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lent lodging at the Normal School. Such is the constitution of the out the west, south, north-east, and north-west of the island shall have the boarding Primary Normal School at Haarlem. We must now make means of obtaining good masters, and you will yearly qualify 500 perknown the results, and conduct the reader in the same manner as l sons fitted for diffusing a perfect system of instruction all over the myself was conducted by M. Prinsen and Schreuder through the country. These Training Seminaries would not only teach the masschools of the town where the young masters are exercised. "I saw ters the branches of learning and science they are now deficient in, there young men employed in the different duties of primary instruc- but would teach them what they knew far less-the didactic art--the tion. They were exercised under the direction of the masters of each mode of imparting knowledge which they have, or may acquire the school, who, most of them, are old scholars of the Normal school of M. best method of training and dealing with children, in all that regards Prinsen. We went through the different degrees of primary instruc- both temper, capacity, and habits, and the means of stirring them to tion. In the first instance a poor school, that is to say, an elementary exertion, and controlling their aberrations, gratuitous school; then two Tusschen-schulen, the same as our ele I had lately an opportunity of observing what is now doing in almentary schools, supported by the payment of the scholars; and then most every part of France, for the truly paramount object of making at the last the schools called French, that is to say, private schools, education good as well as general. Normal Schools, as ihey are called, which answers nearly to our Ecoles primaires supérieures, the Bür- --places of instruction for it achers,—are every where establishing by ger-schulen of Germany. I was much pleased at the activity and in the government. This happy idea originated with my old and venertelligence of these young masters; but what most struck me was the able friend, Emanuel Fellenberg,-a name not more known than tonauthority of M. Prinsen. As director of the Primary Normal School, ored, nor more honored than his virtuous and enlightened efforts in the he commands these young men -as inspector of the district of Haarlem, cause of education and for the happiness of mankind deserve. Five he commands the masters themselves, and all these schools, scholars, and-twenty years ago he opened a school for the instruction of all the and masters, of all degrees and all conditions, are under him, as an teachers in the Canton of Berne, of which he is a patrician. He rearmy under its general; all obey his voice, all are inspired by his ceived them, for the vacation months, under his hospitable roof, and spirit and character. The method for teaching to read, of which he is gave them access to the lessons of the numerous learned and scientific the author, is ingenious (but I could not well enter upon it here,) and is professors who adorn this noble establishment at Hoffwyl. I blush that which is universally made use of the nine graduated tables which for the infirmity, the imbecility of the order he and I belong to, when I are made use of for carrying it into effect, are hung up in the school; add, that the jealousy of the Bernese aristocracy prevented him from and, absent or present, M. Prinsen is always there.
continuing this course of pure, patriotic, and wise exertion. But the "I had seen in Holland primary schools of all sorts, with the ex- fruits of his experiment, eminently successful as it proved, have not ception of village schools. M. Prinsen proposed showing us some been lost. In other parts of the Continent Normal Schools have been during a walk which we made in the neighborhood. Both going and established; they form part of the Prussian system; they have been returning we visited several schools, and I must here avow that I was established in other parts of Germany; and I have seen and examined more surprised by them than by the town schools. I believe, indeed, them in all the provinces of France which I visited last winter. I have that M. Prinsen had not chosen the worst to show to us; but whether seen twenty one, thirty or forty in another, and as many as a hunchosen on purpose, or offered by chance in the course of the walk, it is cred-and-twenty in a third Normal School,--all teachers of youth by certain that neither in Prussia nor Saxony had I ever seen, I will not profession, and all learning their invaluable and difficult art.' In fact, say better, but as good village schools. Imagine in a house of modest the improvement of the quality of education has everywhere, except in aspect
, but of an exquisite and truly Dutch cleanliness, divided into two England, gone hand-in-hand with the exertions made for spreading it parts ; on one side, a room sufficiently large to contain nearly all the and augmenting its amount, and has never been overlooked, as often children of the village, girls and boys, old enough to go to school; on
as any Government has wished to discharge one of its most important the other side, the apartments of the master and his family: the room and imperative duties,-ihat of instructing the people. in which the school is held is lighted from above, with ventilators on the two sides; a certain number of tables, where the children are dis
The same views are presented in a late number of the Edinburgh tributed according to their proficiency; a space between each iable, Review, in an article from Lord Brougham's pen, on National Educasufficient to permit the master and scholars to move about with facility. tion, in England and Ireland. After commenting on the necessity of On the walls are hung the nine tables of M. Prinsen, a large black establishing
a Board of Education, to whose superiitendence the whole board for the exercises, a model of the different weights and measures according to the decimal system, and that which I had not always seen
subject should be committed, he goes on to speak of the duties of the in Germany, a second black table, upon which are traced some lines for Board: receiving music, and the notes which it is necessary to write upon them The next function of the Board, and one of the most important, is for the singing lessons.
the improvement of teaching. For this purpose, there will be estab"I cannot express how much I was touched to hear them, in the lished under superintendence, schools for training teachers-what are litle village schools, repeat at the music
lesson the national air which I called on the Continent Normal Schools. For the establishment and had already heard in the schools of La Haye and Haarlem. It is sim- regulation of those, the greatest care is required; and the expense, for ple and noble, it rouses a love for one's country and king, and inspires some years, at least, must fall upon the State. A year's instruction al the soul with many exalted sentiments. Every great nation ought thus least, with the help of a good model school, will be necessary to qualify to have a national air, which can be sung from the great theatres even teachers. If these have not already made some progress in their stuto the humblest village schools. The.God Save the King' of the Eng. dies, two years may be required for this purpose. There seems no rcalish is a noble song of this description. The national song of the Dutch son to apprehend that any want of competitors for the places of pupils is an imitation of it, and this is an inconvenience.
at these Normal Seminaries will be experienced. In the Borough"I attach so much importance to the cultivation of the sentiment by road school in London there are always more applications for places music, that, if I was a minister, I would not hesitate to propose a prize than can be granted; and the advantages will be considerably greater for the best national air suitable for the schools of the people.” of those who attend the public establishment. It is caculated that for
B. F. DUPPA.
£20,000 a-year, 500 teachers may be maintained and completely quali
fied to perform their duties. As soon as this system has been estabENGLAND.
lished, it is to be expected that at least as many more will flock to take
advantage of it, without any additional cost to the public. Now if the LORD BROUGHAM AND TEACHERS SEMINARIES. Board can thus furnish a large supply of accomplished teachers, it is In 1835 Lord Brougham introduced into the British House of Lords manifest that all schoois established by individual exertion, all in which a series of resolutions, which looked to the establishment of a System the children, will, if left to themselves, and without any interference
instruction is now supported by subscription, or by payments from of National Education for England, among which was the following. whatever from the Board, be disposed to take teachers from the Normal That for the purpose of improving the kind of education given a Seminary. The improved tuition at these schools will infallibly inschools for the people at large, it is expedient to establish in several crease the number of children attending them, and the funds to be obparts of the country, seminaries where good school-masters may be lained for their
support; and thus, without any further operation on
the part of the Board than the establishment and careful superintendtrained and taught the duties of their profession.
ence of the Normal Seminaries in London, and in two or three other These resolutions were prefaced by an able and eloquent exposition places, a prodigious improvement will be effected in the education of of the whole subject. On this particular point he remarks:
ihe people within the space of a very few years. The seminaries for training masters are an invaluable gift to man
SCOTLAND. kind, and lead to the indefinite improvement of education. It is this which, above everything, we ought to labor to introduce into our sys
HER PAROCHIAL SÚHOOL SYSTEM, AND A GLASGOW NORMAL SEMINARY. tem; for as there are not more than two as yet established by the exertion of individual benevolence, and as, from the nature of the in Scotland claims for herself a merit of having, by her act of 1616, stitution, it is not adapted to be propagated by such efforts, no possible originated the first school system, ever established for the education of ham can result from the interposition of the Legislature in this de- the entire community. This act 'huwever, was inoperative until 1646, partment.
when a law was passed laying a tax for the support of a school 1.ouse, Place Normal Schools-seminaries for
training teachers—in a few and the payment of a school-master's salary, upon every parish in the sich places as London, York, Liverpool, Durham, and Exeter--so that kingdom. This law, too, did not do its beneficiel work long, for it was
repealed by Charles II., in 1660, but was restored in 1696, and is still passed through a regular course of training for teachers in 1835-36, in the basis of the present Parochial School System of Scotland. ihe model schools of this Society, who have gone out into the public and
The most important peculiarities of this system are, that the Bible private schools, in various parts of Scotland. They command higher and the Westminster Shorter Catechism must be taught in the school; wages, and give better satisfaction. and this must be taught in conformity to the Confession of Faith, The following extract will give an outline of a course of training to which the school-n.aster is required to subscribe. This part of the which the students who expect to teach are subjected. School System is under the inspection and control of the minister.
On their admission, they are examined, and the amount of their eleThe next point is, that „provision is made " for acquiring a knowl; mentary knowledge is ascertained, and proofs of their moral character edge of the Latin tongue," and "the sciences," and ihe amount and presented. In addition to their exercises in the practical department variety in their studies are to be determined by the lay heritors, sitting of the two Model Schools, they have received one hour's instruction together in council. The next feature is, that in order to secure a low rate of school fees lessons also, of late, in sacred music and marching airs, thrice a week.
daily in grammar, roots of words, or Scripture history and geography, for the working and poorer classes, (generally about fifty cents quar. The students also, in addition to this, have been examined and criticised terly,) the landed proprietors are obliged by law to provide and muin. twice a week, in rotation, at which the Secretary has presided. Two tain, in addition to a school-house, a dwelling, house for the master, afternoons are appointed for this exercise, one in the Infant and the other with a fixed minimum salary, varying from one hundred to one hun- in the Juvenile School, weekly. The lessons are given with the whole dred and fifty dollars.
scholars seated in the gallery. One of the four lessons given on each This school-system regenerated Scotland. In less than a half cen occasion is from Scripture, and the other three vary-sometimes an obtury, instead of being, as it was in 1698, the theatre of lawlessness, and ject or a word, a noun, adjective, or adverb, &c., in grammar—a quesof all sorts of immorality, it was made the abode of an orderly, indus- tion from the Catechism-light-heat-gravitation, or any other scientrious, thrifty, and religious people. Her farmers were intelligent, her tific subject-a geography lesson, or one in reading-sometimes mental artizans ingenious, and her merchants enterprizing, beyond any found arithmetic, or, it may be, the formation or furniture of the school-room, in the rest of Europe. For this, she was indebted to her parochial or physical exercises in school or in the play-ground. Four students schools. The best and greatest men whom Scotland produced during give a lesson in succession: a limited period is allowed to each. When the eighteenth century, according to a distinguished author of that this is expired they stop; and after the children have sung a few lines country, received their education at these schools, and nothing for a suitable to the subject, the student gives way to another, and so on, unlong time, was associated with stronger feelings of gratitude and rev- til the four exhibitions are completed. The whole students immediateerence in the minds of her people, than these humble institutions, from ly retire to the class-room, where, from notes taken down or from memwhich so much of their own happiness and prosperity, as well as the ory, each is required to give his opinion frankly of the exhibition of each wealth and genius of the nation proceeded. For one hundred and his attitude, manner, tone of voice, enunciation, grammar, and the seven years, from 1696 to 1803, nothing was done by law to give in- whole subject and treatment of the lesson. When all the students have creased efficiency in extent, to her school system, and, as might be sup- given their opinion, the chairman criticises both the lessons and the posed, it did not keep pace with the general progress of society, and its criticisms, and also, occasionally, enlarges upon some particular part usefulness has greatly diminished, and the public interest in it has or other of the system, suggested by the lessons previously given. The greatly declined. Private schools arose to supply the deficiencies of results of these stated criticisms have been both striking and useful; the public institutions, and the best teachers finding pleasanter em- and many, who fancied themselves almost perfect in teaching, have ployment, and better compensation in the former, in a great measure been somewhat humbled when their companions proved they could abandoned the latter. According to returns of the condition of not train. education, made a few years since, it appeared that there were about
Previously to receiving the Society's diploma or certificate, the Nortwice as many persons taught at private schools as at the public es mal students have been examined, both on the theory and practice of tablishments—and more than fifty thousand who were receiving no training. education, in either public or private school. In consequence of this
Each model school, of which there were forty-one in all, (embracing growth of ignorance, there has been a corresponding increase of vice and crime in Scotland, within the last half century, altogether in an
seventeen infant and i wenty-four juvenile schools,) and capable of ed
ucating and training about 6000 children, are furnished with a school advance of her increase of population. This brief sketch of the School history of Scotland, is full of in-room, class room, play ground, with visible illustrations, maps, &c.
and are supported by small fees from the parents of the children, and struction to Connecticut. She, too, commenced a school system in an
by private subscription. age of darkness and poverty, and by means of it has enjoyed peace
In 1836, the plan of the Society was still fur extended. The and prosperity and republican equality within her own borders, and ! Seminary now consists of Infant, Juvenile, and Commercial Schools, a poured out a řide
of intelligence, of enterprize and activity, which has Female School of Industry, with a class room to each model school, enriched the whole length and breadth of the land. But she has gone and thirteen for training leachers. Each of the model schools is to to sleep on the good works and glorious honors of her fathers. Her have a play ground for healthful exercise, and moral superintendence. School System is no longer such, in reference to the circumstances of the times, as to do away with the necessity of private schools; neither about 45,000, not including the purchase of all the apparatus, there
In these buildings, which from the report were estimated to cost does it secure the universal education of all the children of the State. will be accommodation for the daily training of 100 teachers and above It becomes her then to ascertain her precise condition in reference to 1000 children, with every arrangement fitted to render the Seminary a education—to see if her school system does not need revision, to be complete School Master's College, for the cultivation and training of adapted to the present demands of society, and new vitality insused
teachers of youth. into some of its inefficient parts. She must cease to slumber over her schools, with a half patriarchal, half self-complacent dream that comes
“The training of teachers has been too long neglected. An apover her, when she thinks of their cherished time-honored offspring of prenticeship is required in every art—why not in that of the school
master? We would not employ a shoemaker, a gardener, or an hostler, her wise policy, and must do something effeciual to revive them.
In 1803, Scotland did something to increase the salary of the teach- unless he were trained. How infinitely more important is training to ers, and to introduce a classification, a gradation of schools, by author one, to whose care, for several hours a day, the minds and manners of izing the employment of assistants. But the law did not reach the sentime, work out a system of their own; but how often do they blunder
young immortals are to be entrusted. Many teachers, in the course of of the evil. "It did not go far enough to place the parish school on a footing with the private
, in the particular of well qualified and well on, for months, nay for years, to the injury of their pupils, bepaid teachers; and of course, they have not been able to come up to the fore experience enables then to work out a system; and then, how undemands of the age, and that portion of the community who know equal is the mode of teaching throughout the land! In education, as and value a good education for their children, will not give up their in every business affair, a good article will bring a good price. At
present the office of school-master is not sufficiently valued : a higher own private establishments. In the last eight or ten years, liowever, public attention has been the same time, we must require
that they, one and all, be men of sound
rate of wages must be obtained, by endowment or otherwise; and, at turned to the subject, and from the "Report of the Glasgow Educational would seem, that in the absence of efficient legislative action, that of Mr. John McCrie
, a son of the celebrated Scotch clergyman, who,
The Institution is now under the superintendence and management Society's Normal Seminary, for 1837," which we have before us, it principles, and practically trained to the art.” private benevolence was doing something effectual in the way of be to the advantage of 'a superior education, and of fine natural talents, ginning to engraft some of the real improvements which the advancing is practically acquainted with the Normal Schools, in Teachers Semiintelligence and experience of modern times has devised, upon the naries, of France and Prussia. School System of Scotland.
The Report concludes with the following remarks on the Training This Society was established many years ago, for the purpose of System, as pursued in this Seminary. While it embraces the best elegiving an increased efficiency to the Sabbath School, as a moral reno- mentary and scientific instruction, its foundations are laid broad and vation of Society, by introducing infant week day, schools, especially deep in the Scriptures of Divine truth. among the poorer and more neglected classes of the community. Á model infant school was established for the purpose of illustrating the
“ It takes a cognizance and superintendence of the habits as well as best modes of conducting such institutions, and of training up teach- the principles of the children. It is not merely teaching but training; ers to go elsewhere. By degrees, their plan was enlarged, so as to em
It furnishes an acquaintance with things that add to a man's happiness brace a model juvenile school, and the training of teachers for juvenile and comfort here, and his enjoyment through eternity, it is a training of schools. More than two hundred teachers were regularly admiited, and the whole man--a carrying ouithe family training into the school-a sup
planting of the immoral training of the street, and the perfect and pow- refered to a Committee, of which the Hon. John A. Dix, was chairman, erful sympathy of companionship there, for the equally perfect sympathy to prepare a plan for carrying into operation its provisions. The reof the school play ground, under the superintendence of the master. It port was submitted in January, 1835, and the plan which the Commitis a truth founded on the most enlarged experience, that man arrives at tee submitted was embodied in an ordinance of the Regents and has been the highest intellectual elevation of which he is capable, through the for four years in operation to the manifest improvement of the Common cukivation of his moral affections. The understanding alone is too Schools. As this Report is a very able exposition of the whole subject, cold a soil whereby to arrive at our highest intellectual dignity. and from its length cannot have been very widely circulated in that
This Society, from its commencemer the present day, has en- state, we shall give copious extracts from it. deavored to act on the principle of the Divine command, "train up a The Report sets forth the leading and acknowledged defect of the child in the way he should go," not the head of the child merely, but Common Schools of New York, to be the want of competent teachers." the child--and not merely tell the child how he ought to walk in the Without able and well trained teachers, no plan of instruction, however way, but train him in the way, in real life
, of course, which necessari- excellent, no selection of books, however judicious, no system of inspecly implies personal superintendence and example; and where is the tion, however rigorous, no pecuniary provision, nowever liberal, can rereal life of a child so well exhibited as freely at play, among compan- alize the grand results which the Law, providing for popular Educa-. ions, and where, except at home, can he be so well superintended and tion, aims at. To cure this defect, "in other countries, seminaries for trained as in a school play-ground ?
the Education of Teachers, have been deemed an essential part of the In order properly to appreciate this system, we have only to con- system of primary instruction.” The Committee however, regard the trast the habits and manners of children on the street, and of children success which has marked the introduction of teachers department into on the play-ground of a training school. The child, under the training the Academies named above, especially the St. Lawrence Academy, system, leaves the premises of the school and returns to his parents, and the favor with which that experiment was received by the public, improved not simply by the instruction he has received, but by the as settling the policy of the state and they therefore devote the rest of training of the play-ground in conjunction with the school gallery; the report to an examination of the best plan for organizing and giving whereas, when left to amuse himself on the streets, with street com- efficiency to these departments of instruction. panions, unsuperintended, as when there, they all must necessarily be, They propose therefore to select one Academy in each of the eight he returns home more rude and worse in morals than before; whatever senatorial districts, of the State, to give five hundred dollars to each for increase he may have received of intellectual knowledge. God alone the purchase of a Library and apparatus adapted to the use of those who can change the heart; but our duty is, to seek his blessing on the use of are preparing to be teachers, and from the annual surplus revenue of the means; and if HABITS are a "second nature," how important must be Literature Fund to appropriate four hundred dollars to each of the Acathe system under consideration. In the play-ground of several of the demies, to provide a special course of instruction in the art of teaching. Infant and Juvenile training schools, situated in the most degraded dis- This amount we believe was much augmented by the act of 1838, aptricts of our city population, flowers have grown untouched-peas propriating the income of the United States Deposite Fund, to the have been permitted to grow, and strawberries and currents to ripen, purpose of education and the diffusion of knowledge." amidst the hilarity and joy of 150 children, daily and hourly ai We shall present the views of the Committee as to the organization of play.
these departments more at length. From the facts that have come to our knowledge, during the last few
1. As to the course or subjects of study. years, and from the united testimony of more than 800 parents, we are fully entitled to assume, that were the whole population of our city
"In determining the course of study, the committee have thought it lanes, wynds, and vennals, brought under this moral training, we proper to designate as subjects to be taught, all which they deem indiswould tell our city rulers, that such seminaries would be the cheapest pensable to be known by a first rate teacher of a common school. police , and, by the blessing of Heaven, do more to prevent, consequente: sirable to raise it as high as possivle ; for the qualifications of those who
"In fixing a standard of requirement in any pursuit, it is always dewells, or penitentiaries, or houses of refuge have done, or possibly can follow it, will incline to range below
and not above the prescribed standdo, in one hundred. No maxim is sounder than this, " Prevention is ard. In this case, as the principal object is to influence public opinion belter than cure."
by exhibiting the advantages of that practical skill, which may be
gained by proper training, care should be taken that those who are rePROVISION FOR THE EDUCATION OF TEACHERS IN lied on to exert the influence referred to, should be made fully adequate
to the task. THE NEW YORK SCHOOL SYSTEM.
“It is proper to premise, however, that no individual should be ad. New York deserves the credit for taking the lead in making any le- mitted to the teachers department until he shall have passed such an exgislative provision for the Education of Teachers for her Common amination as is required by the following extract from the ordinance of Schools. The subject was presented to her Legislature many years the Regents of the University to entitle students to be considered scholago by De Witt Clinton, in the following manner.
ars in the higher branches of English education.
«No students, in any such academy, shall be considered scholars in "Our system of instruction, (he remarks,) with all its numerous ben- the higher branches of English education, within the meaning of this efits, is still , however, susceptible of great improvements. Ten years ordinance
, until they shall, on examination duly made, be found to have of the life of a child, may now be spent in a common school. In two attained to such proficiency in the arts of reading and writing, and to years the elements of instruction may be acquired; and the remaining have acquired such knowledge of the elementary rules or operation of eight years must be spent either in repetition, or in idleness, unless the arithmetic, commonly called notation, addition, subtraction, multipliteachers of common schools are competent to instruct in the higher cation and division, as well in their compound as in their simple forms, branches of knowledge. The outlines of Geography, Algrebra, Min. and as well in vulgar and decimal fractions as in whole numbers, toeralogy, Agricultural Chemistry, Mechanical Philosophy, Surveying, gether with such knowledge of the parts of arithmetic commonly called Geometry, Astronomy, Political Economy, and Ethics, might be commu- reduction, practice, the single rule of three direct, and simple interest, nicated in that period of time by able preceptors, without essential in- as is usually acquired in the medium or average grade of common terference with the calls of domestic industry. The vocation of a teacher schools in this state; and until they shall also, on such examination, be in its infiuence on the destinies of the rising and all future generations, found to have studied so much of English grammar as to be able 10 has either not been fully understood or not duly estimated. It is, or parse correctly any common prose sentence in the English language, ought to be, ranked among the learned professions. With the full ad- and to render into good English the common examples of a bad grammission of the respectability of several, who now officiate in that ca- mar given in Murray's or some other like grammatical exercises ; and pacity, still it musi be conceded, that the information of many of the in- shall also have studied, in the ordinary way, some book or treatise in structors of common schools, does not extend beyond rudimental edu- geography, equal in extent to the duodecinio edition of Morse's, Cumcation, that our expanding population requires constant accession to ming's Woodbridge's, or Willet's geography, as now in ordinary use.? their numbers, and that to realize their views, it is necessary that some Subjects of study. -1. The English Language. 2. Writing and new plan for obtaining able teachers, should be devised. I therefore re: Drawing. 3. Arithmetic, Mental and written; and Book-keeping. commend a Seminary for the education of teachers in the monitorial 4. Geography and General History, combined. 5. The History of system of instruction and in those useful branches of knowledge, which the United States. 6. Geometry, Trigonometry, Mensuration and Surare proper lo engraft on elementary attainments."
veying. 7. Natural Philosophy and the Elements of Astronomy. 8. The first act was passed in 1827, adding one hundred and fifty thou- Chemistry and Mineralogy. 9. The Constitution of the United States sand dollars to the capital of the Literature Fund, for the avowed ob- and the Constitution of the State of New-York. 10. Select parts of the ject of promoting the Education of Teachers. This sum was distribu- Revised Statutes and the duties of Public Officers. 11. Moral and Inted among the several Academies in the state without sufficient restric- tellectual Philosophy. 12. The Principles of Teaching: tions to its application. The St. Lawrence, Oxford, and Canandaigua The English LANGUAGE. This branch constitutes ihe most exterAcademies, however, each established a course of lectures and exercises sive, and perhaps the most important, field of instruction for a teacher. for the preparation of teachers, and with the most happy results. The Unless the pupil is thoroughly master of his own language, he cannot demand for teachers educated at these academies, to go into the district be a competent instructor. The utmost pains should therefore be taken schools in the neighborhood, was greater than could be supplied, and the to give him an accurate knowledge of it; and the proper process of incompensation of such teachers was cheerfully advanced.
struction is that, which it will be his business to employ in giving in. In 1834, the Legislature authorized the "Regents of the University," struction to others. to apply a portion of the income of the above Fund, to the more specific He should be made familiar with the best methods of teaching the alpurpose of the preparation of Common School Teachers. The act was! phabet and the stops, by which children can be conducted, with the
greatest facility, through the first lessons, which they receive. Rules which its several parts bear to each other and to its whole surface, can for spelling should also be learned, and their application shewn, partic- be readily comprehended without having recourse to visible demonstraularly in the orthography of compound and derivative words, the plu- tions. To young pupils there is a difficulty, even with the aid of maps rals of nouns, the inflexions of verbs and the comparison of adjectives; and globes, in communicating a distinct conception of the positive or and in these exercises black boards or slates should be used so that the relative magnitude of different countries, or the remoteness of different eye, as well as the ear, may be made instrumental to the correction of places from each other. Much depends on minute and patient explana
tion, especially in that part of geography, which treats of the physiIn reading, the lessons should embrace a just enunciation of sounds cal divisions of the earth, including continents, peninsulas, islands, as well as words, and a careful regard to distinctness of pronunciation, oceans, lakes, rivers, mountains, &c. as well as a proper fullness and modulation of the voice. A clear and Physical geography, or that part of the description of the earth which correct enunciation is of the highest importance to a teacher, whose de- treats of its natural features, is of great interest and importance; the fects are almost certain to be communicated to his pupils; and it is, more so, as with it are necessarily interwoven matters, which in stricttherefore, indispensable, that reading with criticisms in ortheoepy, ac ness belong to the department of astronomy. The figure and motions cent, emphasis, cadence, and punctuation should constitute a part of the of the earth; the causes of the variation in the length of the days; the exercises in this brauch of study.
seasons; the principles upon which the tropics, and polar circles are The pupil should not only be practised in reading the English lan- drawn at their respective distances from the equator; the general features guage with accuracy and distinctness, but he should be taught to write of the earth's surface, embracing a knowledge of the influence of elevait correctly. He should be made thoroughly acquainted with its struc- tion above the sea upon temperature, climate, productions, &c.; a deture, and its idiomatic peculiarities. In addition to the ordinary routine scription of volcanoes and earthquakes; the various theories relative to of parsing, the principles of universal grammar should be critically dis- the causes of eruptions and shocks; the atmosphere, winds and their cussed, the structure and philosophy of language should be made the agency in the distribution of heat and moisture, embracing the subject subject of a minute investigation, the offices, which are performed by of rain, fogs, dew, hail, &c.; the theories relative to lides; a description the different words of a sentence, and the rules by which their relations of the most remarkable currents in the ocean; and all those natural cauto each other are governed, should be explained until the whole subject ses, by which the condition of the various parts of the earth are influis thoroughly understood.
enced, should be briefly but clearly and carefully explained. Original composition, and declamation from the writings of chaste In this branch will also be included a general knowledge of the groauthors are also an essential part of the course; the first for the purpose logical structure of particular regions and their most remarkable proof facilitating a correct understanding of the laws of language, and the ductions, animal, mineral and vegetable. In the St. Lawrence Acadeacquisition of a correct style, and the second for the purpose of cultiva- my the whole subject of physical geography is systematically and crititing a distinct articulation as well as a refined taste.
cally discussed, commencing with the history of the science and the WRITING AND DRAWING. Every pupil must be able, before he leaves adaptation of the objects it embraces to awaken interest by their endless the institution, to write a good hand. For this purpose he should be diversity," and running through the details of the science in a complete made to practice from the beginning of the course, under the personal course of seventeer. lectures. direction of the tutors, with the best writing materials, and with proper With a description of the different countries of the earth, some account attention to the positions of the body, arm and hand.
of their inhabitants, forms of government and religion, and their gene For beginners, slates may be used with great advantage, as suggested eral statistics must also be united. in Taylor's District School.
HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. The history of the United States Drawing is only expected to be taught so far as it may be necessary is so essential, that it may justly be treated as a distinct branch of stufor the purpose of mapping, In learning geography, the pupils should dy. In this, a mere outline is not sufficient. The pupil shculd under. be required to delineate on the black-board ihe outlines of the generaldi- stand, in all its details, the history of his own country. Ile should bevisions of the earth, the different countries, oceans, rivers, &c., and they gin with its discovery and first settlement, and trace it through the varishould afterwards be practised in similar delincations, executed with ous stages of its colonial dependence to its emancipation from the concare, on paper. In geometry, trigonometry, mensuration and surveying, trol of the mother country: In the character of the men who stood forelinear drawing will be indispensable, and the tutors should study to most in the contest for independence, the measures of provocation, by convert these exercises to the best use.
which they were roused to resistance the trials through which they passARITIMETIC. In all the operations performed by the pupils, in this ed, the reverses which they sustained, the triumphs which they achieved, branch, black-boards should be used for demonstrations and illustra- and the great political principles which were vindicated by them, there are tions, and every lesson should be explained until the pupil comprehends lessons of instruction not inferior in value, to any which can be drawn it thoroughly. In nothing is the dependence of one step on another so from the history of any other age or people; and ifthe mind ofevery youth complete as in the science of numbers: and if the pupil leaves behind can be made familiar with them, and his feelings imbued with the moul him any thing, which he does not distinctly understand, his progress which they contain, no better security can be provided against the demust always be difficult, and the result of his calculations uncertain. In generacy of that unconquerable spirit, in which the foundations of our facilitating a clear perception of abstract numbers and quantities, visible freedom were laid. illustrations should be liberally employed. Mental arithmetic may also GEOMETRY, TRIGONOMETRY, MENSURATION AND SURVEYING. The be advantageously resorted to, and, indeed, may be deemed indispensa. committee regret that they cannot refer to any single work, which conble, as a discipline to the mind. To all these exercises a practical di- tains such a course on all these subjects as they deem necessary, The rection should, as far as possible, be given, by selecting as subjects for works on each separate subject are in general too extensive for the purpractice those familiar operations of business, with which the pupils pose in view. The course should be altogether practical in its characmust become conversant in after life. Thus the mind may be strength. ier, and should be divested of every thing superfluous. The principles ened by the same process, which is storing it with useful information. of geometry and trigonometry should be so thoroughly understood, ihat
" A knowledge of arithmetic enters into so many of the common ope- their application may be made with facility. The pupils should be rations of life that it is not only an essential part of the most ordinary able to measure solids as well as surfaces with ease; and they should be education, but it should be so thorough that an application of the rules made so well acquainted with the rules of surveying, and the instruof the science may be made with ease and certainty.
ments used for the purpose, as to be able to ascertain heights and distan"Book-KEEPING. A simple course of book-keeping should be tuught ces and determine the contents of a given piece of land, with readiness in every common school, and it is, therefore, an essential part of ihe and precision. course of instruction for a teacher.
NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND THE ELEMENTS OF ASTRONOMY. The course “ The method pursued in the St. Lawrence Academy is, perhaps, as in natural philosophy will embrace a clear understanding of the several concise and as likely to be successful as any that could be devised. The properties of bodies, gravitation, the laws of motion, simple and comsystem contained in the first part of Preston's Book-keeping is taken as pound, the mechanical powers, the mechanical properties of fluids, the a guide. • The pupil is first taught to rule his book, and is then required mechanical properties of air, the transmission of sound, and optics. to carry his slate to the recitation room ruled in the same manner. For Each academy should be furnished with a complete philosophical appaseveral of the first lessons, examples of accounts are taken where the ar- ratus, and all the subjects should be taught with full illustrations. A ticles delivered are charged directly in the individual's account. The practical direction should, as far as possible, be given to the science, by teacher then reads the several charges, which the scholar copies on his teaching the proper application of its laws to useful purposes. It is slate: and the scholar is required, as an exercise in writing, io transfer from this course that those, who intend to devote themselves 10 mechanthe account to his book. T'he teacher then proceeds with the charges ical pursuits, may reap the greatest benefits; and it is of the utmost imin the short specimen of day.book entries, giving as many at one lesson, portance to introduce it into the common schools. The first step towards as the scholar will be able to transser with care, in the allotted time, to ihe accomplishment of this object, is to prepare instructors competent to his day-book. When the several charges are copied into the scholar's teach it; and it is for this reason that it should constitute a particular day-book, he is required to post his book.”
object of attention. In this manner a sufficient knowledge of book-keeping for ordinary In connection with natural philosophy there should be a brief course purposes may be readily acquired, and the student may improve as of instruction in the principles of astronomy. The nature and causes much in penmanship as though he had passed his whole time in writing of the earth's motions, the planets and their motions, their size and poafter a copy.
sitions in relation to the earth and the sun, their satellites, the cause of GEOGRAPIIY AND GENERAL History. Geography, to be profitably eclipses, the variations of the seasons, the length of the days, the causes studied, must be continually explained by maps and the globe. Neither of heat in summer, &c., should all be made familiar to the pupils. Each the artificial nor the natural divisions of the earth, nor the proportions, academy should be furnished with an orrery, a moveable planisphere, a
tide-dial, and a set of globes : and nothing which is capable of being il- fraudulent conveyances and contracts as to goods, chattels, and things lustrated by apparatus should be taught without illustration.
in action, and the offences to which penalties are annexed. The sume apparatus may be employed for the illustration of subjects MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL Philosophy. The laws which should contected with physical geography, between which and that part of as- govern all men, both with respect to the investigation of truth, and frononiy which treats of the earth's motions and the effects consequent to the discharge of the duties rsulting from the relations which they upon them, there is a very close connexion.
bear to each other, and to the author of their existence, should be fa. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. The course in mineralogy and chem- miliar to every teacher, particularly as his own moral character is istry is not expected to be carried far. It is intended that each subject to a periodical examination by the inspectors. A knowledge academy shall have a small cabinet of minerals; and the pupils should of these laws is indispensable to those, whose province it will be, 10 be able to distinguish the different specimens, which should be well watch over the development of the moral and intellectual faculties, characterized, and to understand clearly their composition and distinc- and direct them to their proper objects. tive properties. Chemistry should be taught in such a manner as to
THE PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING. In this branch, instruction must be elucidate these distinctions in the mineral kingdom, and to give a correct knowledge of the properties of the various bodies and substances teaching, or the most successful methods of communicating knowl
thorough and copious. It must not be confined simply to the art of the useful arts, si:ould be made a prominent subject of instruction. Min- edge, but it must embrace also those rules of moral government
, eralogy is usually a preliminary of the science of geology; but it is which are as necessary for the regulation of the conduct of the teach
er as for the formation of the character of those who not expected that ihe latter will constitute a subject of study, excepting
to his carc. so far as it is connected with physical geography, which will necessarily embrace come account of the structure of the earth, with a descrip
Although this branch of instruction is mentioned last in the order tion of the principal classes of rocks and the mineral and metalic sub- of subjects, it should in fact run through the whole course. All the stances, with which they are found united. One of the most salutary other branches should be so taught as to be subservient to the great effects of combining with elementary education some knowledge of the object of creating a facility for communicating instruction to others. foregoing subjects is to guard against the impositions so frequently prac
The pupils in the departments should be practised in all that can rised upon the ignorance of the uninformed in the discovery of some un- devolve on a teacher. It is of the first importance that they should known, and often worthless, substance, to which an imaginary value be made, cach in turn, to conduct some part of the recitations, 10 is assigned. It is exceedingly desirable to spread correct notions con prepare proper questions on the particular subject of study, and to il. cerning lime stone, gypsum, and coal, and the ores of iron, lead, cop- iustrate it by explanations for the purpose of improving their collo. per, &c. The modes of verifying their composition should be made fa- quial powers, and thus giving them a facility for explaining whatever iniliar; and it should be understood in what proportions quantity should they may be required to teach in the future office of instructer. The be combined with quality in order to reward labor.
tutor should then go over the whole ground after them, pointing out The ConstitutiON OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE CONSTITU. their errors or defects and giving them credit for whatever may apTION OF THE STATE OF New. YORK. Every citizen, in order to ex. pear to merit commendation. In this manner the future teacher will ercise discreetly and intelligently the right of suffrage, upon which readily acquire a facility for communicating instruction, which is one questions of constitutional power are frequently dependent, must un. of the highest elements of his art. derstand the provisions of the constitution of the United States and In all these exercises the language of the pupils should be watch. the constitution of his own state; and there cannot, perhaps, be a bet-cd and criticised, every want of perspicuity pointed out, and a rigid . ter mode of attaining the object than to require each pupil to make a conformity to the true standards of etymology and pronunciation insist. brief analysis of both. With regard to the constitution of the United ed on. At the same time every thing artificial or affected in tone or States, he should be required to specify the qualifications and disabil. manner should be studiously avoided; and the pupils should be ities of the members of the Senate and house of Representatives, the taught that elocution is always effective in proportion as it is natural rights and privileges of each house, the powers of Congress, the and unconstrained. powers prohibited and reserved to the states, the limitations of the They should know how to command the attention of their pupils, legislative, judicial and executive authorities, and the manner in to communicate the results of their own researches and experience which the various officers of the government are respectively cho in the manner best calculated to make a lasting impression on the sen or uppointed. In short, all the provisions of the original instru. mind, to lead their pupils into the habit of examining for themselves, ment and of the successivo amendments, which have, by virtue of instead of being direcied at every step of their progress by their in. the proper ratifications by the states, become a part of it, should be structer, and thus to observe, investigate and classify objects, to comthoroughly understood by the pupil. In like manner he should know bine the fruits of their observation, and draw conclusions from tho the qualifications of the various officers of government in his own facts which they have obtained. state, the several divisions of authority provided by the constitution ; In carrying into execution the plan of instruction about to be es. the organization of the legislative, judicial and executive depart tablished, it should not be for a moment forgotten hy shose who are inents ; the powers respectively allotted to them; the rights of the charged with this important task, that the object of education is, not citizens; and for the purpose of impressing strongly on the mind these merely to amass the greatest possible amount of information, but at fundamental principles and provisions of law, which every citizen the same time to develope and discipline the intellectual and moral owes it to the public and himself to und erstand, the pupils should faculties. be required to make an analysis of the constitution of New York, The result of common school education in most cases is to burden which should be carefully examined by the instructor. In pointing the memory with facts and rules, of which, the proper practical ope. out the principal and most important provisions of both instruments, ration is but imperfectly comprehended. This defect is at war with 60 far as they confer power, or restrain its exercise, the reasons, on the spirit of the age, which is to probe to its inmost depths every sub. which the grant in the one case or the prohibition in the other is ject of knowledge, and to convert the results of our inquiries to use: founded, should be clearly explained. Questions of disputed right ful purposes. Practical usefulness is the greatest end of intellectual growing out of the provisions of either instrument had better be pass. discipline; it should be kept steadily in view by the teacher, and he ed by; but, if they are made a subject of comment, the arguments will soon learn that his lesson, when its reason and its object are on both sides should be fairly stated. Schools for popular instruction presented to the mind of his pupil, will arouse an interest, which in de art from the end of their institution, when they are made subser. the absence of this full understanding of the subject, he would have vient to the propagation of particular tenets on any subject, which is labored in vain to excite. open to a diversity of opinion. In every matter, which enters of ne. In determining the proper organization of the departments, the cessity into the proposed plan, it should be the aim of the instructor committee have fully considered the question, whether the studies 10 furnish his pupils with all the materials for forming unprejudiced and recita'ions should be distinct from the ordinary academic cxer. opinions, but to leave their minds free from all bias.
cises; and althoug'i they are disposed to leave this in some degree, Self. T PARTS OF THE Revised STATUTES, AND DUTIES OF PUBLIC to the discretion of the academies, yet they are decidedly of the opin. OFFICERS. It is hardly necessary to add, that under a form of govern. ion that convenience coincides with good policy in requiring that poi. ment which throw's open to all its citizens the avenues to political pils, who are in a course of training for teachers, should be taught power, it is important that all should have, in early life, a general in connection with the other students. knowledge of the duties, which they may be called on to discharge, The committee cannot forbcar to add that the instructers in the or over the faithful performance of which, by others, it will be their academies, wjih which the proposed deparıments may be connecter, province, in common wiih their fellow citizens, to exercise a con. should labor to impress on the minds of those, who may be preparing stant supervision.
themselves for the vocation of teaching, a deep sense for the respon. It is to be regretied that a work containing the most important prin. sibility, which belongs to it. There is in truh, no other, in which ciples of civil and criminal jurisprudence, cannoi now be referred 10, a conscientions and discreet discharge of its appropriate duties can as proper to be used for the proposed course. Until such a one 'well produce mor: beneficial or lasting effects. It is from the con. shall be prepared, the principles of the academies should be charged duct and precepts of the teacher viat the minds committed to his gui. with the duiy of extracting from the Revised Statutes, such portions dance are destined to receive impressions, which may accompany ilie as will show the particulars pecessary to give validity to conveyan. individuals through life, and give a determining cast to the character. ces, the tinio limited for commencing suits, the rules relative 10 In his demeanor they may road impressive lessons of niuderation,