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on them.

of the people for the important social and political duties which devolve manner required by law, it is assessed upon the persons residing in the

district, according to their taxable property, as ascertained by the roll The manner in which the inhabitants of school districts may provide made by the town assessors for town and county purposes. If a tax for the preservation of their libraries, is pointed out at page 2990, Com- for fuel is not voted, it is furnished by the persons sending children 10 mon School Decisions. Books may, and doubtless will, occasionally school, in proportion to the number of days of attendance. But if any be lost, and they will gradually be worn out by continual use, so that one neglects, on the request of the trustees, to furnish his quota, they are it may be necessary to replace them by others. But if 100, or even 50 authorized to provide it for him, and charge the amount against him for persons in a district shall have been benefitted by the perusal of a vol. collection in the rate-bill. ume before it is lost or destroyed, the money which it has cost will not have been unprofitably expended. With proper care, and a periodical

The expense of this part of the system is defrayed by a tax on the (at least an annual) collection and examination of the books, as already property, excepting the single case in which fuel is furnished in kind.

And if in respect to the compensation of teachers, taxable property may suggested, there will be very few losses, and many years will elapse in some cases appear to be unduly favored, it often happens in this case

, before it will become necessary to replace them by new ones.

that it contributes largely to the expenses of the common schools, withExpenses.

out deriving any direcc benefit from them. A man of wealth may Although the common school fund amounts to nearly two millions of never have sent a child to school in the fuistrict in which he resides, dollars, and yields an annual income of more than one hundred thou- and furnish i with fuel. It is not designed by presenting this view of

and yet his property is taxed to build a school house, keep it in repair, sand dollars

, it pays but a very small proportion of the expenses of the the subject, to impugn the justice of the rule. On the contrary, it is becommon schools. The expenditures in a school district, embrace three classes of objects : property has in securing, through the moral and intellectual improve

lieved io be perfectly just on account of the interest which every man of 1. The compensation of teachers. 2. The construction of school houses, and supplying them with ne- der and tranquillity, without which the tenure of his possessions would

ment of those who surround him, a substantial basis for that public orcessary appendages and fuel.

be uncertain and precarious.
3. The purchase of school books,
The two first classes of objects are provided for by law, so far as to

On a careful examination of the whole subject, it will be apparent "authorize or direct the necessary funds to be raised; and the third is left that the proportions in which the expenses of ihe common school syg. entirely to voluntary contribution.

tem are provided for by those who educate their children in the common 1. The compensation of teachers. The sum of two hundred and schools, and by the possessors of property deriving no benefit from seventy-five thousand dollars is annually distributed to the school dis- them, are as well adjusted to the accomplishment of the objects of the tricts from the common school fund, and is appropriated to the compen- institution as is practicable. sation of teachers, who have been inspected by the proper authority, Property, as such, pays the entire expense of building and repairing and received a certificate of qualification. The board of supervisors in school houses; besides which, it always pays a sum towards the com, each county are required to cause to be levied, by tax, on each town, a pensation of teachers, equal to the amount paid by the common school sum equal to that which such town receives from the common school fund, and it may double that amount. On the other hand, those who fund as its quota of the annual income. The sum thus levied, is also send children to the common schools pay somewhat more than fourappropriated to the payment of the wages of teachers qualified accord- sevenths of the entire compensation of the teachers, and furnish their ing to law. The inhabitants of each town have authority to vote, al children with school books. By regarding extreme cases on either their annual town meeting, an additional sum, not exceeding ihe side, some inequality is apparent. But a vast majority of those who amount directed to be raised therein by the supervisors; or in other educate their children in the common schools, are abundantly able on words, not exceeding its quota of the income of the common school the score of pecuniary ability, to do so: and wherever an individual fuud. Thus each town is annually taxed to an amount, equal to the has children without the means of educating them, the trustees of the sum it receives from the common school fund, and it may by its own district may exempt him from the payment of any part of the teachers' voluntary act, be taxed twice that amount.

wages. The exemption takes place at the close of the term. Until These sums are paid to the commissioners of common schools in each that time the children of such a man meet all the others on terms of entown, who distribute them among the school districts within their tire equality in the school. No child can be excluded from it on acjurisdiction, according to the number of children in each district over count of the inability of his parents to pay for his tuition. It is to be five and under sixteen years of age. Several towns have local funds, regarded as a settled principle, that the school is open to all the children the income of which is also paid into the hands of the commissioners, residing in the district; and nothing short of a degree of impurity of for distribution with the other school moneys, and is also appropriated conduct and character, too gross for association with others, would to the compensation of qualified teachers by force of a provision of law, justify the trustees in excluding a child even temporarily from it. which requires all moneys paid by commissioners to school districts to If the expenses of the common school system were all defrayed by be so applied.

a public fund and by property, it is apprehended that the worst ef At the expiration of each term in a school district, the trustees pay fects would ensue. A man with a large number of children, may the teacher so much of the school moneys, as is appropriated to that sometimes feel the expense of their education a burden. But his conterm by vote of the inhabitants of the district at their annual meeting, tributions, for the very reason that they are made with some difficulty, and the residue of his wages for the term is collected of all who have give him a deep interest in seeing that the affairs of the district are sent children to school, in proportion to the number of days their children managed with economy and prudence

. The efiect of the present mode have attended. Indigent persons may be exempted by the trustees from of providing for the expenses of the system, is undoubtedly to surpaying any part of the rate-bill; so that the compensation of the round it with interested and careful observers, who will be vigilant in ieacher for ihe term, excepting so much of it as is provided for by the detecting abuses, and prompt in seeking the proper redress. public money, is paid by such of the patrons of the school as are of The Prussian system is maintained upon a plan very similar to Bufficient ability to pay any thing.

ours, so far as ils expenses are concerned. The government pays It is proper to add that parents may, if they please, pay directly to something towards the support of schools. The property of the vicithe teacher the amount due from them. In this case, the amouni so nage pays something more, and the residue is paid by those who send paid is not included in the rat-bill, and the fees of the collector, who is their children to school, or, in the language of Mr. Coisin, “those who allowed five per cent on all moneys collected by him, is saved by the actually profit by these establishments,"[schools.] person or persons making such payment.

The common school fund affords nothing more than an inducement to These provisions constitute the entire law for the compensation of the inhabitants of school districts to tax themselves for the support of teachers. They are founded upon the principle, that the income of the their schools. common school fund, with an equal amount raised by taxation, and 3. The purchase of school books. Every person sending a child to such further sum not exceeding that amount, as may be voted by the school, must provide ihe necessary school books. There is no provision inhabitants of towns, shall be appropriated exclusively to that object; by law for indigent persons. Possibly there sliculd te. Bulii may and that the residue shall be provided by those whose civildren have the safely be said, that a case rarely, if ever occurs, in which a poor benefit of instruction,

child is not furnished with the necessary tooks, through the liberality This rule is, as respects the pecuniary ability of the contributors, of individuals. often inequal.' Thus, a man worth one thousand dollars, who sends four children to school, pays four times as much as a man worth ten

General Obserrations. thousand dollars, who sends only one child to school; but, on the other hand, the compensation of teachers is but a part of the expense of Some of the most prominent features of the common sclicol system the common school system, and as will be seen hereafler, property is have thus been briefly surveyed, and its policy, so far as respects the very largely taxed for other objects.

distribution of power through wiich it is conuiuled, has been cursorily 2. The construction of school houses, and supplying them with new examined. It is, empbatically, an institution for the people, and to cessary fuel and appendages. The whole expense of purchasing a lot, them has heen allotted a large share of its administration. Ou'the zeal building a school house, and furnishing it with a few indispensable arti- with which their task is performed, and on the degree of importanco cles, asa siove, water-pail, broom, wood-house, &c., is paid by the taxable which they attach to iis eleverion to a grade coma nisurate with its properly of each school district. But no tax for these objects can be high objects, must depend, to a very considerable extellt, the rank they levied unless it is voled at a regular meeting of the inhabitenis, by a will hold in the political system under which they live, and the part majority of the persons present. The tax having been voied in the they may take in giring a direction to his movemenis.

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There is danger that they will never answer the ends of their insti- | villages. The standard of Education ought to be elevated, not merely to tution, if the teachers--the body of men who are relied on to infuse into that which other States or Nations have attained, but to that height which them the moral and intellectual improvement, which constitutes the may be reached by cultivation of the intellectual powers, with all the faciliviral principle of the whole system-are not fully adequate to the task. ties of modern impruvements, during the entire period when the faculties Will not those who are the most deeply interested in elevating the are quick and active, the curiosity insatiable, the temper practicable, and standard of education, adopt the only measure by which the objeci can the love of truth supreme. The ability to read and write, with the rudibe accomplished? Will they not bring to this subject the practical Schools. To these our Academies and Colleges add superficial instruction good sense by which they are distinguished, and see in this, as in all in the dead languages, without the philosophy of our own ; scientific facts, other cases, that even the ends of economy are best answered by em- without their causes ; definitions, without practical application ; the rules ploying those who are most skilled in their art? The value of the of rhetoric, without its spirit; and history, divested of its moral instructions. common school system is universally acknowledged and felt in this it is enough to show the defectiveness of our entire system, that its pursuits Siate. In this respect public opinion needs no impulse. But it is no are irksome to all, except the few endowed with peculiar genius and fervor more than just to say, that the importance of a higher standard of to become the guides of ihe human mind, and that it fails to inspire either a education, is not so generally or correcily apprecated. Opinion has, love of science or passion for literature. however, made some advances in this particular; and a confident be

“ Postponed, omilied, and forgotten, as it too often is, amid the excitelief is entertained that the liberal provisions of the legislature for the ment of other subjects and the pressure of other duties, Education is, neverpreparation of teachers, will meet with such a reception from an en- partial improvement in our system of Education will be wider and more fightened people, as to remedy effectually the only material defect in our enduring than the effects of any chance of public policy, the benefits of common school system, and leave nothing to be desired in relation to

any new principle of jurisprudence, or the results of any enterprize we can it, excepting that it may be permanent in its duration.

accomplish. These consequences will extend through the entire developJOHN A. DIX.

ment of the human mind, and be consummated only with its destiny. Superintendent of Common Schools.

"We seem at last to have ascertained the only practicable manner of introducing Normal Schools into our cuuntry. li is' by engrafting that sys

tem upon our Academies. I earnestly hope you will adopt such further PUBLIC INSTRUCTION IN NEW YORK.

legislation as is required to make this effort successful. The following extract from Governor Seward's Message, presents, in a ries. If I do not greatly err, this cheap and easy morle of bringing into con

* Provision has been made for the establishment of school district libra. summary view, the present condition, not only of the Common School Sys- tact with the juvanile powers the discoveries of science and the mysteries tem of this great State, but also of her Academies and Colleges The sugo of the arts, will be the era of a new impulse to the cause of Education.gestions which follow are as applicable to our Slate as to New-York. Our The Common Schools may resist every other influence, but they cannot system of inspection is by no means as vigorous as hers. The plan prun withstand that of the general improvement of the community: I cannot posed, of a County Board, formed a part of the original bill passed by the too earnestly solicit your co-operation in the beginning of this wise and molast Legislature, and in our case was to be composed of delegates from

meritous policy. each buard of school visiters. Nothing really efficient can ever be made out of this part of our school system as at present organized. If Connecti- It acts upon both instructors and pupils by all the incentives which excite,

“Visitation is the very principle of life to all seminaries of instruction. cut, with such colleges, academies, private schools, and common schools and all the motives which encourage eniulation. It would, if carried into as are already in existence, would but take up the cause of Education, effect, call to the aid of the State, in this mighty interest, the ally at once both in its primary and higher departments, with the spirit which her own the most natural and efficient, parents themselves. The Regents of the prosperity and enduring faine, and the peuce and prosperity of the whole University are, by virtue of their

office, visiters of the Colleges and Acadecountry imperiously demands, she might have the best system of Public In- mies, and inspectors are the legal visiters of Common Schools. How utstruction on this side of the Atlantic. But to our extract.

terly this duty of visitation has fallen into disuse, your own observation and " Union College continues to maintain its high rank among the literary the public voice abundantly testify. The office of Inspector of Comtion institutions of our country. It has three hundred students. Within the Schools is unhappily always involved in the political organization of pár. Inst ten years, eight hundred and seventy-four persons have received from ties. Generally it falls, by custom strong as law, upon young men enits faculiy their first degree in the aris.

grossed by privale affairs. Its duties confer, in public estimation, nothing “The College at Geneva enjoys scenery and associations eminently con. of the dignity, and maintain little of the importance, which would induce genial to literature, and is happily located in regard to its sphere of uselul their faithful execution. For this evil of our whole system, there is a remeness. It is already beginning to justify the long delayed and limited public dy, simple, economical and effectual--the establishment of a Department favor it has received. Its number of students is fifty, being an increase of of Education, to be constituted of a Superintendent appointed by the legisforiy within two years.

lature, and a Board to be composed of Delegates from subordinate Boards “ Hamilton College is surmounting the embarrassments with which it of Education to be established in the several counties. The State Board has so long struggled, and gives gratifying promise of renewed usefulness. might exercise a general supervision, with powers of visitation of the Colle

“ Columbia College, in the city of New York, contains one hundred and ges, and the County Boards the same powers in their respective counties.
fifty-seven students, which is an increase of twenty-seven over the number The duties of all these officers, except the Superintendent, ought to be dis-
of the preceding year. None of our scientific institutions have more faith- charged without compensation, and the tenure of office migltt be made so
fully and perseveringly maintained their standard of preparatory qualifica- long as to ensure efficiency: I am satisfied the State abounds with compe-
tion, more diligently discharged the duties of instruction, nor sent into pub- tent individuals who would assume those duties without other remunera-
lic lise men of more eminent abilities, sound learning and elevated patriot- tion than the consciousness of rendering enlightened and patriotic service
ism, than this ancient and venerable institution. It was excepted from the in the cause of Education."
legislative patronage bestowed at the last session. Is it not both wise and
just to admit it to an equality with other institutions ?
“In reference to all our Collegiate Institutions, it affords me pleasure to

state that their usefulness has been increased and their pruspects are more Extract from Governor Porter's Inaugural Address to the Legislature of Pennsyl-
auspicious than heretofore.

vania, January 15, 1839. "'There are one hundred and furty-six incorporated Academics, seventy “In a Republican Government, general intelligence should be diffused nine of which are subject to the visitation of the Regerits of the University, among the citizens. They are thus enabled to perform their duties as con. and participate in the distribution of the Literature Fund. The act of 1837 stituent parts of the government, intelligently and correctly. Every means, ronders the terms of admission to these advantages so easy, that it is proba- therefore, for educating the whole people in useful knowledge, should be reble all will soon be placed on the same basis. The number of students in sorted t). In carrying out this system, our Staleis now progressing with the Academies subject to visitation, is about ten thousand, and the number the great experiment of her Common Schools, Academies and all the Academies in the State is estimated to exceed fisteen thousand Whether the course adopted, in all its details, is the best that could be deThesuin to be annually distributed hereafier, is $40,000, being an addition vised; or whether like every thing else which is the offspring of human ac. of $23,000 to the previous annual appropriation.

tion, it is imperfect and will require the corrections which experience teach"There are ten thousand five hundred and eighiy-three organized Com es us are necessary in all our projects, time will develop. I feel dispused to mon School Districts in the State, of which nine thvusand eight hundred give every necessary aid to accelerate the march of intellect and enlighten and thirty have maintained schools during an average period of eight the human mind, the better to enable us to preserve and hand down to pos. lionths within the last year. The number of childrer between i he ages of terity, unimpaired, the civil and religious privileges received by us as a safive and sixteen in the school Districis is five hundred and thtrty-nine cred inheritance from our fathers." Thousand seien hundrel and forty-seven, of whom five hundred and twen ny-righi thonsand nine hundred and thirteen received instruction in the

Common Schools within the year.

“ 'The Colleges, Academies and Common Schools constitute our system We have seen an extract from Gov. Campbell's last message to
of public instruc ion. 'I he pervading intelligence, the diminution of crime, the legislature, which gives a most deplorable picture of the state of
the augmented comforts and enjoyments of suciety and its progressive refine-
mens, the aprendenry of order and the supremacy of the law's, testify that education in Virginia. From this it appears, that of the white male
the system has be’n by n) means unsuccessful in diffusing knowledge and population arrived at the age of puberty, very nearly one fourth are

unable to read and write. A much greater proportion of the female ** It must nevertheless be admitted that its efficiency is much less than population is supposed to be in the same predicament. But what is the Stale righfully demands, both as a return for her munificence and a quite discouraging to the adoption of a Common School System like gnaranıy for her institutions. Some of our Culleges and Academies lan-that which Governor Campbell recommends, is the statement, that go:sl in the midst of a community abounding in genius and talent, impa. one fifth of the white families of Virginia are so extremely poor as to jsent of the ignorance which debases, and iho prejudices which enslave. be unable to contribute any thing towards the education of their "! hr Common School System, hut partially successful in agricultural dis

children. is represented as altogether without adaptation to cities and populous

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Vol. I.]


[No. 8.

THE CONNECTICUT COMMON SCHOOL JOURNAL A term of years is required to fulfil the duties of an apprenticeship to

any of the mechanical trades. An artisan does not venture to solicit WILL BE PUBLISHED EVERY MONTHI, AT THE PRICE OF

the patronage of the public, till he has undergone this apprenticeship: FIFTY CENTS A YEAR, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE.

This training under the instruction of experienced masters, is deemed Persons wishing to subscribe, can forward their names and remittan- of still more importance in what are termed the liberal arts, such as ces, to the Secretary of the Board at Hartford, or to the Vice-Presi- painting, sculpture, and engraving. To foster them, academies are dent of the County Association, or to the postmaster of the town in formed; models are collected; lectures are delivered; and the young which they reside, who can render the Journal essential service by act- novitiate is willing to devote years of patient and assiduous labor, to ing as its agents.

fit himself for success in his profession. 'We hear, too, of what is termed To any Teacher who will forward the names and remittances of four a regularly bred merchant; and the drilling of the counter and the compting subscribers, an additional number will be sent.

house is coi idered indispensable to prepare one for all the complicated And to any person who will forward an order and remittances for transactions of trade and commerce. And ifmen are to be trained to arms, fifteen numbers, two additional copies will be sent, if desired.

academies are established, at which experience, ingenuity, and scienco All subscriptions to the Journal must begin with the first number. The are put in requisition, to qualify the young and inexperienced for back numbers will be sent, as long as they can be supplied.

military exploits. In fact, ihere is scarce any pursuit connected with Twelve numbers, comprising at least One Hundred and fifty-two closely the business of life, but what men have endeavored to render successful, printed quarto pages, equal to at least Four Ilundred octavo pages, wilt by a process predicated on well known principles of human nature;constitute the volume.

by making it, in the first place, a distinct profession or calling; then, All subscriptions must be paid in advance—and all letters relative to by yielding to those who have long been engaged in it, the deference the Journal niust be post paid.

which their experience justly demands; and finally, by compelling

those who would wish to adopt it, to derole themselves to it, and to Printed by Case, Tiffany & Burnham, Pearl-st.

pass through all the preparatory steps which are necessary for the

consummation of their acquaintance both with its theory and practice. SEMINARIES FOR TEACHERS.

In this way only we hope io form good mechanics, painters, engruvers,

sculptors, farmers, merchants, physicians, and lawyers. The following remarks on Seminaries for Teachers were published, Perhaps some of my illustrations may be considered of too liumble a in substance, more than twelve years since, by the Rev. T. H. Gallau kind. But my subject is a very practical one, and I intend to treat it det. They were from his own reflections, without any knowledge of in a practical way. Permit me, then, to inquire of my readers, when

they wish to get a shoe made, to whom they apply? Do they not take foreign institutions of a similar kind. He seems, at that time, 10 have considerable pains to find a first-rate workman; one who has learned anticipated what is now beginning to be regarded as so essential to his trade well, and who can execute his work in the best manner? success in the cause of popular education. We earnestly invite the And when our wives and daughters want a new bonnet, or a new dress, at ten tion of the readers of the Journal to this important subject.

will they not make a great many inquiries, and take not a few steps,

and consume no small portion of very valuable time, to ascertain the No important result can be attained with regard to the accomplish- important fact, who is the most skilful and tasteful milliner and seambicu of any object which affects the temporal or eternal well-being of stress within iheir reach; and are they not willing to undergo many onr species, without enlisting an entire devoteduess to it of intelligence, inconveniences, and wait till their patience is almost exhausted, and zeal, fidelity, industry, integrity, and practical exertion. What is it, their wants very clamorous, in order to obtain the precious satisfacthat has furnished us with able divines, lawyers, and physicians ? tion of having the work done by hands whose skill and ingenuity have The undivided consecration of the talents and efforts of intelligent and been long tested, and on whose experience and judgment in adjusting uprigh: individuals to these professions. How have these talents been colors, and qualities, and proportions, and syrometry, and shape, they matured, and these efforts been trained, to their beneficial results? By can cafely rely? a diligcul course of preparation, 'nnd a long discipline in the school Is a shoe, or a bonnet, to be put in competition with an immortal of experience. We have our theological, law, and medical institutions, mind ! in which our young men are fitted for the pursuit of these respective In your very articles of dress, to clothe a frail, perishable body, that professions, by deriving benefit from the various sources of informa- is soon to become the prey of corruption, will you be so scrupulous in tion wbich libraries, lectures, and experiments afford. Unaided by the choice of those whom you employ to make them; and yet feel no such auxiliaries, genius, however briliant; invention, however prolific; solicitude in requiring of these to whom is entrusted the formation of observation, however acute; ingenuity, however ready; and perseve the habits, and thoughts and feelings of a soul that is to live forever, rance, however indefatigable; have to grope their way through a long a preparation for their most responsible task; an apprenticeship to their and tiresomne process, to the attainment of results which a little ac- important calling; a deroledness to a pursuit which involves all that quaintance with the labors of others in the same track of effort, would can affect the tenderest sympathies of a kind parent,--the most ardent render a thousand times more easy, rapid and delightful. Experience hopes of a true patriot,-ihe most expanded views of a sincere philanis the storehouse of knowledge. Now why should not this experience thropist, -the most benevolent wishes of a devout Christian ? be resorted to as an auxiliary in the education of youth? Why not I am told that the Patent-office at Washington is thronged with make this department of human exertion, a profession, as well as those models of machines, intended to facilitate the various processes of meof divinity, law, and medicine? Why not have an Institution for the chanical labor; and I read, in our public prints of the deep interest training up of instructers for their sphere of labor, as well as institu- which is felt in many of those happy discoveries that are made to proLions to prepare young men for the duties of the divine, the lawyer, or vide for the wants, and comforts, and luxuries of man, at an casier and the physician?

a cheaper rate: and I hear those eulogized as the benefactors of our Can a subject of more intarest present itself to the consideration of race, whose genius invents, and whose patient application carries into the public ? 'Does not the future in provement of our species, to which effect, any project for winnowing some sheaves of wheat a little quickthe philanthropist and the Christian look forward with such delightful er, or spinning some threads of cotton a little sooner, or propelling a anticipation, depend on the plans which are adopted for the develop: boat or a car a little faster, than has heretofore been done; and, all this inent and cultivation of the intellectual and moral powers of man? while, how comparatively few improvements are made, in the process Must not these plans begin with infancy and childhout? Do not the al- of educating the youthful mind; and in training it for usefulness in tainments of the pupil depend upon the talents, the fidelity, and the in:eg- this life, and for happiness in the life to come! rity of those by whom he is laught? How will he learn to think, lo Is human ingenuity and skill to be on the alert in almost every other speak, to read, and to write with accuracy, unless his instructers are field of enterprise but this? How can we reconcile our apathy on this able to teach him?. Shall their ability d-pend upon their individual subject with the duties which we owe to our children, to our country, experience and attainments? Are you satisfied with a divine, a law- and to our God? yer, or a physician, who has qualified himself, or pretended to do so, Let the same provision, then, be made for giving success to ihis defor his profession, by solitary, unaided, inadvised intaught, inexpe partment of effort that is so liberally made for all others. Let an inrienced efforts? You do not do this. Why not, then, require in ihe stitution be established in every state, for the express purpose of traininstructers of youth, to whom you cominit the training up of your off- ing up young men for the profession of instructers of youth in the spring, an adequate preparation for their most important and respon- common branches of an English education. Let it be so well endowed, sible employment ?

by the liberality of the public, or of individuals, as to have two or three But this preparatory discipline is considered indispensable not mere professors, men of talents and habits adapted to the pursuit, who ly for the learnet professions, but for the ordinary occupations of life. should dovote their lives to the object of the Theory and Practico of

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the Education of Youth,' and who should prepare, and deliver, and would carry with them the spirit of the Institution, and thus, by these print, a course of lectures on the subject.

various processes of comnmunication, the whole mass of public sentiLet the institution be furnished with a library, which shall contain ment, and feeling, and effort, would be imbued with i.. all the works, theoretical and practical, in all languages, that can be Another advantage resulting from such an institution would be, that obtained on the subject of education, and also with all the apparatus it would lead to the investigation and establishment of those principles that modern ingenuity has devised for this purpose; such as maps, of discipline and gorcannient most likely to promote the progress of charts, globes, orreries, &c.

children and youth in the acquisition of intellectual and moral excelLet there be connected with the institution a school, smaller or larger, lence. How sadly vague and unsettled are most of the plans in this as circumstances may dictate, in which the theories of the professors important part of education, now in operation in our common schools. can be reduced to practice, and from which daily experience would What is the regular and well-defined system of praise and blame; of derive a thousand useful instructions.

rewards and punishments; of exciting competition or appealing to To such an Institution let young men resort who are ready to devote Leiter feelings; in short, of cultivating the moral and religious temper themselves to the business of instructers of youth. Let them attend of the pupil

, while his intellectual improvement is going on, which a regular course of lectures on the subject of education; read the best now perva les cur schools? Even the gardener, whom you employ to works; take their turns in the instruction of the e.rperimental school, deck your fiower beds, and cultivate your vegetables, and rear your and after thus becoming qualified for their office, leave the Institution fruit trees, you expect to proceed upon some matured and well underwith a suitable certificate, or diploma, recommending them to the con- stood plan of operation. On this subject I can hardly restrain my fidence of the public.

emotions. I am almost ready to exclaim,-shame on those fathers and I have scarcely room to allude to the advantages which would results mothers, who inquire noi at all, who almost seem to care not at all, with from such a plan. It would direct the attention, and concentrate the regard to the morni discipline that is pursued by instructers in cultivating efforts, and inspire the zeal, of many worthy and intelligent minds to die temper and disposition of their children. On this subject, everything one imporlant object. They would excite each other in this new career depends on the character and habits of the instructer; on the plans he lays of doing good. Every year would produce a valuable accession to the down for himself; on the modes by which he carries these plans into effect. mass of experience that would be constantly accumulating at such a Here, as in everything else, system is of the highest importance. Nothing store house of knowledge. The business of instructing youth would should be left to whim and caprice. What is to bethissystem? Who shall be reduced to a system, which would embrace the best and the readiest | devise it? Prudence, sagacity, affection, firmness, and above all, exmodes of conducting' it. This system would be gradually diffused perience, shoulù combine their skill and effort to produce it. At such throughout the community. Our instructers would runk, as they an Institution as I have proposed, these requisites would be most likely ought to do, among the most respectable professions. We should to be found. Then night we hope to see the heart improved, while know to whom we entrusted the care and education of our offspring the mind expanded; and knowledge, human and divine, putting forth These instructers, corresponding, as they naturally would, with the its fruits, not by the inere dint of arbitrary authority, but by the gentler Institution which they had left, and visiting it at its annual, and my persuasion of motives addressed to those moral principles of our nature, imagination already portrays, delighttul festivals, would impart to it, ihe cultivation of which reason and religion alike inculcate. and to each other, the discoveries and improvements which they might In addition to all ihis, suppose that some intelligent and respectable individually make, in their separate spheres of eniployment.

individual, after having made himself master of The subject in all its In addition to all this, what great advantages such an institution bearings, and consulted with the wise and judicious within his reach, would afford, by the combined talents of its protessors, its library, its who might feel an interest in it, should prepare a course of lectures, experimental school, and perhaps by the endowment of two or ihree and spend a season or two in delivering them in our most populous fellowships for this very object, for i he formation of the best books to towns and cities. The novelty of this, if no other cause, would atbe employed in the early stages of education; a desideratum which tract a great many hearers. Such an individual, too, in his excursions, none but some intelligent mothers and teachers, and a few others, would have the best opportunity of conferring with well-informed and who have devoted themselves to so humble, yet important an objeci, influential men; of gaining their views; of learning the extent and can duly appreciate.

weight of all the obstacies which such a project would have to encoun. Such an institution, too, would soon become the centre of informa- ter, and the best modes of removing them; and, if it should indeed aption on all topics connected with the education of youth; and thus, the pear deserving of parronage, of enlisting public sentiment and feeling combined results of those individuals in domestic life, whose attention in its favour. has been directed to the subject, would be brought to a point, examined, If the experiment could, at first, be made upon a small scale; if such weighed, matured, digested, systematized, promulgated, and carried an Institution could be moderately endowed with funds sufficient to into effect.

support one or two professors, and procure even the elements of a Such an Institulion would also tend to elcrate the lone of public sen- library, afterwards to be enlarged, as private cr public bounty might liment, and to quicken the zeal of public efort with regard to the cor- permit; if it could be established in some town large enough to furnish rect intellectual and moral education of the rising generation. from its youthful population pupils to form its e.cperimental school ;

To accomplish any great object, the co-operation of numbers is ne and if only a few young men, of talents and worth, could be induced to
cessary. This is emphatically true in our republican community. resort to it, with un intention of devoring themselves to the business
Individual influence, or wealth, is inadequate to the task, Monarchis, of instruction as a profession,-it would not, I think, be long before its
or nobles, may singly devise, and carry in o effect, Herculean enter-practical utility would be demonstratel. The instruciers, although
prises. But we have no royal institutions; ours must be of more gradual few in number, who would, at first, leave the Institution, would prob-
growth, and perhaps, too, may aspire to more generous and impartial ably be located in some of our larger towns. Their modes of instruc-
beneficence, and attain to more settled and immovable stability. Now, tion would be witnessed hy numbers of the influential and intelligent,
to concentrate the attention, and interest, and exertions of the public and, if successful, would soon create a demand for other instructers of
on any important object, it must assume a definite and palpable form. similar qualifications. And as soon as such demand should be pro-
It must have 'a local habitation and name.' For instance, you may, duced, other indiviluals would be found willing to prepare themselves
by statements of facts, and by eloquent appeals to the sympathies of to meet it. And thus we inight liope, that bodi private and public mu-
others, excite a good deal of feeling with regard to the deaf und dumb, nificence, so bountifully bestowed, at the present day, on other useful
or to the insane. But so long as you fail io direct this good will in objects, would eventually contribute a portion of its aid to an establish.
some particular channel of practical effort, you only play round the ment designed to train up our youth more successfully to derive benefit
hearts of those whom you wish to enlist in the cause. They will think, from all thcolher efforts of rcucrolence, or institutions of literature and
and feel, and talk, and hope that something will be done; but that is religim, which are so widely extending their intluence through every
all. But erect your Asylum for the deaf and dumb, and your Retreat part of our highly favored country.
for the insane. Bring these objects of your pity logether. Let the

Another obsła-le, in the proscculion of such a plan, is the difficulty of
public see them. Commence your plans of relief. Show that some. inducing young men of characler and talents to cmbark in it, and io
thing can be done, and how and where it can be done, rad you bring derote ihemseloes to the business of instruction for life.*
into action that sympathy and benevolence which would otherwise I cannct bui hope that the time is not far distant, when the education
have been wasted in mere wishes, and hopes, and expectations. Just of youth will assume, in tiie minds of intelligent and pious individuals,
so with regard to improvements in education. Establish an Costitution, its proper place among the various other benevolent exertions which
such as I have ventured to recommend, in every state. Thc public are made, through the aius of private and public bounty, for meliorating
attention will be directed to it. Its professors will have their friends the temporal and ciernal condition of man. In the meanwhile, cannot
and correspondents in various parts of the country, to whom they will

, a few young nien, of talents and piety, be led! to feel that the thousands from time to time, communicate the results of their speenlutions and of our risina generation, the hope of the church and the state, lave efforts, and to whom they will impart a porijon of the enthusiasm strong claims on their benevolence; and that lo consecrate their which they themselves feel. Such an institution, too, would soon be time and their eflirts to such an enterprise, may be as much their duty come an object of laudable curiosity. Thousands would visit it. Ils experimental school, if properly conducted, would forin a most delight; oir children and yourli a profession. to be pursued as nu occupation or life, he is

* While the writer, in this essay, urgng the importance of making the teaching ful and interesting spectacle. Its library and various apparatus would it'lly aware of the dificulties attending the subject, in the state of society in this be, I may say, a novelty in this depariment of the philosopliy of the country. He wonid have every thing donc tant can be, to give esñcacy and suchuman mind. It would probably, also, have its public examinations, cess to the plan of employi:z gond teachers from anong such as can give only a which would draw together an assembly of intelligent and literary in other mode bas peculiar and great udvantages. At any rate, there is no danger, al dividuals. Its students, as they dispersed ibrough the community, picsent, or having tou inan; sorod teachers tv ho are willing to inake it a profession.

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as to engage in the missionary cause? Missionaries make great sac- | sary to give him what is called a good English education. I do not rifices, and practice much self-devial, and endure weighty labors, with fear to hazurd the assertion, that under an improved system of educa

any prospect of temporal emolument, in order to train up heathen tion, with suitable books prepared for the purpose, and conducted by youlh for usefulness in this world, and for happiness in the next; and more intelligent and experienced instructers, as much would be acquired cannot those be found who will undergo some sacrifices, and self-denial, in five years, by our children and youth, as is now acquired in eight. and labour, to bring about so great a good as a reformation in the in Now with regard to those parents who calculate on receiving benefit struction of those youth who are bone of our bone, and flesh of our from the labor of their children, it will easily be seen that, by gaining flesh? Only adıit the importance of the object, (and who can deny three years out of eight in the course of their education, there will be 'it ?) and it almost looks like an impeachment of their Christian sinceri- an immense saving to the state. This saving alone would, I apprety, to suppose that among those liundreds of young men who are press- hend, if youth were usefully employed, more than defray the additional ing forward into the ranks of charitable enterprise, none can be per- wages which would have to be given to instructers of skill and expesuaded to enter upon a domestic field of labor, which promises so much rience, and who should devote themselves to their employment as a for the advancement of the Redeemer's kingdom. No, only let the profession for life. But if even the advantage to be derived from the project be begun, let the way of usefulness be opened, let the counte- labor of children is not taken into the account, it is evident that, for nance and support of even a few pious and influential individuals be having the same object accomplished in five years that now consumes afforded, and I am persuaded that agents to carry on the work, at eight, you could at least afford to pay as much for five years of instrueleast to commence it, will not be wanting.

tion as you now pay for eight. In addition to this, as it is the custom The difficulty is not in being unable to procure such agents: it lies in many of our country towns for the instructer to board in the families deeper : it arises from the very little interest that has yet been taken in of those who send children to school, there would be a saving also in the subject; from the strange negleet, among parents, and patriots, this respect. There would be a saving, too, with regard to all the and Christians, of a well-digested and systematic plan for the educa- contingent expenses of the school, such as books, stationery, wood, &c. tion of children and youth; trom the sluggisl conteniment that is felt In a community constituted like that of New England, where so with the long established modes of instruction; and from the apprehen- great a proportion of its population is devoted to agricultural and mesions which some entertain, that all improvements are either ansafe orchanical pursuits, any system of education which could save to the chimerical.

public three years out of eight of the time and labor of all its children Bulliese young men are poor, and cannot defray the expense of a and youth, would, it is manifest, add an immense sum to the pecuniary preparatory education at such a stoninary as has been proposed. resources of the country, and recommend itself to every patriot and

Poor young men are taken by the hand of charity and prepared for philanthropist, even on the most rigid principles of a calculating other spheres of benevolent exertion;-and shall this wide, and as yet economy. almost uncultivated field of benevolence be quite neglected, for the Besides, the grand object of education--to prepare the rising genewant of a little pecuniary aid? Who gave the first impulse to Foreign ration for usefulness and respectability in life, and to train them up for Missionary efforts? Was nothing done until the whole Christian pub a better and happier state of existence beyond the grave-would not lic was awakened to a sense of its duty ? Did this mighty enterprise only be accomplished in a shorter space of time, but they would be begin in the collected councils of the grave and venerable fathers of much more effectually accomplished. · At present, with all olie time, and the church? Was the whole plan of operation digested and matured labor, and expense bestowed upon it, the work is too oflen only holf in all its parts, and no steps taken until all obstacles were removed, and done; and thie effects of our imperfect modes of instruction are to render patronage, and influence, and means collected and concentrated to in- youth far less competent to succeed in any pursuits in which they may sure the successful prosecution of the vast design? No; long, long engage, than if their education was conducted by intelligent instructbefore all this complicated machinery was put in motion, the master- ers, on a well-digested plan, and made as thorough and complete as it spring was at work, and a few pious and prayerful young men gave might be. an impulse at first to private zeal, and afierwards to public co-operation, How often has the individual of native vigor of intellect and force of and the result fills us with gratitude and astonishment.

enterprise to lament, through a long life of unremitted effort, his many Let a Minus and his associates arise 10 a hearty engagedness in the disappointments in the prosecution of his plans of business, arising alproject of diffusing throughout our country a system for the best mode logether from the defects of his early education ! And if this early of conducting the education of youth ; lei their faith be strong, and education were properly conducted, what an accession it would yield to their perseverance unwavering; and influence and wealth will soon the resources of the coinmunity, in the superior ingenuity and skill of contribute their share in the prosecution of the work; porerly on the our artists; in the more accurate and systematic transactions of our part of those who are willing to endure the heat and burden of the day, merchants; in the profounder studies and more successful labors of our will cease to be an obstacle in the way oface mplishing their benevo- professional men; in the wider experience and deeper sagacity of our lent designs. Providence can, in this, as in all ihe other departments statesmen and politicians; in the higher attainments and loftier proof his dispensations, make even the selfish passions of our nature con ductions of our sons of literature and science; and permit me to add, tribute to the promotion of good and charitable exertions.

in the nobler patriotism, the purer morals, and the more ardent piety of Those who should devoie themselves to the business of the instruc- the whole mass of our citizens. tion of youth as a profession, and who should prepare themselves for it I know it is no easy task to convince some minds that all these adby a course of sudy and discipline at such a Seminary as I have pro- vantages yield just so many dollars and cents to the private purse, or posed, would not find it necessary as our missionaries do, to depend to the public treasury. But my appeal is to those who take a more on the charity of their countrymen for support. Their talents, iheir comprehensive view of what constitutes the real wealth of any commuqualifications, and their recommendations, would inspire public confi- nity, and who estimate objects not by what they will to-day fetch in dence, and command public patronage. For experience would soon the market, if exposed to sale, but by their effects upon the permanent prove, if it cannot be now seen in prospect, that to save time in the ed well-being and prosperity of the state. ucation of youth, and to have ihis education complete instead of being With such I leave the candid consideration of the remarks which I imperfect, and to prepare the youthful mind for accurate thought, and have offered in this and the preceding essays; in the meanwhile chercorrect feeling, and practical, energetic action, in all the business of ishing the hope, that that Being who is now most wonderfully adjustlife, is to sare money; and even those who now expend a few dollars ing the various enterprises of benevolence, that distinguish the age in with so niggardly a hand, in the education of their dear, immortal off- which we live from all others which have preceded it, to the consumspring, would soon learn how to calculate on the closesi principles of mation of His gracious designs for the universal happiness of man, on loss and gain in the employment of instructers, and be willing to give the principles which the gospel of Jesus Christ inculcates, and which it twice as much, to him who would do his work tuice as well and in hall alone can produce, will, sooner, or later, and in some way or other, the time, as they now give to hun who has neither skill nor experience rouse the attention, and direct the efforts of the Christian world to that in his profession.

departmen! of philanthropic excrlion, the neglect of which must retard, Am I extravagant in these speculations? I think I am not; and if if not quite counteract, complete success in all others,—the education my readers will exercise a little more patience, I hope to show, that in lof youth. adopting ihe plan which I have proposed, there will be an actual sa. ving of money to individuals and to ine stále, in adui ion to those numerous advantages in a social, political, and religious point of view,

HISTORY OF NORMAL SCHOOLS, OR SEMINARIES that would result from it, and which are, if I mistake not, so great, that

FOR THE EDUCATION OF TEACHERS. if they could not be attained in any other way, a pecuniary sacrifice ought not for a moment to stand in competition with them.

The following curious and valuable details on the history of their RIy reasoning is founded on two positions wiliell, I think, cannot be institutions, are given by Mrs. Austin, in the preface to ber translation controveried ;-that the present moles i instructing youth are sus- of Cousin's Report on the State of Public Instruction in Prussia. ceptible of vast improvement; and that, if this improvement could be "Schools specially destined for educating the school-master in the carried into operation, hy having a more effectualsystem of education principles and application of his profession cannot be traced higher adopted, and by training up instructers of seriór attainments and than the commencement of the last century. Franke, the celebrated skill, there would be a grent saving, both of time and labor, and of all pietest, must be regarded as their originator. Beside his noble foundathe contingent expenses necessary to be incurred.

tions of the Pædagogium and Orphan House of Halle, stood a semineSuppose, for the sitke of argument, though I believe it falls short of ry for the instruction of teachers, whether of learned or popular the truth, that eight years of pretry constant attendance at school, schools; and under Steinmetz, and his successors in that Ablacy, counting from the time tha: a child begins to learn his letters, is neces- Klosierberge, nsar Magdeburg, was long a nursery from whence

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