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school-masters trained in the principles of Franke, and the spirit of into her system, but she can now claim a high rank for the Normal
Spenerian pietism, were transplanted over the whole north of Germa school at Harlaem, of which we shall give an account in this number.
ny. The education and the educator now became an object of general England, with all her wealth and literature—with all her princely
interest in Germnny. From 1730, academical lectures on Padagogik endowments for the education of the higher classes of socieiy, has,
appear to have been regularly and universally delivered ; and for plii: till within the last few years, done absolutely nothing as a govern.
lologists by profession, and those destined for teachers in the classical ment, for the education of the poorer and working classes. The
or learned schools, special seminaries, in which the stipendiary alum: iwo Societies, the National, and the British and Foreign School So-
ni were carefully instructed and exercised, gradually became attached cicties, have accomplished much. The Central School, in Westmin.
to all the principal universities. Overlooking the Seminarium doctri ster, and the more famous Borough Road school, are model schools,
na elegantioris, of Celarius, in Halle, the Philological and Scholastic and designed to be seminaries for the education of teachers to be
Seminary of Gottingen, which owes its origin to Gesner, in 1738, was
the first regular institution of the kind, an institution imitated in Jena, last named is conducied after the system of Joseph Lancaster, and

employed in their several schools throughout the kingdom. The
Halle, Erlangen, Helmstadt, Leipzig, Herdelberg, Kjel, Breslau,
Berlin, Munich, Dorpat, &c. The beneficial effects of the seminaries was such an one as Dewitt Clinton was anxious to have adopted in
for learned teachers, naturally directed an increased attention to the the State of New York. One of the best Lancasterian teachers in
education of the inferior instructers. In Prussia, the meritorious Heck- this country, Mr. Lovell, of New.Haven, was trained in that school.
er, a pupil of the Frankcan discipline, and first founder of the schools We shall give an account of it in some subsequent number of the

Journal. variously denominated Burgher, Middle or Real, had supported at Berlin, from the year 1748, a sort of nursery of popular instructers, in

In Scotland, efforts have more recently been made, both at Glas. which Frederick 2d testified an interest. In 1752, a royal ordinance gow and Edinburgh, 10 establish Normal Schools. The one at Glas. enjoined that on the crown demesnes in the Neu Mark and Pomerania, gow, under the management of Mr. McCrie, is rendering great ser. all vacancies in the country schools should be supplied by pupils from vice to the cause of education in that old dominion of parochial Hecker's Seminary, the king at the same time allowing an annual sti- schools. pend for the support of twelve alumni of that establishment; a number In the United States, the Journal of Education, that able and suc. which, in 1788, was raised to sixty. Basedow had the merit, at least, cessful pioneer in the cause of Common School improvement, was of concentrating public interest, on the importance of improving meth- early and earnest in calling the attention of the public to the necessi. ods of education, although his seminary for teachers was never bronghi ty of providing seminaries for teachers. The Teachers Seminary 10 bear; but the Canon von Rochow was the man who mainly opcra- at Anduver, established in 1835, was the first to go into operation; ted a reform in the instruction of the people, and proved, ly precept and although it could never be ranked as a completely organized and example, the advantages of a more careful education of the pri. Normal School, it did much to promote the cause of school improve. mary school-master. The school, on his own estate of Rekahn, in New.York was the fi'st state 10 take up the policy of provi. Brandenburg, and those on the adjoining properties, were organized ding partially in her “ Academical Teachers Departments” for the under his direction. Hitler, travellers from all parts flocked to admire education of her teachers. Massachusetts, as will be seen in the sub. and imitate; in fact, from 1773, these became ihe model schools, to sequent pages of this number, as she was the first to organize an effi. which young men from every quarter of Germany were sent, to be cient, universal system of free schools on this continent, is likely to be trained in the principles and practice of primary instruction. The the first to bring the uplifting influence of Teachers Seminaries or good example operated. In Prussia, previous to the period of revolu- Normal Schools to bear upon that system. And will not Connecticut, cion, public seminaries for the education of inferior school-masters which has been quoted the world over for her munificent patronage were established at Halberstadt, in 1988, and at Bieslam, in 1787;- lof Common School Education, and enjoying as she does better au. while similar establishments were supported by private liberality, in Wesel by the Baron von der Reck, and in Minden by the pastor Her- vantages for engrafting those improvements which the experience of bing. During the subsequent years of calamity and war, the determi- other countries have struck out, and demonstrated to be indeed imnation previously given was necessarily retarded. In 1806, there ex- provements, in primary schools, make one general and generous ef. isted in Prussia only fourteen of the greater public seminaries for pri- fort to place her school system on an eminence, not only on a level mary school-masters. These are now nearly quadrupled.

with, but far above the system adopted by any state or people, at " The other states of Germany have not, however, lugged behind the home or abroad. country in which these institutions originated; and the lesser states have been even more forward than the greater. Though far inferior to

PRUSSIA. most of the German principalities, in the education of the lower orders, Hanover has one of her seminaries for the training of primary school- abstract of Cousin's Report on the system of Public Instruction in

As we purpose to present in some future number of the Journal an masters, which dates from 1750. Previous to the French revolution, Prussia, and all of Prof. Stowe's Report which relates to the work. there existed similar flourishing establishments in Usingen, Dessau, ing of this system in the school rooms of that kingdom, we shall here Cassel, Detmold, Gotha, Oehringen, and Kiel. Nor were the Catholic contine ourselves to an exposition of the liberal and thorough provi. states less active than the Protestant in the same blessed work. In the sion which is made by this military despotic government in the formaAustrian monarchy, the improvement of popular education, and the Lion of skillful and able teachers for her Common Schools. It may be general institution of normal schools were mainly promoted by the zeal of two eminent churchmen, Bishop von Felbiger and Dean Kin well enough just to state that in Prussia every child must be educated. dermann von Schulstein, (an auspicious name!) Their exertions raie Every town must support schools, which carry forward children to a from 1770, and the reform was commenced in Bohemia. In the Bish- much higher point of intellectual and moral improvemeni than most opric of Munster, the spirit of improvement was awakened by the of our common schools, even in the larger cities, aim ar. Every Baron von Furstenburg, and seminaries for school-masters estab‘ished school house must be built in a healthy and pleasant location, of suffi

. prior to the French revolution. The Bavarian reform was more re- cient size, and well ventilated, with a play ground and garden attach. cent. The spirit of amelioration was communicated from Germany ed. The supervision is at once minute and comprehensive, acting on to the neighboring states. Denmark became an early imitator; and every district and fi mily in the kingdom, and all centres for purposeminaries for primary teachers were introduced, not only into Hols- ses of general direcrion and superintendence, in the Minister of tein, but into the Scandinavian provinces of that monarchy, previous Public Instruction. Bor above all, every teacher must be properly to the revolutionary period."

qualified for his responsible duties—and to enable them to become In addition to what has been stated of the history of Teachers' thue qualified, 47 seminaries devoted exclusively 10 the education of Seminaries, it may be remarked generally, that within the last half teachers for the Common Schools, are in successful operation. century, the progress of primary instruction may be measured by the This system, so comprehensive in its reach, and so complete in all provision made for the education of teachers. In Russia, where the its detnils, is the growth of about a half century- although the germs Emperor Alexander commenced a wise system of policy by estab- of it existed in sume of the provinces of thai kingdom, as the offlishing universities, academies, and district schools, the entire ma. springs of the parochial schools established by the reformers. But chinery is governed by the central Normal School at St. Petersburg. fifty years ago ihe common school system of Prussia did not differ Switzerland can claim that the schools of Pestalozzi and Fellenberg materially from that of many other countries in Europe. The first were in fact the Normal schools of Europe-and some of the cantong efficient scp towards improving the system was made about 55 years have lately mado liberal annual provision for the education of com. ago, by a law which probibited any young clergyman to claim a mon school teachers.

church living if he had not some years previous been a teacher in In France, the first application of this grand idea was made by a public school lleretofore such persons had found easier and bet. Napoleon, in his decree of the 17th of March, 1808, for the organiza ter paid employment in private schoo's, or ns tutors in noble fami. tion of the University establishing the central Normal School at Palies. Slight is ibis improvement was, it led to others more impor. ris-although the first conception of it was struck out in the frenzy ant. Men of the best talenis, in not a few instances, took a strong of the Revolution, by a deoree of the National Convention in 1794. liking to their new employment, and thus were induced to abandon

In 1837 there were eighty-three of these seminaries in full opera- all thought of presermont in the church, and to devote themselves to tion, forming, as the minister of public instruction remarked, in cach the office of teaching: The governnient, perceiving the advantage department a grand focus of lighi, scattering its rays in all directions. of having men of good talents who were pursuing teaching as a pro. Holland was morrow 3d -artial in introducing this improvement fession in the public schools, iried to encourage the practice by hullur.

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able distinctions, and pecuniary remunerations. This course soon under the superintendence of an experienced clergyman or rector; and
operated to draw young men of ability into the business of public in these the state contributes only a part of their income.
instruction. It next occurred to the government to increase the ad. In some of the larger seminaries the state gives, besides board, a
vanlages of having permanent teachers, by affording young persons small gratuity to some of the best and most informed pupils, who act as
who prepared to teach, an opportunity of becoming thoroughly train. assistant teachers of their younger fellow students.
ed for the performance of their dutius. Hence arose the pædago. The number of pupils in these forty-two institutions amounted, at
gical and philological seminaries of Germany. The latter class' the above mentioned period, to more than two thousand, the number of
were designed principally to teach the best methods of acquiring and situations for school-masters, to about iwenty-two thousand, and the
communicating a knowledge of the ancient languages. By the be- number of pupils formed for these institutions, annually leaving the
ginning of the present century, these institutions which had been con seminaries, to about eight or nine hundred. The annual vacancies in
fined principaliy to rearing up teachers for the gymnasia, or school the situations of school-masters amount to about three or four per cent.;
of secondary instruction, who had previously gone through the uni. so that, with due allowance for pupils selecting other situations, or re-
versities, had greaily advanced education among the higher and ber of candidates for such appointments, and the possibility of making

tained by bodily infirmities there, there still remains a sufficient num-
wealthier classes of society. But their uplifting influence had not their examinatiolis as rigorous as they ought to be.
been brought to bear upon the schools of a lower grade
ters of these schools were, ordinarily, young men in feeble health,
or of bad constitutions, thereby slender, and unfit for the more rug. The usual length of the course of cducation in the seminaries is three
ged occupations of life; or else persons who had failed of success in years, each year having two terms. In the smaller, or branch semina-
other walks of business, and fled to this as the last resort for a tem- ries, forming school-masters for the poorest and most thinly inhabited
porary and precarious subsistence. Hence the school master was villages, the course is limited to two years.
regarded as the refuse of society, instead of standing in a position

The school-masters which liave an appointment are sometimes (perof the most delicate trust, and honorable and arduous responsibility: haps every year) assembled at the nearest seminary for the purpose

Experience has demonstrated the best and only thorough way of of receiving there, during three or four weeks, a term of instruction on
raising the condition of the lower schools, and that by raising up and methods newly invented, in the progress of the art of teaching:
employing more skillful and respectable masters. This gave rise 10 Besides this, the most distinguished or most active school-masters
the establishment of Seminaries for school nasters for the lower receive from the Consistory of the province, small premiums, in
schools. There existed before 1800, but six of these institutions in money, or books. The school-masters of the circles, (nearly equal
Prussia. These had been erected by benevolent individuals at their to one or two townships,) have, under the protection of the govern-
own expense, and were very imperfectly organized. As late as ment, weekly conferences, where they discuss the different methods of
1807, the present king had succeeded, amid the disaster of war, in instruction, comment on new works on education, keep exact minutes
establishing but five, which, together with those before existing of these transactions, and read their own observations or papers on
made eleven in all. In 1810 they had increased to sixteen, and in these subjects.
1826 there were twenty-eight in successful operation, and in 1837
they amounted to 47.

The age of entering into the seminaries is between sixteen or eighteen

years, and the pupils are free from any service in the army or in the DR. JULIUS ON TEACHERS' SEMINARIES IN PRUSSIA. militia during times of peace.

The seminaries, wherein no pupil can be received who has not gone The seminaries for the teachers of primary schools are entirely the least doubt, are desiined to form teachers for the elementary or pri

through the elementary instruction, or whose morality is subjected to supported by government, from the general shool fund, which has two mary schools, as well as for the middle, or citizens' schools, where no separate divisions, the Catholic school fund, and the Protestant instruction in the classical languages is given. The parts which conschool fund.

stitute the course of instruction for such teachers are. The expense of these seminaries belongs to the ordinary annual

1. Religion. Biblical history, introductory and commentatory les. budget of ihe minister of Public Instruction. Some of the seminaries have ancient endowments, in landed prop- duties of man.

sons on the Bible, systematical instruction on the religious and moral erty, which contribute to diminish the expense of the royal treasury, but the departments have nothing to spend for this part of popular edu- of view. Exercises in expressing thoughts and reasoning orally and

2. The German language in an etymological and grammatical point cation. In the year 1831, the annual expense for thirty-three semina

by writing ries amounted to nearly $80,000; whereof the treasury had only to pay 3. Mathematics. Arithmetic as well from memory or intellectual about $60,000. At the beginning of 1833, there were forty-two seminaries in the as by putting down the numbers, geometry, stereometry, and trigo

nometry. kingdom, with a population of thirteen millions of inhabitants. To each of these seminaries a small elementary school for children of the the most important events or objects in history, natural history, natural

4. A'knowledge of the world, consisting in an acquaintance with city is attached, but merely as a means to develope the practical skill of philosophy, geography and cosmology or physical geography the future teachers. The expense of the seminaries makes nearly the

5. Musical instruction, consisting in the theory and practice of singfitieth part of the entire expense of the primary schools. The expense ing, theory of music, instruction in playing on the violin and the organ. of the primary schools is borne nearly in such proportions by the state, and by the parishes, or rather · Communes,' consisting of a village or

6. Drawing, according to the system of Peter Schmid, and pen

manship. a city, that the last contribute nineteen twentieths of the expenditure,

7. The theory of education, the theory and practice of teaching, and and the state only one twentieth part.

their connection with religious service, the liturgy.

8. Gymnastic exercises of all kinds. The whole expense of the erection of seminaries, and of providing horticulture, in the cultivation of fruit trees and in husbandry. In the

9. Where it is practicable, theoretical and practical instruction in them with suitable buildings wherein the professors and the pupils live, as well as with a library, apparatus for instruction, and musical country, the dwelling house of the school-master has a garden, serving instruments for the exercise of the pupils, is borne by the state. As to

as a nursery and an orchard, for the benefit of the school-master who the board of the pupils, it is paid for by far the greatest proportion of lives there, without paying any rent or local taxes, and for the inthem, and provided for all by the state. There is only a small part of

struction of the village. In latter years the rearing of silk-worms the pupils for whom the magistrates of the places of their nativity and and the production of silk, has been frequently tried by the schoolresidence, or their relatives, make a small annual payment to the treas

masters in the country, the government furnishing malberry trees and urer of the seminary.

other materials. Those pupils which receive their education and support wholly from

What is still more important than this complete course of instruction, the state, are legally bound to fill

, during a certain number of years, the is the spirit of religious and moral industry and self-denial which persituations of school ma ters to which they are elected, receiving always vades the seminaries, continually supported and inculcated by the dithe annual salary attached to each of these situations. The length of rectors, ul! highly distinguished men of piety and learning, and by the time during which they have to fill in this way some place of school- strict discipline under which thc pupils live, without feeling themselves master offered to them, is three years. Should they not choose to ac

fettered by it. cept such an appointment when offered to them, they have to pay to the treasurer of the seminary where they were educated, for each year of, The answer to this question may be found already in the preceding instruction $14, ar.d the whole amount of their board.

On the whole, the school-master is so trained, that he may form, Of the forty-two seminaries existing first January, 1833, twenty- | in connection with the rector, even of the remotest village, where the eight were large, with 25 to 100 pupils. The law, which from una- last mentioned is always president ex officio of the school committee voidable circumstances has not always been observed, prescribed never elected by the inhabitants, a central point of religious, moral and into hive more than sixty or seventy, pupils in a seminary: These tellectual information, sending its beneficent and cheerful beams through seminaries were entirely supported by the state, or from their own the whole extent of the little community. funds. The remaining fourteen seninaries, which may be called This whole system of instruction tends to a religious and moral end, branch seminaries, count cach of them six to eighteen pupils, sometimes and rests on the sacred basis of Christian love. As the most affecting

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and indeed sublime example of this spirit, I mention the little, or branch In 1829, the number of Normal schools in France was thirteen; at
seminaries, for training poor school-masiers in such habits and with the close of 1832, it was forty-seven ; in March, 1834, si.xty-tvo. Of
such feelings as shall fit them to be useful and contented teachers of these sixty-two, fifty-four correspond to the same number of Depart-
the poorest villages. Here is poverty, to which that of the poorest la- ments, each depariment having one; of the remaining eight, each
borers in this country is aflluence; and it is hopeless, for to this class of serves for iwo or more departments; so that out of the eighty-six de-
school-masters no idea is held ont of advancement or change. Yet if partments composing the French monarchy, seventy-three have now
ever poverty on earth appeared serene, contented, lofty, beneficent, it is the certain prospect of drawing their future supply of parochial teach-
here." Here we see," as the well informed English translator of Cous- ers from a Normal school. Thirteen only are unprovided, and eleven
in's Report on the state of public instruction in Prussia, says: “Here of these were busy in making arrangements for supplying ihe deficien-
we see men in the very spring-time of life, so far from being made, as cy, when the last returns were made.
we are told men must be made, restless and envious and discontented The sixty-two Noi mal schools already in activity, are attended by
by instruction, taking indigence and obscurity to their hearts for life; 1944 pipil-teachers, who may be regurded as the capital out of which
raised above their poor neighbors in education, only that they may vacancies, as they occur in ihe primary schools, are to be supplied.
become the servants of all, and may train the lowliest children in a The entire number of parish school-masters in the 73 Departments
sense of the dignity of man, and the beauty of creation, in the love of provided with Normal schools, is 26,565, among whom the average
God and virtue."

annual mortality is one-twentieth, or 1328. A supply of accomplished

young teachers, to this amount, can scarcely as yer be expected from the The first thing requisite for the larger seminaries is a house, with Normal schools, many of which are still in their infancy; but the object of ground for gymnastic exercises, for horticulture, and an orchard with the government, and they have already secured the means of atraining fruit trees, to teach pomology, &c., attached to it.

it, is to adjust, as nicely as possible, the supply of qualified teachers Besides this a library composed principally of works on theology, from these institutions, to the demand created by the death or removal moral philosophy, the art of teaching, and systems of education, his- of masters. The sure prospect of an excellent education, and subsctorical and geographical compendiums, books on natural history, natu- quently of employment as school.masters, together with exemption ral philosophy, husbandry, cultivation of fruits and vegetables, rearing !rom military service, has already begun to make this profession more of bees and silk-worms, the German classics, and musical works and popular than the clerical; and to attract to it a class of young men who compositions. Farther, a number of musical instruments, violins, are able, and, for such advantages, willing, to pay the whole cost of flutes, pianos, and a large organ.

their maintenance, or the difference at least between that and any little The apparatus for chemistry and natural philosophy, comprises assistance they can obtain in the shape of an exhibition or bursary. only those instruments which are requisite for those primary branches The sum required to cover the expenditure, ordinary and extraordiof both sciences that may be of use to the future school-master; and nary, of 1834, in carrying into effect the government plan of Normal also a small cabinet of natural history, consisting of minerals, plants, schools, is calculated by the Minister of Public Instruction at 1,532,000 and animals,

francs, or about $300,000;-an amount, we presume, much beyond

what will be necessary when the first outlay is over, and the annual NORMAL SCHOOLS IN FRANCE.

chargés alone are to be inet. Of this sum, raised from various sources, The law of "primary instruction,” which, under the administra- 1 by far the greatest proportion is borne by the Departments. In most tion of the most enlightened men in France, is doing so much to ele: cases, they have voluntarily burdened themselves to the full amount revate the standard of common school education in that kingdom, is as Executive with power to enforce payment of their quota from the de

quired; where negligence or backwardness is shown, the law arms the complete in its general plan and minute details as any with which we faulters. are acquainted, unless it is that of Prussia, from which it is avowed. The annual cost of each pupil, including maintenance, education, ly modelled.

and every thing else but clothing, is estimated at 400 francs, or about But this most desirable, and as we think indispensable element, in $80. As one means of meeting this charge, Exhibitions or Bursaries any complete system of common school instruction-good teachers, is are created, one of which, if enjoyed entire, will defray the whole ex: noi left to chance, or to the judgment of those entrusted with the admin- penses of the holder. But they are generally granted in halves and istration of the system. Adequate provision is made in the law itself quarters, the rest of the expense being made up from the pupil's own for training school masters to the skilful discharge of their arduous resources. The Communes, the University, and the Departments, are duties. For, as M. Guizot justly and eloquently observes in his all expected to found bursaries, which originate also occasionally from speech on introducing the law in the Chamber of Deputies,

the bounty of individual donors and benevolent associations. It is All the provisions hitherto described would be of none effect, if we only when all these sources are insufficient, that the State comes in to took no pains to procure for the public school thus constituted, an able supply the deficit

. M. Guizot states, that of the 1914 pupil teachers master, and worthy of the high vocation of instructing the people. \ Communes; 245 of the State ; and 273 are maintained at their own

now in attendance, 1303 are bursars of the Departments; 118 of the cannot be too often repeated, that it is the master that makes the school. And, indeed, what a well-assorted union of qualities is required to

Every candidate for admission to these institutions, and to the enconstitute a good school-master! A good school-master ought to be a man who knows much more than he is called upon to teach, that he joyment of a bourse, or any part of one, must bind himself to follow the may teach with intelligence and with taste; who is to live in a humble the institution; and to reimburse it for the whole expense of his main

profession of a parish school-master for ten years at least after quitting sphere, and yet to have a noble and elevated mind, that he may pre-tenance, if he fail to fulfil his decennial engagement. He must have serve that dignity of sentiment and of deportment, without which he completed his sixteenth year; and besides the ordinary elementary acwill never obtain the respect and confidence of families; who possesses quirements, must produce evidence both of good previous character, a rare mixture of gentleness and firmness; for, inferior though he be and of general intelligence and aptitude to learn. Most of the bursaries in station to many individuals in the commune, he ought to be the ob- are adjudged upon a comparative trial among competitors, who are sequious servant of none; - a man not ignorant of his rights, but think; likely to become every year more numerous: and the examination for ing much more of his duties, showing to all a good example, and admission is so well' arranged and conducted, that it tends to raise serving to all as a counsellor; not given to change his condition, but higher and higher the standard of previous acquirement. satisfied with his situation, because it gives him the power of doing good; and who has made up his mind to live and to die in the service introduced, occupies two years of eleven months each, i. e. from the 1st

The course of instruction and training to which the youth is thus of primary instruction, which to him is the service of God and his October, to the 1st of the ensuing September, and embraces the followfellow-creatures. To rear masters approaching to such a model is a difficult task; and yet we must succeed in it, or else we have done

ing objects:nothing for elementary instruction. A bad school-master, like a bad

1st. Moral and religious instruction. The latter, in us far as it is parish priest, is a scourge to a commune ; and though we are often distinct from the former

, is given by the clergyman of the particular obliged to be contented with indifferent ones, we must do our best to faith which the pupil happens to profess. improve the average quality. We have, therefore, continues M. Gui 2. Reading, with the grammar of their own language. zot, availed ourselves of a bright thought struck out in the heat of the

3d. Arithmetic, including an intimate and practical acquaintanco Revolution, by a decree of the National Convention, in 1794, and after- with the legal system of weights and measures. This knowledge is wards applied by Napoleon, in his decree, in 1808, for the

organization made to hold so prominent a part in the program of instruction, as afof the University, to the establishment of his central Normal School at fording the best means of introducing that admirable system into the Paris. We carry its application still lower than he did in the social habits of the French people, among whom, from ignorance and prejuscale, when we propose that no school-master shall be appointed who dice, it is still far from being generally adopted. has not himself been a pupil of the school which instructs in the art of

4th. Linear drawing, and construction of diagrams, land-measuring, teaching, and who is not certified, after a strict examination, to have and other applications of practical geometry. profited by the opportunities he has enjoyed.

5th. Elements of physical science, with a special view to tie purThe law declares that there shall be one Normal School for every de

poses of ordinary life.

6th. Music, tanght by the eye as well as by the ear. partment, unless it may be necessary at first to make one sufficient for

7th. Gymnastics. two or more. The following account of their organization and condi 8th. The elements of general geography and history, and the partiction we copy, with some alterations and additions, drawn from official ular geography and history of France. documents, from an article in the Edinburgh Review;

gih. The pupils arc instructed, and, wherever the locality admits,

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exercised also, in the rearing of esculent vegetables, ard in the pruning performance. The Imperial Government exhausted itself in efforts to and grafting of trees.

regenerate the higher instruction, called secondary; but did nothing 10. They are accustomed to the drawing out of the simpler legal for that of the people. The restored Dynasty, up to 1828, expended forms and civil deeds.

no more than 50,000 francs annually upon primary instruction. The
A library for the use of the pupils is fitted up within the premises; Ministry of 1828 obtained from the Chamber a grant of 300,000 francs.
and a sum is set apart every year for the purchase of such works as Since the Revolution of July 1830, a million has been voted annually-
the Council of Public Instruction may judge likely to be useful to the that is, more in two years ihan the restoration in fifteen. Those are
young school masters. The course of study is, for the present, limited the means, and here are the results. All of you are aware that prima-
io two years, instead of three, which is the ierm ultimately contempla- ry instruction depends altogether on the corresponding Normal schools.
ted as the most desirable. During the second of those years, instruc- The prosperity of these establishments is the measure of its progress.
tion in the principles of the art of teaching is kept constantly in view; The Imperial Government, which first pronounced with effect the
and for the last six months, in particular, the pupils are trained to the words, Normal schools, left us a legacy of one. The Restoration
practical application of the most approved methods, by being employ- added five or six. Those, of which some were in their infancy, we
ed as assistants in the different classes of the children's schools, which have greatly improved within the last two years, and have, at the same
are invariably annexed to the Normal, and form part and parcel of the time, established thirty new ones; twenty of which are in full opera-
establishment. The immediate control and management of the whole tion, forming in each department a vast focus of light, scattering its
is committed to a director, who is appointed by the Minister of Public rays in all directions among the people.
Instruction, upon the presentation of ihe Prefect of the Department and
the Rector of the Academy. The director, besides general superin-

tendence, is charged with some important branch of the instruction;
the rest is devolved on his adjuncts, or assistant masters, who reside in


The following interesting and important account of the Primary One of the most important features of the Normal system, is the part Education in Holland, from the pen of M. Victor Cousin, is the transperformed by the Commissions d' cxamen, or Commissioners of prima-lation of part of an article which appeared some short time ago in a ry instruction, whose office it is to conduct the examination of all the French periodical. pupils of the Normal schools, as they are called. They are composed “The Primary Normal School of Haarlem, in the centre of Holland, of seven members appointed by the Minister of Public Instruction, is an establishment of the Dutch government. From the circumstance upon the recommendation of the rector of the academy. Three mem- of having been founded so long ago as 1816, it has had sufficient time bers at least must be selected from among those who have already ex to become settled, to develope itself, and to show how much it is capaercised, or are at the time exercising the function of public teachers, Lle of effecting. The reputation of its director, whom M. Curier has and who are most likely to unite ability and integrity. It is recom- already distinguished as an excellent master, and as an author of valumended that one of the seven be a clergyman. " To act,” says the able educational works, is very great; indeed he is held up as the Minister, in a circular addressed to each of the twenty-six Reciors - model of what a school.master ought to be. As an additional advan"to act in concert with the three members belonging to the body of tage, this Primary Normal school has been organized under the eyes of Public Instruction in these Commissions d' examen, a minister of reli- M. Van den Ende, general inspector of primary instruction, the indigion will doubtless be summoned. The law has put moral and reli- vidual who, with the celebrated Orientalist, M. Van der Palme, was gious instruction in the foremost rank; the teacher, therefore, must mainly instrumental in arranging the law of 1806, and attended to its give proof of his being able to communicate to the children entrusted to execution; he is considered in Holland as one of the fathers of the edhis care, those important ideas which are to be the rule of their lives. ucation of the people. An interesting conversation took place between Donbtless every functionary of public instruction, every fither of a M. Cousin and M. Van den Ende, of which the following is a brief family who shall be placed on this commission by your recommenda- account:'' tion, as rector of the academy, will be fully able to appreciate the moral " For fear of too much fatiguing M. Van den Ende, (who is aged and religious aitainments of the candidates; but it is, nevertheless, fit and in delicate health,) I determined upon consulting his experience and proper, that the future teachers of youih should exhibit proof of upon a limited number of questions, among which I placed in the first their capacity in this respect, before persons whom their peculiar char-rank religious instruction in the primary schools. Upon this, as upon acter and special mission more particularly qualify to be judges in this all others, I found him greatly attached to the practice in Holland; matter."

and he said, “Yes, the primary schools ought to be in an extended The most important of all the duties devolved upon these examining sense Christian, but neither Protestant nor Catholic. They ought to commissions, is that of conferring on the pupil, when he quits the insti- belong to no particular sect, nor to teach any creed, in order that even imion, a brevet de capacilé. Carelessness, partiality, or ignorance, in the Jews, without prejudice to their faith, may attend them. A school the discharge of it, would entirely defeat the main object of the law on for the people should be for the entire people. I do not approve of the Primary Instruction. This brcvet, certifying the holder's fitness to be master of the school giving any doctrinal instruction; it is the business a teacher, either in the lower or higher grade of primary schools, con. of the clergy to impart instruction of this description out of school. I stitutes' his pussport to the labors and honors of his profession. With permit the master, in certain cases only, to have the catechism repeated; it and his certificate of good conduct in his pocket,' he may carry his and even this not without inconvenience. You are in Holland, where skill and industry to any market he fleases, without further let or in the spirit of Christianity is widely spread, and still where great tolerpediment.

ance has cxisted for ages among the different sects. He appeared to One hundred and fifty-six of these Examining Commissions, which me to fear the intervention of the priest or clergyman in the inspection is not far short of two for each Department, have been in activity du- of the school; a matter to which they attach so great importance in ring part of the last and present year, (in 1833 and 34.), In that space Germany, and upon which I have myself so much insisted.” of tiine they have issued 1891 brerels de capacité, 1655 for the lower "We then proceeded to converse with regard to the inspection of degree, and 236 for the higher; and every one of both kinds character- schools, and the mode of effccting it. As for that matter," said he, ised by the examiners as either tres bien, or bicu, or asscr.bich; and persons who undertake it as a profession are necessary. Fle regretupon these brevets appointments have taken place, within the same ted much that our law of 1833 had not instituted special inspectors, period, of 1074 masters to primary schools of the elementary class, and nominated by the government, as Holland and Germany, and as I five to those of the superior. We have little doubt that when the Nor- pointed out in my report upon Primary Instruction in Prussia; and it mal system is matured, and its organization complete, the principle of was with great pleasure that he learned from me, that we had since emulation among pupils subjected to its wholesome and invigorating supplied this deficiency, and that we now have an inspector of primary course of discipline, will act so strongly, that the number of applicants education in each department. But,' said he, 'your mutual instrucfor the inferior degree will be diminished, or that the qualification re- tion! what are you doing on this head? Do you hope, with such a quired for it, which, of necessiry, is kept low at the outset, will be mode of teaching, to be able to form men? For this is the true object raised.

of education. The different descriptions of knowledge imparted at M. Guizot, in concluding his able speech, thus expresses himself:

school are but means, the value of which must be estimated by a refer

ence to this end. If you would really attain it, mutual instruction must In framing this bill, it is experience, and experience alone, that we be given up; this may indeed impart a certain quantity of instruction, have taken for our guide. The principles and practices recommended but never effect education; and let me repeat it again, sir, education is have been supplied to us by facts. There is not one part of the me- the object of instruction.' chanism which has not been worked successively. We conceive that, Nothing is more evident,' I replied; and, for my part, looking on the subject of the education of the people, our business is rather to upon the subject as a philosopher and moralist, I regard simultaneous methodise and improve what exists, than io destroy for the purpose of instruction, when private instruction cannot be had, as the only method inventing and renewing upon the faith of dungerous theories. It is by which is suited to the education of a moral being; but I am still conlaboring incessantly on these maxims, that the Administration has strained to avow, that mutual instruction has still, in France, a popubeen enabled to communicate a firm and steady movement to this im- larity which is much to be deplored.' portant branch of the public service; so much so, that we take leave to " Whence comes this;" said he, 'in a nation as intelligent as is say, that more has been done for primary education during the last yours?' two years, (1831, 1832,) and by the Government of July, than during From a fatal circumstance, of which the consequences are still the forty years preceding, by all the former Governments. The first affecting us. Under the Restoration, the government endeavored to Revolu:ion was lavish of promises, without troubling itself about the place primary instruction buek into the hands of the clergy. The Op

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position went to the contrary extreme. Some individnals, well-inten "2. Discipline.- This is what I was most anxious to study, more
tioned, but superficial, and entirely unacquainted with the subject, hav- especially in a Normal School in which the pupils lodged out of the
ing been by chance in England, in the half-barbarous manufacturing establishment. I had seen very fair schools of this description in Prus-
towns of that country, where, for want of better schools, they are but sia; but the best Primary Normal Schools, the admirable establish-
too fortunate to have the Lancasterian, mistook for a chef-d'ærre that ments of Potzdam and Brühl, are boarding schools. In Prussia it is
which was but the infancy of the art, and allowed themselves to be generally considered that a boarding school is the most favorable for the
dazzled by the sight of innumerable classes directed by a single master, education of young masters; that ihe director can, under such circum-
assisted by little monitors taken from among the scholars. Some per- siances, exercise a greater influence, because it is more constant; and
sons perceived a great economy in this mode of instruction; and then that in having one or two schools of different degrees attached to the
the eye was pleased by the order and mechanism of the exercises. It Normal School, the scholars can be exercised, as well as in the schools
was ihis instruction, completely material, that they opposed to the ec- of the town away from the establishment. They also lay great siress
clesiastical schools of the Restoration. Unfortunately, inutual instruc- upon the rude discipline of the school as a preparation for the severe
tion has sui vived the struggles which preceded 1830. Simultaneous in- life of a school-master. The ideas which M. Prinsen communicated
struction, however, is making a progress step by step, and honest and to me upon the subject of out-boarders, are as follows:
disinterested persons are commencing to be alive to it. In Germany “'In the first place, the scholars enter the school voluntarily for the
mutual instruction is held in little estimation; and I did nur find in the sake of perfecting themselves in a profession which they purpose to
whole extent of Prussia a single master who approved of it. Nor have follow, and which, consequently, is the great business of their lives.
I seen a school for mutual instruction either at La Haye, or at Leyden. They are themselves inclined to order, and have not need of the disci-
You will not,' he replied, 'find a single such school in the whole of pline of a boarding school. Every pupil is, to use the expression, un-
Holland. And it is not that we are ignorant of what mutual instruc- der the discipline of the moral dispositions which he has brought with
'tion is; we have studied it, and it is because we have done so that we him to the school; those who have not these dispositions, or do not
reject it. La Société du Bien Public, which you, without doubt, are manifest their existence during the first three months, are sent away.
acquainted with through the report of M. Cuvier, proposed as a ques. Those who pass the period of probation know perfectly well that tne
tion the advantages and disadvantages of mutual and simultaneous in- least fault will be severely visited,--that they depend entirely upon
struction. The work which gained the prize examines with the great the director, and that their dismissal would be caused by the slightest
est minuteness the method of mutual insiruction, and convicts it of in- disapprobation expressed by him.
sufficiency upon all points where there is a question of education. The ". They are forbidden to frequent any place of public resort. If they
author of this work is M. l'Inspecteur Visser.'”

ure seen in a public house, they are subjected 10 a severe reprimand, Quiting M. Van den Ende, M. Cousin then visited M. Prinsen, the and for the second offence dismissed. They cannot absent themselves director of the Normal School.

from the town for a single night without the permission of the director. * I explained to him my object. 'I desire,' I said, 'in the first in- They do not choose their own lodging, the director does this for them. stance, to learn the constitution of the Primary Normal School of He even pays for their board. The families who receive these scholars Haarlem, both its character and principles. I shall then beg of you to as boarders, are themselves interested in entering into the views of the let me see it in action; allowing me in your company, to inspect it director. It is an honor and a profit for a family of small fortune 10 myself,-first of all the rules, then the results.

be made choice of for receiving ihe pupils of the Normal School; on *Can you communicate to me the rules of your school ?— There the slightest suspicion the scholars are taken away. The scholars are are no rules,' replied M. Prinsen.

not considered in the house which they inhabit as strangers; but as "The Primary Normal School of Haurlem is one in which the members of the family, submitting to all its rules and customis.' It is the scholars are not boarded. Each pupil has a salary from the Crown, business of the family always to know where their boarders are at every with which he provides for himself in town. No individual can be hour of the day. The director visits these houses every fifteen days ål admitted who is not at the least fifteen years pf age. Pupils come the least, He is in communication with the police, who never fail to from all parts of the kingdoin; they are admitted upon the reports of give him full information of all that falls within their observation.' the inspectors, and nominated directly by the ministry. There are It may be perceived that this is precisely

the mode of directing the three months for trial, during which the director makes himself ac- out-boarding Primary Normal Schools in Prussin; and it may be quainted with the pupils, tests and judges of their capacity. After the seen with what difficulty the simple discipline of the boarding schools is lapse of the period of probation he makes a report to the minister, and supplied, how many precautions are necessary, the failure of one of upon this report the pupils are definitely admitted, when the real Nor- which renders the whole machinery powerless. In speaking of the mal School course commences. There are altogether forty pupils. working of his own school, M. Prinsen said, 'Yes, wiih a safe conThe duration of the whole course is four years; it regards not theory science I declare, that in this school every thing goes on generally only, but practice also; and as they there prepare the pupils to obtain well; and that the examples of disorder are so rare, that they cannot be the highest class in the examination of fitness (which answers to our considered as resulting from the system. M. Schreuder, who is at highest degree of primary instruction,) and since in Holland this can- the head of the Normal school of Sierre, and who acted as interpreter not be obtained before the age of twenty-five, it has been conceived that to M. Cousin, spoke to the same effect with regard to his own establishfour years were not too much for the purpose of following the whole ment. “But,” says M. Cousin, "with such directors as M. Prinsen course of studies and exercises necessary for the formation of an ac- and him, no system is bad. It is necessury also to take into account complished school-master. The greater part of the scholars remain the tranquil dispositions of the young Dutch, and the Flemish charac. four years at the Normal School; but they are not under the obligation ter, which does not stand in need of a severe discipline. Both these to remain the whole of that time, for, although all prepare for the highl- gentlemen agreed, that the system of out-boarders only suited a small est class, but very few pretend to it. The inferior schools are the great town; and M. Prinsen required a town or village of about two thouconcern of the state; and it is for thein that the Normal School labors, sand inhabitants, which should have about three hundred children to although it gives a higher education.

send to school for the purpose of affording means of exercise to the "1. Studies.-Among the various objects of study the are three, Normal School; and both agreed that such a school should have but a viz., the Art of Instructing, History and Physics, which, being con moderate number of scholars. I must not here omit to mention one of sidered as more difficult than other subjects

, are taught at two different the best reasons which was given by these two intelligent individuals times during the period of the Normal course. The others, such as in support of a school of out-boarders. You say, said they to me, Natural History, Geography, Calligraphy, Drawing, Singing and the that the boarding school with its severe discipline, is a better preparaMathematics, are only taught once, and in succession.

tion for the life of a school master. On the contrary, we are convinced “M. Prinsen undertakes with a single assistant the most important that a young man who has passed several years in a Normal School of lectures of the Normal School. These lectures take place for the most boarders is extremely embarrassed when he leaves it, and becomes sole part of an evening; but it is not at that time when the true Normal in director of his own actions; whereas, in our systein, a young man struction is effected. During the whole day the scholars are employed learns to conduct himself, to deal with mankind, and the life which he as assistants, and even as temporary directors in the various schools leads is an apprenticeship for the life which he is about to enter upon.' of the town, according to the degree of capucity at which they have This reason has weight, and I concede that examples are not wanting arrived.

of young men who, after having been saints in the boarding school, " There are two thousand three hundred children in the Primary when they have once quitted it, knowing no longer how to conduci Schools of Haarlem, and they form permanent means of exercising the themselves, commit follies, or at any rate are incapable of moulding scholars of the Normal School. These two thousand three hundred themselves to any other description of life than that of their convent. children are distributed in a sufficient number of schools to enable the But I do not conceive myself called upon to decide between the two sysscholars of the Primery Normal.School to be exercised each in his turn. tems: each is good, regard being had to the country, the age, and, This number of schools is here necessary; elsewhere it is an advan- above all, to the individual whose business it is to put it into action; tage. The schools,' said M. Prinsen, and I was delighted to hear him for I shall never cease to repeat, As is the master, so is the school. But say so, 'ought not to have too many scholars; for, when such is the the director of a Normal School of out-boarders ought to be a person of case, the master cannot exercise such a direct influence over them as extraordinary merit, or there is an end of the establishment. The exwill enable them to receive a lively impression, and retain a clear re- pense of the Primary Normal School at Haarlem costs the country collection of what they have learned at school. Again, when each 10,000 forins per annum-or about 8101.—for forty scholars; in this school has too many scholars, there are too few schools; and then the sum every expense is included, -the repair of the buildings, the furni. assistants, from the circumstance of being obliged to wait too long be- ture, and the salary of M. Prinsen, which is 1600 florins, or a little fore becoming masters, are in their turn discouragarl, fall into the rou- more than 1941. per annum, The director has, in addition, an exceltine, or abandon their profession."

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