such exercises may be abundantly repeated, with various ad- on the rudiments. Many such persons, it is to be presumed, vantages, especially on the slate and the blackboard.
would be found ready to give a school occasional instruction Again-Writing masters differ on the question, whether the and assistance. hand or the arm ought to be exclusively used in writing. It is to be remembered, however, that so far as our observaSome, in opposition to the prevailing notions, have succeeded tions and experience extend, there is a great difficulty in makin producing a beautiful, free, flowing style, after a few lessons, ing young pupils singers at sight, as it is called. Among hun. without allowing any motion whatever to the joints of the dreds who have received instruction, and who might pass repufingers, and even of the wrists. Those who have never tried tably as pretty well taught, a little examination will convince an experiment at writing in this manner, may well attempt it, one that it is hard to find a dozen, and sometimes even one, that they may be the more able to understand the application capable of singing a new strain unaided, Young teachers, of one or two remaining remarks which we have to make. therefore, must not be discouraged if they do not accomplish alí
The shoulder joint is capable of such a variety of motions, they wish. They cannot fail to accomplish something imporand the muscles which direct the arm and the fore arm are só tani, if they do any thing with music among the young obedient to the will, that if the fingers, hand and wrist are To give an idea, however, of what progress in musical scibound so as to be incapable of altering their relative positions, ence is aimed at by the London Society which has lately been the person may write with ease. Not only so, but he probably referred to, recently instituted for the introduction of vocal will produce lines so flowing, so bold and so elegant, as to sur- music into the schools of that metropolis, we copy here a prise himself. It is by the use of the whole arm, that children sketch of their mode of examination of applicants for prizes. of two or three years of age, on first beginning to use a pencil "The best pupil from each class will be required 10 sing on paper or on a slate, will often make a continued series of in-alone, at sight, the air, and afterwards the second-treble part, volved circles or curves, with an accuracy which an adult may of a psalm to be composed for the occasion, and harmonized in fail to equal, if he uses the fingers only. A little attention to simple counterpoint, in a major key. this subject, after a few experiments, will probably lead to the "The same pupil, having so far succeeded, will be required conclusion, that both the hand and arm joints should be used to sing, at sight, the first, and afterwards the second-treble part in writing. Different kinds of letters render one more appro- of a simple glee or madrigal, to be composed for the occasion, priate than the other in its turn. Large letters, capitals and and to consist of a slow movement in a minor key, and of a fourishes, or ornamental flowing lines, may often be formed moderately quick movement in a major key; most easily by moving the arm alone.
“That the attention of the pupil may not be distracted by the These facts and considerations may be wiselv applied in a words, they will be given to him some days before the trial, to school, in several ways. For example, a farmer's son, whose commit to memory: fingers may have become rigid with work in the field, will "The pupil having passed creditably through these trials, probably be able to write better if set to make large letters, keeping the time, singing the intervals correctly, and observing and suffered to use his arm. He may practise much on thé a good enunciation, will be examined in his knowledge of the slate and blackboard, without wasting paper, and soon acquire names and uses of the various musical signs, including the difa facility in drawing lines, and maps, and in forming letters. ferent clefs and all that strictly pertains to the notation of muIf successful, he will become familiar with the forms of the sic. written alphabet, and perhaps with those of states, islands or “The ability to execute a perfect shake, and the knowledge continents, and be in a state of mind to open his copy-book of the principles of chords, and of musical composition, will with pleasure, as soon as the muscles of his hand shall have not be expected, nor will the pupil be required to sing from become sufficiently relaxed. Had he, instead of this, been put any other than the treble clef, nor to identify the notes by the at first to the common method of learning to write, he might terms given to them by the Italians (sol fa mi do, &c.,) the exhave had, by this time, only a miserable, blotted book to show, clusive use of those terms being discarded by some teachers, and a countenance saddened by ill success, und darkened by and one object of the Society being to give every system a fair despair.
trial." But, having already exceeded the bounds we had set to ourselves in commencing this article, we must dismiss it for the THE IMPROVEMENT OF EDUCATION IN CONNECTICUT present.
Is a subject of great interest in many points of view. There MUSIC IN SCHOOLS.
are many of our fellow citizens employed in different states as
teachers, professors, presidents of institutions, legislators, and Scientific instruction in music in common schools is highly professional men. Many of them-probably we might truly say desirable; but the practice of the art is in our view almost in- all of them-turn with interest to their native state, and regard dispensable
. There is, perhaps, not-a large number of our with filial reverence every worthy example recommended by teachers who at present feel prepared to undertake instruction such authority. They naturally feel a peculiar regard for those even in the rudiments of the science. Many inay hereafter be literary and moral institutions which have made Connecticut ready to attempt it, especially if a cheap manual should be pro- what she is; and formed and moulded that state of society in
which they were born and received their early impressions. burden; but when we perceive its consonance to our nature, To them, they cannot but acknowledge, they owe much of their iis pure and inexhaustible rewards for obedience, its power of success in life; their influence in suciety, their powers of use- imyarting an all-conquering energy, wherever loftiest efforts are fulness to others, their capacity for their highest enjoyments in denianded, we must hail its authority as among our highest this world, or their hopes of a future.
honors and blessings. For what slaves are they, over whom To whatever part of the Union we turn, we find a large pro- conscience is not supreme! What sovereignty awaits those, portion of Connecticut men occupying stations of influence and who yield submission to its dictates! Never since the creation respectability, so that the aggregate amount of the moral and of man, has there been a nation like ours, so nursed in its infanintellectual power of our native land, if it were possible to esti- cy by the smiles of Providence, endued with such vigor in the mate it with accuracy, would appear immense. It is indeed first half century of its being, and made capable in its advandeeply interesting, to cast uur eyes on the map of the Union, 10 cing years at once of rising to such unparalleled power, and of consider the diminutive extent of Connecticut, and then to making existence so rich a boon to its multitudinous members. take a view of her influence. And we need not stop here: for For this very reason, debasement would stand in appalling conmany natives of our state are residents or travellers abroad, irast with its early promises; and if, through immorality, it inwith' opportunities and ability both to collect and to disseminate flicts upon itself suicidal wounds, the pangs of its death-struginformation, and to render material assistance in projects for gle will be terrible in proportion to the vigor of its frame and improvement.
the tenacity of its young life. It has been well said that it How desirable it seems that the measures adopted, and the took Rome three hundred years to die. Her giant heart still objects aimed at in this state, should correspond with the stand-beat, though corruption festered through all her members. ing which she has so long maintained! The principles which Fiercer will be the throes and deeper the shame of this young she should avow, must not be such as might be pursued by less republic, if, in the bright morning of its days, and enriched intelligent communities; the measures adopted here should not with all the beneficence of heaven, it grows wanton in its be marked with indecision, nor received with coldness by the strength, and, maddening itself with the cup of vice, it perpeople. The progress of improvement should not be slow, ishes basely in sight of its high destiny. irregular or wavering. Connecticut, on such a question as There is every thing in our institutions to give (if that were doing honor to her founders by cherishing iheir favourite insti- possible) even an artificial and extraneous value to upright contutions, should be unanimous, prompt, hearly and indefatigable. duct, to uobleness and elevation of character. Our institutions Though other questions may distúrb the public mind, where demand men, in whose hearts, great thoughts and deeds are can there be a single reason to justify any man in withholding native, spontaneous, irrepressible. And if we do not have a his active support from an object so clearly, so incontestably, generation of men whose virtues will save us, we shall have a so undoubtingly admitted to belong to the common weal? generation whose false pretensions to virtue will ruin us. In If
, then, the great body of her people, casting aside all oppo- a state and country like ours, a thousand selfish considerations sing considerations, should combine in favor of the great plan tempt men to become hypocrites and to put on the outward proposed by the legislature, and begin this very Winter to yield guises of morality. Ambition may counsel that honors are a general and manly support to measures for the improvement most easily won through honest seemings. Avarice may covet of our common schools, how influential would be the example a fair repuiation for its pecuniary value. Pride and vanity may of the State! How extensive and permanent might be ihe look for regard without the worth, which alone can challenge good results to the country at large! It is not too much to it. But all such supports will fail in the hour of temptation. predict, that if Connecticut should establish a truly good school They have no depth of root in the moral sentiments. The system, similar systems would soon be established ihroughout germs of moraliiy must be planted in the moral nature of chilthe Union !
dren, at an early period of their life. In that genial soil they
than those of time-serving policy ; like those pasture oaks, we UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE CREATES A PARTNERSHIP.
see, scattered about the fields of the farmers, which, striking It is yet to be developed how close a partnership is a repub- their roots downward into the earth as far as their topmost lican goveroment with the right of universal suffrage. It is yet branches ascend into the air, draw nourishment from perencial to be manifested, that each citizen, by virtue of this social part- fountains, and thereby preserve their foliage fresh and green, nership, contributes, as his part of the common capital, his through seasons of fiery drought, when all surrounding vegehopes for the future, his subsistence for the present, his repu- tation is scorched to a cinder. Massachusetts Common tation, his lise. By virtue of this compact, the other' meinbers School Journal, of the firm have power to dispose of the investments, according to their own views and motives, be they of policy or plunder.
MEN OF LETTERS AND AN EDUCATED PEOPLE. Not entire, however, is the analogy between a busines partner
MR. HILLHOUSE'S LECTURE. ship between merchants, and this political association. From
We see no reason why not only a small but a numerous class the former, a man can withdraw, when he finds that the mis- of literary men cannot be created, and indeed why they will management of his associates is overwhelming his interests not almost necessarily spring up among a people, highly and with ruin and his character with disgrace. Retiring, he may universally instructed. And while we advocate with an earnest withdraw whatever remains of his unsquandered fortune. But zeal the cause of common schools and of universal education, not so in this political partnership. Though in this each has we would throw no obstacle in the way of those who are a more enlarged power of binding the whole, yet none can labouring to build up our higher seminaries of learning, strike his name from the company and thereby evade the im- and to provide in libraries and richly endowed colleges and position of new responsibilities. The only legalized modes of universities, for the greater advancement of a few in scidissolving the connection are death and self-banishment. ence, literature and the fine arts. The successful votary Would it not be good policy for the members of such a firm to in these pursuils, sooner or later, receives the homage of expend a little, both of their time and their revenue, to qualify the nation, whose glory is perpetuated in his triumphs. We all of those future members whose admission they cannot pre- do not object to this. Still' we should prefer for our native vent?- Massachusetts Common School Journal.
State and our native land, to see the entire community proper
ly educated in all sound morality, in a lofty and generous patriMORAL EDUCATION.
otism, in a devout understanding of the laws and harmonies of What deep and unfathomable meaning dwells in the words the outward universe, in a practical acquaintance with the veracity, impartiality, benevolence, justice, duty! Attaching great principles of science as applied to the trades and occupato us in our early childhood, following us through every wak- tions of men, and above all, in all religious knowledge. ing moment of our lives, with the imposition of ever-renewing It is a higher boast for any people to have it recorded of commands;--attaching to us in the narrowness of the domes- them, that not a family had allowed so much barbarism to tic circle, yet, as our knowledge and our relations expand to fill grow up in their midsi, as that a single native of mature age up larger and larger circles, fastening new obligations upon us, could be met with through all the cities and villages of the commensurate with our powers of performance ;- in this view, State who could "pot read the holy word of God, and other the all-enfolding law of morality may seem to be a task and a good and profitable printed books in the English tongue,"
than that her higher institutions of learning had enabled one We do need among us more men of highly cultivated minds, man to acquire great facility in reading lwenty foreign langua- who without despising office, will not seek it; who will reverges. It would be a still higher glory for any nation to be able ence the true idea of the people, and not use and abuse it for io claim that the mass of her people understood the great but their own ends of power and place; who will help to enthrone simple truths of astronony, than that “one of her sons had dis- a national conscience over national actions; who will help to covered in the distant regions of space a new planet, while the cultivate in the general mind a holy and noble faith in some uninstructed millions were sunk' in the superstitions of as- things which are not physical or tangible, a sense of the beautrology."
tiful, of the sacred, and ihe true; who will seek that approbaWe have no fears, however, that we shall diminish the num- tion which speaks not in shouts, but in ite still small voice ber of lettered minds among us by advocating a more generous from within. cultivation of the intellect, and a fuller developement of the We hope the suggestions of the lecturer will be heeded richest affections of our common nature throughout all ranks that our men of abundant means, here and elsewhere, instead and conditions of society. Nor have we any fears that our of piling up wealth only to take from their children ihe very common schools are likely to draw off any of those streams of motives to application, which governed them, will help to give individual or public bounty which would otherwise enrich and to the nation more sons of consummate education-such an edgladden the poble fields of literature and science.
ucation as will enrich the heart while it expands and strengthWe were led to these reflections after listening to the elo ens the intellect, and inspire the whole man with lofty and quent and finished lecture of Mr. Hillhouse before the Hartford generous purposes; and above all, arm ibem with that moral Young Men's Institute. It was a beautiful illustration of the heroism which will lead them up to the breach when the waters glory which a "lettered mind” can shed over his own state, of bitterness and desolation are coming in, and if need be, to and of the service which such minds can render to society by perish there. recalling the public mind from the loo eager pursuit of wealth, But above all, we wish to see not only the summits of society and the stormy paths of politics, to the quiet groves, and the (if our society can be said to have any other summits than those pure fountains of literature. The following notice of the lec- of the ever changing billows which follow each other, to sink iure appeared in one of the city papers.
in turn to the common level of them all.) lighted up with a highHis subject was the importance of a National Literalure, and er and purer literary taste, but the vallies, where, afier all, ihe the influence of lettered minds among us, to counteract the wealth and fertility of a nation abides, filled with its broad and tendencies of our physical, social and political condition as a genial illumination-10 have its uplifting and generous influpeople. He paid a glowing tribute to our past history, and to the ences spread and felt throughout all the conditions and employgenerous patriotism and heroism which has inade it all that it is. ments of nien. This is the holy mission which has been assign
He touched on the peculiar advantages under which we were ed America to fulfill on this continent- this is the vast scope working out the most interesting problem to humanity, which and the glorious consummation of true American Liberty. had ever been given to any people to solve; and there were passages of thrilling eloquence, in which he shadowed forth
“This is the grateful path,” says Mr. Mann, in an article on ihe future in our horizon so full of all the elements of an enduring this topic, “where we are summoned 10 a glorious duty. Not greatness. But in spite of all that there is to encourage in the to enter every dwelling and seize its resources, in order to swell past, the present and the future, he thought there was stiil in the redundancy of some treasure-house of knowledge; not to our history, commencing as it did in the severance of all time collect the rills, whose waters might fertilize the whole land, honored associations, and marked all along with the dropping, and gather them into a stagnant reservoir ;, this is not our one after another, of all the usual social and political checks work; but multiplication, diffusion, ever-replenishing, vnuil and balances; in a public press, that chartered libertine which the people shall learn the nature of the true duties and enjoyspared neither age por sex, the altar or the fireside, in its al
ments of freemen. Let not the quest for new discoveries tacks—and had left for the last thirty years not an instance of cease; let philosopher after philosopher reveal more and more patriotic or distinguished public service unslandered ; in the of the wonderful works of nature, and thus present to all men vast extent of our republic, teeming every where with unex
new reasons for adoration of the Creator. We would not call hausted and inexhaustible resources of wealth, and inviting all hack any one who is exploring the skies or diving into the earth to restless, reckless extravagant speculation and enterprise; in for knowledge ; but first of all, we would diffuse the great morour political organization, offering the widest scope and the hot- al, social, and economical truths, already discovered, amongst test stimulus to ambition not necessarily of the lofliest kind; lations of past centuries, we would reproduce, and make it, as
the people. What is practically valuable among the accumuin all these there was enough, he thought
, to alarm our fear far as possible, the fireside companion of every citizen ; so and stir up our patriotism, to encourage the growth of some that if an inventory could be taken of the virtue and intelliconservative counteracting principles and influences in the national mind and habits. Otherwise the simplicity, and truth, gence of the people, the units would swell 10 an aggregate, and generous patriotism of our fathers, would give way to uni- incomputable by the higher standards of former limes. versal selfishness, political corruption, and base office seeking.
“But shall we aim to make every man a philosopher ? If by His aim was to show that the mind and heart of the na !his is meant that highest reach of philosophy, which consists tion were to be cultivated, not merely her swelling sinews and in an understanding of one's duty and destination, and a disovershadowing bulk-otherwise, with all our extent of terri- position to perform the one and live up to the other, we answer, tory and increasing population, we should only realize a history yes; but not that every man should be linguist, rhetorician, or like that of the earlier empires of the world, which line the long astrononier, any more ihan we would that every man should vista of the past with kingly phantoms, and fill the air with be tailor, blacksmith, and watchmaker. Let us not, hovever, the shadowy marchings of mighty armies, but have not chroni: overlook one of the most striking facts in the ordination of čled the centuries of their power and glory in the ever endur- Providence, that the truths, which it required the greatest phiing monuments of intelleci and literature. Their temples are
losophers, toiling for years, perhaps for lives, to discover, can not our models ; their statues are not our envy; their battle- be made perfectly intelligible to ordinary minds in weeks, or fields are not holy; their history does not instruct, their
poetry inspire and thrill, or their eloquence arouse like the old majestic tones of Greece, and of Rome in her best days.
SCHOOL HOUSES IN MICHIGAN: Instead, then, of rearing any more temples to Mammon and We are indehted 10 John D, Pearce, Esq. superintendent of 10 Party, which now cover the length and the breadth of the Public Instruction in Michigan, for copies of his able and interland, and are thronged with eager worshippers-he would dedi- esting reports to the legislature, made in discharge of his officate every where altars to science and poetry and taste. He cial duties. If that yourg but vigorous State but perseveres in would have the nation set about in real earnest to build up a ine policy she has so nobiy commenced in regard to Education, National Literature, in which the true glory of a State should both in its primary and superior departments, she will possess be enshrined, -where all that is venerable in the law, or ma- the best system of public instruction on this side of the Atlanjestic in public function, or distinguished and disinterested in tic. We extract from his report made to the legislature in 1837, patriotic service and devotion, or holy in the charities of the in which he presented the plan of the entire system, which
has hearth and the altar, should be shielded and embalmed for ever since been organized and partially put in operation, the followin the choicest efforts of history and eloquence and poetry.ling suggestions and plan for School Houses.