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forbearance, and self-control; from his rules of government they may

3. As to the necessary books and apparatus. learn the value of firmness, justice, and impartiality : or they may find in exhibitions of petulence, unsteadiness of purpose, and unjust dis stored with the best authors on the prescribed subjects of study. The

Books. Each academy should be furnished with a library well tributions of favor, a license for the indulgence of their own prejudi. committee propose to leave the selection of the books for further con. ces and passions. Nothing is more vital to the ccessful govern. sideration. A list can be made out on consultation with the acade. ment of the teacher, and to the execution of his plans of instruction mies, and presented at a future day for the sanction of the Regents. than a steady self-command. The most certain mode of bringing his As these books will be wanted for examination and reserence, several own authority into contemptis to show that he is not his own master. copies of the same work will be required. The moral atmosphere of the will be pure or impure ac. cording to the conduct or character of him who presides over it. On designating all the class books which shall be used in the departments

The committee have had under consideration the expediency of his example will, in no inconsiderable degree, depend, for good or

to be established, or of leaving them to be selected by the academies: evil, the destiny of numbers, whose influence will, in turn, be felt by and, although they deem it of great importance to reduce the course the political society, in the operations of which they are to take an of study to the greatest possible precision, they have come to the con. active purt. The teacher should be made to feel so sensibly the im. clusion that it is better at present to adopt the latter course. portance of his position, that it may be continually present to his thoughts, and become the guide and rule of his actions. He should found most advantageous to use for the instruction of teachers the

At the same time, they would suggest that it will in general be bear perpetually in mind that he is the centre of a little system, which books, from which they will be required to teach in the common as time advances, is destined to spread itself out and carry with it, schools. Larger and more copious treatises on all the subjects of in. for the benefit or injury of all which it reaches, the moral influences struction will, it is true, be necessary for the course of study in the imparted by himself. It must be confessed that there is much in the present prospects and for the purpose of more full illustrations than are afforded by the

departments : but the principal use of the latter will be for reference, of those, who intend to devote themselves to the business of teach.

smaller works. ing, which is calculated to produce indifference and to damp exertion. The vocation does not now ensure constant employment, and there which the committee deem necessary at present.

Apparatus. The following list includes all the apparatus and maps, fore is not to be relied on as a certain support; nor does it yield re. wards at all adequate to its toils and sacrifices. But it is not improb. ble

planisphere, Tide dial, Optical apparatus, Mechanical powers,

Orrery, Numeral frame and Geometrical solids, Globes, Movea. able that more liberal views will prevail in relation to the remunera. tion of teachers: and it is certain that the most effectual method of 100 specimens of mineralogy, Electrical machine, Instruments to

Hydrostatic apparatus, Pneumatic apparatus, Chemical apparatus, bringing about such a change, is a course of conduct, and an exhibi. teach surveying, Map of the United States, Map of the State of New. tion of skill on their part, which will elevate the character of their vo. York, Atlas, Telescope, Quadrant. cation, and by making the public more sensible of the value of their services, will secure a proportionate increase of compensation, individuals, who may be trained in the departments.

4th. What evidence of qualification to teach shall be given to the Teachers should feel that without a deep interest in their occupation they cannot bring into operation the talent requisite to do themselves of qualification are recognized, and the certificates, which the pupils

In the Prussian and French seminaries of teachers, different grades justice, and to convince the public of the necessity of a higher stand. receive on completing their course of preparation, are framed acard of education. Time may be necessary to produce upon the pub. cording to their respective ability to reach. If the departments lic mind the requisite impression, but there is no reason to doubt the about to be established were to be adequate to supply with teachers result. Il in the mean time they lose through the narrow views of the districts through the State, such a distinction might be desira. their employers, fomething of the indemnity, to which they are enti- ble. But as the number of teachers will necessarily be limited; and tled for their labors in a most difficult and responsible sphere of ac. tion, let them not superadd to this loss a sacrifice of their own repu. from the establishment of these departments is to influence public

as one of the most important effects to be anticipated and desired tation by a careless or imperfect discharge of their duties. Let them opinion, and by an exhibition of improved methods of teaching, to Jesolve to gain in character what they may lose in pecuniary profit; correct prevailing errors with regard to the necessity of providing and let them be assured that if any thing can succeed in obtaining such a compensation for teachers, as shall be in some dogree ade. from the public the justice, which they seek, it a course of generous quate to the value of their services, all the pupils, who are in training, devotion on their part to the great cause of education. It such a course should fail to win from ihose, on whom they are now depend should be encouraged to complete the prescribed course of prepara. ent, a corresponding return of benefits, it is to be hoped that the time tion, the only distinction proposed to be taken by the committee for

those, who have gone through the entire course, is between those is not far distant when the value of their labors will be better appre. who are, and those who are not, qualified to teach : and they deem ciated, and com, lete justice awarded to them.

it proper to entrust the decision of this question to the principal and 2. As to the duration of the course.

trustees of the academies, in which the departments may be estab. This is necessarily regulated by the number and extent of the sub- and which from its terms can only be given to those, who have com

lished. They have drawn a form for a diploma which is annexed, jects of study. In the Prussian seminaries in which the requirements for teachers of the first grade, are about equal in importance to those pleted the course of instruction prescribed by the Regents, and have which the committee have proposed for the departments in question, passed a satisfactory examination in all the subjects of study. the term of study is three years; and they are of the opinion that a lhe principal, and a majority of the trustees of the academy.

The examination should be public, and be made in the presence of shorter period would not be sufficient for a strict compliance with the proposed course. As has already been observed, the object in view is to prepare teachers of the first grade; and every other considera.

The Regenis of the University of the State of New York, having rion should give way to this. It should be recommended to the trus. established in this institution a department for the education of com1ces of the academies, in which the departments may be established,

mon school teachers, 10 make the rate of tuition for those who intend in good faith to devote themselves to the business of teaching as low as possible ; and to reg.

WE, the President of the Board of Trustces, and the Principal, of ulate the terms of instruction in such a manner that the pupils in the the

Academy, do hereby certify that A. B., of the town teachers' department, who are sufficiently advanced, niay have an of

in the county of

in the Stato of oprortunity of taking schools during the threc winter months. They

has completed the course of instruction, and passed a satisfac. may, by this means, earn something to enable them to complete their fory examination in all the subjects of study prescribed by the Re. course of instruction, and at the same time improve themselves by gents for the departments ; that he has sustained, while at the insti. making a practical application of the knowledge, which they will have tution, a good moral character, and that he is fully qualified to teach ga ned during the rest of the year. To accomplish this object it may

a common school of the first grade. In testimony whereof, we have be necessary to have only two terms per annum of four months each. hereunto affixed our signatures, together with the seal of the institu. Ti:e pupiis must not only be required to comply with the entire course, tion, at

in the county of

this day of but shey must understand thorough y every subject of study before

18 They receive a diplona or certificate of qualification. In this respect

A. B. President. the Boards, from whom the evidences ot qualification are 10 issue,

C. D. Principal. must practice the greatest caution. Their own and the public inter. It may often happen that students will not be disposed or able to go esi alike demands it. The system cannot become popular, unless it through the whole of the prescribed course of instruction for teachis made equal to its objects. A single individual educated in one ofers. In this case the principals of the academies should be at liberty the proposed departments, and going forth io teach with a dipolma, but to give them a certificate setting forth the particular studies they have wiibouti he requisite nioral and intellectual qualifications, would do rsued, with such opinion of their moral character and their quali. much to bring the whole system into disropuie. Thus Regents should, fications to reach the branches which they have studied, as they may therefore, insist strongly on the fidelity of the academies to withhold be considered entitled to. But this certificate should bo merely un. the necessary cvide!ce of qualification 10 teach, from all who are noi der the signature of the principal and not under the seal of the in. entirely wor:hy of it.

stitution ; lor the committee decin it of the utmost importance that no



evidence of qualification should be given, which can be mistaken for ing, are now engaged in teaching district schools, still the academy has the diploma received by those who have completed the prescribed been unable to supply near all the districts which have applied." course. To avoid all misapprehension, the committee have pre The trustees of the Washington academy state, that the teachers edpared the annexed form for such a certificate.

ucated in the department command higher wages than other teachers, Certificate to be given to students, who have not completed the and that the influence of the department on the common schools of the

vicinity is beginning to be felt; that the average of the wages of teachprescribed course of instruction for teachers.

ers was $12 per month, and that those from the department are now reday of

183 ceiving from $14 to $18. The department has been only a single season 1, the Principal of the

Academy, do hereby certify underthe the direction of the Regents of the University, and none of the that A. B., of the town of

in the county of

students can have completed the entire course of study. Yet the benefits and the State of

has attended a course of instruction at-'of the training to which they are subjected in the principles of teaching this institution in the art of teaching; that he has sustained a good are so manifest, that the students are, as appears by the statement of moral character; and, although he has not completed the course of the trustees, in demand as teachers during the winier. The Regents, study prescribed by the Regents of the University for common school in establishing the depriments, excluded ihe winter months from the teachers, he has studied, and is competent to give instruction in the prescribed term, for the purpose of allowing the studenis an opportufollowing subjects, viz :

nily of teaching, and thus carrying into practice, during four months, .

the knowledge acquired during the eighi mouthis of which the term is

A. B., Principal. composed," P. S. If the individual is not well qualified to give instruction in The Trustees of the St. Lawrence Academy in their Report to the all the subjects of study, those which he is competent to teach, should Board of Regents, in 1336, conclude with the following valuable statebe specificd.

In concluding their report, the committce beg leave to observe, “ We have delivered a course of lectures on the principles of teaching. that in a matter of so much importance, in which the ground to be one evening per week hus been devoted to a public discussion of quesoccupied is yet untried, many considerations may have escaped discussions have been ably sustained by the scholars; and an invalua

tions connected with both the theory and practice of teaching. These their notice, which may be disclosed when the proposed plan is put in operation. They do not present it with the confidence that it is ble amount of practical information imparted by those who have spent perfect, or that experience may not dictate salutary alterations in it, considerable time in teaching. One fuct mentioned in these exercises, but as the best, which, with the lights before them, they have been may serve to show the influence of the efforts made in this department: able, after full consideration, to devise.

and that much may actually be accomplished, though the scholars may

remain only a short time in the department. One of the scholars, who This plan was adopted by the Regents in an ordinance passed on the has been for several years a very popular and successful teacher, remark20th of January, in the same year, “as the best and the most feasible that ed in illustration of the importance of leading the scholars to think, reucould be derived under existing circumstances,” and the following Aca- son and decide for themselves, which had been the subject of a lecture demies recommended by the Committee, were selected, because the ap. by the principal in the former part of the evening :' that seven years paratus and library possessed by them was of a superior value, and ago he attended this school one quarter, (it being ihe first terin special Their peculiar situation, and pecuniary endowments, such as to make efforts were made in behalf of teachers,) and that previous to this, he the course of education in them the least expensive to the student. To the 1st District Washington Hall Academy, Kings County.

had been teaching about two years, pursuing the same old track; but

by the assistance and impulse then given him, he was unhilched and do. 2d do. Montgomery do. Orange County.

cnabled to start ahead.' And he added that he had since taught rising do. 3d do. Kinderhook, do. Columbia County. 800 different children, of whom he had kept a list, and that more than do. 4th do. St. Lawrence, do. St. Lawrence Co. 180 of them had since, to his knowledge, been employed as teachers in do. 5th do. Fairfield

do, Herkimer County. I district schools, without having had any higher advantages than his do. 6th do. Oxford,

do. Chenango County school afforded From these discussions, there has urisen a county asdo. 7th do. Canandaigua, do.

Ontario County, sociation of district school icachers, which promises to prove very do. 8th do. Middlebury, do. Genesee County.

useful." 2. Resulls of this Experiment.

The Trustees of the Oxford Academy, in the Report to the Regents, These Academic Departments for Common School Teachers liave for 1838, remark il:at the plan adopted by the Regents has had a very now been in operation about four years, and with huppy results. The good effect upon the public mind, and a salutary influence upon the Regents of the University in their Annual Report for 1837, remark that character of common schools, in their vicinity. They base this remark they are still of the opinion that these deparıments will accomplish all on the following fact; " that public attention seems to be directe! 10 the good results which were contemplated in their iristitution. ;

this Academy for Common School Teachers ; that the demand is great

er than the supply and more than in any previous year–ihat the wages “In most of the academies with which they are connected, extensive of teachers from the Academy has advanced from last year at least ten arrangements have been made,at considerable expense to the institutions, per cent.; that more young men of such talents as would be likely to sucfor their accommodation. These arrangements are now completed, and ceed well as teachers, bave entered the depariment; and more willing. if in any case the plan does not succeed, the Regents will deem it their ness has been manifested by them to complete the course of study preduty to remove the department to some other institution. The success scribed by the Regents. of the St, Lawrence academy shows that there is no inherent difficulty The Trustees of the Middlebury Academy, in 1838, say," that the in the plan. The number of students in the teachers' department in that Teachers departinent is fast gaining the conħidence of the public in this institution, during the last year, was 102. It should, however, be ob- part of the country, and there is a greater demand for the more advanserved, in justice to other institutions, that the department had been some ced students, as Teachers, than on any preceding year. The demand time in operation, and that its influence was widely fell, before it was for first rate Teachers is beyond our means to supply. Common Schools taken under the special direction of the Regents. The whole number are rapidly improving in character, in this part of our State." of students in the departments, who have during the last year been in These reports go to show that much good has already been done ly a course of preparation for teaching, is 228, exceeding by 110 the num- the Act of 1831, as carried by the Regents of the University, in engratiber reported last year. A greater degree of success could not perhaps ing Teachers departments, upon ciglit of her Academies. But the rehave been reasonably anticipated. The inadequate compensation or- sults of this system although favorable as far as they go, and quite as divarily paid 10 teachers, has naturally the effect of deterring young great as was ever anticipated by their friends, must necessarily be slow men from entering these departments, with a view to devote themselves and limited. A Normal School in ten or twelve counties of the State, to the occupation of teaching; and sometime will be necessary to over would accomplish more in a shorter time. come this obstacle. Bui a very small number of persons aupually pre Gov. Marcy in his Annual Messaye !o the Logisia urc in 1838, thus pared by a proper course of training, and engaged in the business of in- speaks of them. struction in different parts of the State, will contribute, by the exhibi “Our common school system still labors und rembarassments aristion of approved methods, to create a demand for teachers of higher ing from an inadequate supply of well qualified teachers. Our collegr's qualifications; beller wages will be ofiered, the individuals instructed and academies have heretofore been relied on to supply, to a considerado in these departments will be more sought for, and the inducements to ble extent, this deficiency; but it has been quite evident for some time, enter the departments will be augmented.

that further provision ought to be made by legislative authority, to sat" It sliould be bornc in mind that the State pays, in most cases, but a isfy the public wants in this respect. portion of the expense of maintaining the departments. In St. Law The departments for educating common schcol teachers erected unrence academy, the annual expense created by the department is esti. der the patronage of the State in eight of the academies have been in opmated at $1,200, of which the state pays about $100. Tlie success of cration about two years, and the last reports from them present favorathe department in this institution, is in the highest degree gratifying. lile results. The number of students attending them is sitatily increasThe trustees say, that "the success of the plan is such that the standard ing; they are resorted to as sources of supplying the demand for teachof our cominon schools is vastly raised. Iis influence on public opinion ers, and the services of those instructed in them are on th it account is shown by the fact, that the districts are willing to pay tlie ordinary considered more valuable and readily commandei in at biglier rate of inembers of this department 50 to 75 per cent. more than was paid to our compensation. best teachers six or seven years ago, and although many otine classic. * Bui no success that can attend those already es zblished, will make a'repartment, who have paid some autention to the principles oftcach 'thern compettlit to zaprly in any cuasil.rable degree, the demand for

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teachers; it has, therefore been proposed to increase the number of such rious times, the deliberation of both branches of the General Court, has
departments in each senate district of the State, by devoting to that pur- been bestowed upon this, among other subjects, most intimately relating
pose a portion of the income to be derived from the deposite of the pub- to the benefit of the rising generation and of all generations to come,
fic moneys. It is well worthy of your consideration, whether still bet- particularly when the provision for instruction of school teachers was
ter resulis might not be obtained by county normal schools, established specially urged on their consideration, in 1827, by the message of the
and maintained on principles analogous to those on which our system Governor, and a report thereupon, accompanied by a bill, was submit-
of common schools is founded. If the people were fully sensible how ted by the chairman, now a member of the Congress of the United
much the usefulness of our common schools would be increased by be- States, following out to their fair conclusions, the suggestion of the Ex-
ing generally furnished with competent insiructers, it is presumed they ecutive, and the forcible essays of a distinguished advocate of this insti-
would cheerfully contribute the means required to secure this advantage. tution at great length, published and widely promulgated; that al-
Though there are conceded difficulties in the way of procuring an ade though much has been done within two or three years, for the encour-
quate supply of these instructers, yet the cause of education is so deeply agement of our town schools by positive enactment, and more by the
interested in having it done to the utmost practicable extent, that you liberal spirit, newly awakened in our several communities, yet the num-
will doubtless regard it as an object every way deserving of your con- ber of competent teachers is found, by universal experience, so far in-

adequate to supply the demand for them, as to be the principal obstacle
to improvement, and the greatest deficiency of our republie; that we

can hardly expect, as in the memorials from Nantucket is suggested, to NORMAL SCHOOLS IN MASSACHUSETTS. remove this deficiency even in a partial degree, much less to realize the attracted the attention of the members of the Board of Education at an without better observing the rules of prudence in the selection of our The interesting subject of schools for the qualification of Trachers, completion of the felicitous system of our free schools, without adopting

means for more uniform modes of tuition and government in them, early day afier they were organized. It was an object which at that common books, the unlimited diversity of which is complained of time, they felt a strong desire, but possessed no means, of accomplishing. There was reason to fear that they would have to await the slow throughout the State, and that these benefits may reasonably

be expectprocess of a revolution in public sentiment;-a process, which is aled to follow from no other course than a well-devised scheme in full ways materially retarded, when an appropriation of moneys is fore- operation, for the education of teachers; that the announcement, in the unpromising moment, a philanthropic gentleman,-Edmund Dwight, Commonwealth, for removal of this general want, at least in the adopseen to be a consequence of conversion to a new opinion. But at this communication recently received from the Secretary of the Board of

Education, of that private munificence, which offers $10,000 to this Esq. of this city, authorized the Secretary of the Board of Education to tion of initiatory measures of remedy, is received by us, with peculiar the disposal of the Board, the sum of $10,000, to be expended in the pleasure, and, in order that the General Court may consummate this qualification of Teachers of common schools, 'on condition that the Le- good, by carrying forward the benevolent object of the unknown benegislature would

place an equal sum in the same hands to be appropriated lactor, the committee conclude, with recommending the passage of the to the same purpose. On the 12th of March, 1839, this proposition was

subjoined resolutions. communicated to the two Houses, by the Secretary, in a letter of which

All which is respectfully submitted, the following is a copy :

JAMES SAVAGE, per order.

RESOLVES To the President of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House of

Represen!atires. GENTLEMEN,

Whereas, by letter from the Honorable Horace Mann, Secretary of "Private munificence has placed conditionally at my disposal, the the Board of Education, addressed, on the 12th March current, to the sum of Ten Thousand Dollars, to promote the cause of Popular Educa- President of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House of Representation in Massachusetis.

tives, it appears, that private munificence has placed at his disposal, the “ The condition is, that the Commonwealth will contribute the same sum of ten thousand dollars, to promote the cause of popular education amount from unappropriated funds, in aid of the same cause ;-both in Massachusetts, on condition that the Commonwealth will contribute sunis to be drawn upon equally, as needed, and to be disbursed under from unappropriated funds, the same amount in aid of the same cause, the direction of the Board of Education, in qualifying Teachers of our the two sums to be drawn upon equally from time to time, as noodul Common Schools.

and to be disbursed under the direction of the Board or Education in " As the proposal contemplates that the State, in its collective capaci- qual fying teachers for our Common Schools; therefore, ty, shall do no more than is here proffered to be done from private Resolved, That his Excellency the Governor be, and he is hereby means, and as, with a high and enlightened disregard of all local party authorized and requested, by and with the advice and consent of the ant sectional views, it comprehends the whole of the rising gen- Council, to draw his warrant upon the Treasurer of the Commonwealth eration in its philanthropic plan, I cannot refrain from earnestly solici- in favor of the Board of Educaiion, for the sum of $10,000, in such inting for it the favorable regards of the Legislature.

stalments and at such times, as said Board may reqnest : provided, Very respectfully,

said Board, in their request, shall certify, that the Secretary of said HORACE MANN, Board has placed at their disposal an amount equal to that for which

Secrclary of the Board of Education. such application may by them be made; both sums to be expended, unBoston, March 12h, 1838."

der the direction of said Board, in qualifying teachers for the Common

Scliools in Massachusetts. This communication was referred to a Joint Committee, who, on the 22d of March, made the following Report, accompanied by a

Resolved, That the Board of Education shall render an annual acR solve :

count of the manner in which said moneys bave been by them ex

pended. " In House of Representatires, 224 March, 1838. “ Thc Joint Committee, to whom were referred the communication of

This Resolve, after having passed both houses, almost unanimously, the Ilon. Horrice Mann, Secretary of the Board of Education, relative was approved by the Governor on the 19th of April, a fact in regard to in a fund for the promotion of the cause of popular education in this the date, which those, who are curious in coincidences, may hereafier Commonwealth, and also the memorial of the Nantucket County Asso- remember. ciation for the promotion of education, and the improvement of schools, and also the petition and memorial of the inhabitants of the town of Nantucket, on the same sutject, having duly considered the matters


THE PEOPLE,—It is chiefly through books that we enjoy intercourse

with superior minds, and these invaluable means of communication
are in the reach of all. In the best books, great meo talk to us, give

That the highest interest in Massachusetts is, and will always con. us their most precious thoughts, and pour their souls into ours.
tinue to be, the just and equal instruction of all her citizens, so far as the be thanked for books. They are the voices of the distant and the
circumstances of each individual will permit to be imparted; that her dead, and make us heirs of the spiritual life of past ages. Books are
chirf glory, for two hundred years, has been the extent to which this the true levellers. They give to all, who will faithfully use them,
instruction was diffused, the result of the provident legislation, to pro- the sociсty, the spiritual presence of the best and greatest of our race.
mote the common cause, and secure the perpetuity of the common inter- No matter how pour I am. No matter though the prosperous of my
est : that, for many years, a well-grounded apprehension has been en- own time will not enter my obscure dwelling. If the sacred writers
tertained, of the neglect of our common town schools by large portions will enter and take up their abode under my roof, if Milton will cross
of our community, and of the comparative degradation to which these my threshold to sing to me of Paradise, and Shakspeare to open to
inst tutions might fall from such neglect; triat the friends of universal me the worlds of imagination and the working of the human heart,
education, have long lookeel !o the Legislature, for the establishment of and Franklin to enrich me with his practical wisdom, I shall not pine
cne or more seminaries devoted to the purpose of supplying qualified for want of intellectual companionslips, and I may become a cultiva.
Wachers, for the town and district schools, by whose action alone other ted man though excluded from what is called the best society in the
judicious provisions of law could be carried in:o full effect; that at va

place where I live.—[Channing on Self-Culture.

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Vol. I.]


[No. 9.

THE CONNECTICUT COMMON SCHOOL JOURNAL where education is carried on, and to make them attractive, and

convenient to the children—10 introduce better systems of WILL BE PUBLISHED EVERY MONTH, AT THE PRICE OF

classification, better and less various school books, to increase FIFTY CENTS A YEAR, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. the number of studies where it can be judiciously done-that Persons wishing to subscribe, can forward their names and remittan- all this, and more, will not end in making better schools, unless ces, to the Seeretary of the Board at Hartford, or to the Vice-Presi- properly qualified teachers are secured for them. As is the dent of the County Association, or to the postmaster of the town in ieacher so is the school, -must be echoed and re-echoed, until which they reside, who can render the Journal essential service by act- something effectual is done io make and secure good teachers ing as its agents. To any Teacher who will forward the names and remittances of four subject with us is far behind what it is in New-York or in

in the district schools of Connecticut. Public opinion on this subscribers, an additional number will be sent.

And to any person who will forward an order and remittances for Massachusetts. Men of the greatest intelligence and influence fifteen numbers, two additional copies will be sent, if desired.

in those states, of all parties and denoninations, are agreed on All subscriptions to the Journal must begin with the first number. The this, that to have good common schools, these schools must be back numbers will be sent, as long as they can be supplied.

provided with teachers properly qualified and liberally paid. Twelve numbers, comprising at least One Hundred and fifty-two closely printed quarto pages, equal to at least Four Hundred octavo pages, will of Clinton, and Marcy, and Dix, and Seward on this subject, in

Our readers can make themselves familiar with the opioions constitute the volume.

All subscriptions must be paid in advance-and all letters relative to the previous number of this Journal. Their efforts, seconded the Journal must be post paid.

by, the efforts of a community, determined to have better

schools, have secured within a short time, the engrafting of Printed by Case, Tiffany & Burnham, Pearl-st.

Teachers' departments upon their system of public academies.

In Massachusetts the subject of common school improveHARTFORD, FEBRUARY 28, 1839. went, and the most effectual way of doing this, by establishing

Seminaries for the education of Teachers, was as far as we To the School Visiters and Clerks

know, first effectually agitated by Hon. James G. Carter, of of the several School Societies :

Lancaster, now a member of the State Senate, more than fifteen

years ago. It was continued by many able pens in the Journal The time within which you were required by a former and Annals of Education, and by many experienced and sound vote of the Board of Commissioners of Common Schools Teachers, in the public and private schools of Boston and vi

cinity, and by distinguished public men of both parties, and clerto fill out and return the blank forms exhibiting the con- gymer of every denomination. Look through the published prodition of each district school in your several societies, as

ceedings of the School Conventions held in that State, in the prescribed by the Board, is extended to the 20th day of games of men, whose opinions on religious and political sub

course of last surpmer and autumn-and you will find the March, next.

jects, are not only discordant but irreconcilable, uniting on

the common ground of common school improvement, and By order of the Board,

giving to this subject, not the hasty effort of an off-hand public HENRY BARNARD, 20, Secretary. address, but the choisest thoughts of mature study. Under the

enlightened action of such minds, Massachusetts has commen

ced the work of educating teachers for her common schools in The above alteration was made at the suggestion of the thoroughly organized Normal Schools. We copied in our last Secretary of the Board, on learning that in some instan- number, part of an article on this subject, from the Mass. Conices the Clerk of the School Societies had not received mon School Journal, (for which we onitted to give credit 10 the blanks, and that in others the returns could be made that able paper,) which we shall conclude in the present pummuch more complete and accurate, accompanied with re-ber. Massachusetts will owe a large debt of gratitude, to the ports and suggestions from the School visiters, in case generous and well-timed liberality of Mr. Dwight, which inthe time was extended to the middle of March. School for the establishment of one or more institutions, for the educa

duced the Legislature to appropriate a sum of equal amount, Committees will see, by reading the School Law, that iion of teachers. Such men are indeed efficient friends of edthey cannot make out the proper certificate upon which ucation, and true benefactors of their race. When will the the School money is drawn, unless the provision requiring contributions of Benevolence, Patriotism, and Christianity, with that these returns shall be made in the manner and time us be turned into this broad and thirsty channel ? When will prescribed by the Board has been complied with. Connecticut through her Legislature, commence the work of

educating Teachers for her Common Schools, and convince

the world, that she has not, as has been supposed and proclaimed It is due to ourselves to state that the last number of the in the Halls of Congress, and on the floor of eight Legislatures Journal went to press without the supervision and correction, of this Union, gone to sleep over the possession of her magnion our part, to which the proofs are always subjected. This licent School Fund ? circumstance, and the loss of the corrected copy, in which the French words in the article on Normal Schools in France were

NORMAL SCHOOLS IN MASSACHUSETTS. translated, will account for the typographical errors and omissions in that number. They are not such however as lo affect

(Continued from No. 8.) the meaning very materially, bowever much they may the The Board was now possessed of the sum of $20,000; and how ingrammar of the passages in which they occur. We must so- adequate is such a sum towards supplying the wants of a State, in licit the charitable indulgence of our readers for these and which, during the preceding year, there had been employed in the public

schools, twenty-three hundred and seventy male, and thiriy-fire hunsuch errors.

dred and ninety-one female teachers. In spite of these drawbacks, we are glad to learn that the information contained in the last Journal respecting the educa eforts and expend its funds upon a single school ?" "Shall they at

Here such questions as these arose; "Shall the board concentrate its tion

of teachers under other school systems is attracting the attempt to engraft a department for the qualification of teachers, upon tention of the most intelligent friends of common school edu- academies in different parts of the State ?", "Shall they attempt to obcation in the state. The opinion is becoming every day strong-tain the co-operation of public spirited individuals, and establish prier and stronger, that do what we may, to improve the places vate institutions, in the centres of convenient sections of the Common

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wealth ?" Perhaps no one of these suggestions was so decidedly supe ceived from any place in the State, further West than New Saleni. On
rior to the others, as to preclude all difference of opinion on their rela- a careful comparison of all the circumstances, bearing upon the relative
tive eligibility. The questions were to be decided, not less on a com- eligibility of these three places, the Board decided in favor of the town
parison of the weight of objections against each, than on the arguments of Barre The location of the third Normal School awaits the action of
in favor. If but one were established, its success could be known but the friends of education, in the Western, or in the South-eastern part of
to the citizens of a small part of the Commonwealth; and it was desira- the State.
ble that an experiment, in which the whole people had a direct interest, It may be proper here to say a word in regard to the appellation, by
should be tried in presence of the whole people. If existing academies which these institutions are to be designated and known. The term
were selected and a new department engrafted upon them, thisdepart. Normal Schools has for some time been familiar to the literary men of
ment would be but a secondary interest in the school; the teachers this country. In Prussia, where schools for the qualification of teach-
would not be selected, so much with reference to the incident, as to the ers have long been in successful operation, they are universally known
principal object; and as the course of instruction, proper to qualify by the epithet, Norma!. France, having copied, to some extent, the
teachers, must be essentially different from a common academical course, Prussian system, has borrowed the name, by which the distinguishing
it would be impossible for any preceptor duly to superintend both. Let feature of that system is known. Normal School signifies a school,
there be one department of business for one man and make him respon- where the rules of practice and the principles of guidance and direction
sible for its success, is a good maxim, when it can be applied. The in the various departments of Education, are taught. The name is
proposition to establish as many as three schools, one at some conven- short, descriptive from its etymology, and in no danger of being misun-
ient place for the North-eastern part of the State, another for the middle derstood or misapplied.
or Western section, and a third for the South-eastern, seemed, on the The most material point, in regard to the Normal Schools, relates to
whole, to be most eligible. But an insuperable objection to this course, the course of instruction to be therein pursued. The elements for
so far as it regarded the means of the Board, was a “plentiful lack" of decision of this question are found in the existing wants of our com-
supplies. The e expenditure of $20,000 could hardly have given the munity. We want improved teachers for the Common Schools, where
Board ownership of three adequate and sufficient establishments for the the mass of the children must look for all the aids of education, they
intended purpose; and even if it could, all the means intrusted to them will ever enjoy. In the Common School, whether it be better or poorer,
for educating teachers, would have been exhausted in acquiring a place the great majority of the future members of the State,—those who are to
to carry on the work.' Fine buildings, excellent locations, the Board form its society and uphold or overthrow its institutions, -are to obtain
might have; but how, without funds, could the schools bc afterwards the principal part of all the education they will ever receive. Others,
sustained ? What teacher would assume the risk of being remunerated of different fortunes, will have superior advantages. But whosoever
for his services by the amount of tuition? The teachers of all such cares most for the greatest number will look first to the welfare of the
schools would have to be elected as honorary members, with liberty to Common Schools. In establishing the regulations for the Normal
reside elsewhere and attend to their own employments.

Schools, and the course of studies to be pursued therein, the idea has not
But might not something be expected from individual liberality, from for a moment been lost sight of by the Board, that they are d signed
local aid ? Were there not men, residing in different sections of the to improve the education of the great body of the people. We proceed
Commonwealth, who had decply pondered the subject of educating a to state some of the leading rules in the code, by which they will be
free people in such a manner that they would be worthy of freedom and governed.
able to maintain it; were ticre not men, who saw, how, like a mould-

er's hand, human institutions give shape to human character;, men, As a prerequisite to admission, candidates must declare it to be their
who thought more of the intellectual and moral condition in which they intention to qualify themselves to become school teachers. If males,
should leave their children, than of the length of their inventory of they must have atiained the age of seventeen years complete, and of
chattels and of lands; who foresaw that the general condition of the sizicen, if females; and must be free from any disease or infirmity,
future society, in which those children were io reside, ranked a thou- which would unfit'them for the office of teachers. They must undergo
sand times higher in importance, than the amount of their patrimony? anexamination and prove themselves to be well versed in orthography,

Upon this thought, the Board caused due notice to be given to the reading, writing, English grammar, geography and arithmetic. They
friends of education in all parts of the Commonwealth, that until the must furnish satisfact ry evidence of good intellectual capacity and of
whole fund in thicii hando pliouid bocomo plulood, tlicy would under high moral character and principles. Examinations for admission will
take to establish, in any place, unobjectionable in point of locality, a take place at the commencemeni of each academic year, and oftener at
school for the qualification of teachers, and would sustain the same for the discretion and convenience of the Visiters and ihe Principal.
the space of three years, provided that suitable buildings, fixtures and

Term of Study.
furniture, together with the means of carrying on such school, (exclu-
sive of the compensation of the teachers of the school, could be obtained tion have been assiduous and proficiency good, the pupil may receive,

The minimum of the term of study is fixed at one year. If applicefrom private liberality and placed under the control of the Board.

In the course of the last season, offers, substantially complying with at the expiration of that time, a certificate of qualification. this proposition, were made to the Board from seven different towns in

-Course of Study, the State. Other towns also made generous propositions to the Board,

The studies first to be attended to, in the Normal Schools, are those with a view to become partakers of the bounty, which public and pri- which the law requires to be taught in the district schools

, viz. orthog. vate liberality had placed at its control. Such a spirit of generosity, raphy, reading, writing, English grammar, geography and arishmetic. emanating from so many different points, could hardly have been anii. When these are thoroughly mastercd, those of a higher order will be cipated. It is encouragement for the present; it is an augury of good progressively taken. for the future. The interests of education will not languish, confided Any person wishing to remain at the school more than one year, in to men animated by such a spirit.

order io increase his qualification for taching a public school, may do To arrange preliminaries, correspondence and many visits to differ- so, having first obtained the consent of the Principal; and therefore a ent places, in order to compare their relative eligibility, became neces- further course of study is marked out, The whole course, properly arsary. This has rendered some delay inevitable. In a work, where ranged, is as follows: the guide of no precedent could be obtained, where almost the whole 1. Orthography, Reading, Grammar, Composition and Rhetoric, ground was to be explored for the first time, great caution was the first Logic. 2. Writing, Drawing: 3. Arithmetic, mental and written, requisite, otherwise, far more time might be lost in retracing steps in- Algebra, Geometry, Book-keeping, Navigation, Surveying. 4. Geog: cautiously taken, than would be consumed by previous and full deliber- raphy, ancient and modern, with Chronology, Statistics and General ation, in projecting the true course to be pursued. In this country, we History: 5. Physiology. 6. Mental Philosophy; 7. Music. 8. have no institutions of the kind, which can safely be adopted as a mod- Constiution and History of Massachusetts, and of The United States. el. And the political and social differences between us and the Euro- 9. Natural Philosophy and Astronomy. 10. Natural History. 11. pean nations, where schools for the qualification of teachers have been The principles of Piety and Morality, common to a!! sects of Chrisfounded, are so numerous and fundamental, that a transcript of their tiuns. 12. T'UF. SCIENCE AND ART OF TEACHING, WITH REFERENCE TO ALI. systems, without material modifications, would threaten failure, if THE ABOVE NAMED STUDIES. adopted by us.

A portion of the Scriptures shall be read daily, in every Normal After an anxious comparison of all practicable plans, and a careful School, consideration of all the arguments preferred by different applicants, the

A selection from the above course of studies will be made for those Board decided to proceed so far as to establish, at least three schools, to who are to remiain at the School but one year, according to the particube located respectively either in the North-eastern, the South-eastern, or lar kind of school, it may be their intention to teach. middle sections of the State, and to be so located as to admit of a subse

Visitors. quent increase of the number, without interfering with those already Each Normal School will be under the immediate inspection of Visestablished.

iters, who are, in all cases, to be chosen from the Board, except that the On a combined view of the offer and the situation, the town of Lex- Secretary of the Board stall be competent to serve as one of said ington was selected for the North-eastern division of the State; no oth- Visiters. er town being more favorably situated, or giving so much weight to its

Instruclers. other claims by the liberality of its donation. Two substantial offers

The Board will appoint for each School a Principal Instructer, who have been made from Worcester county: one from the town of Barre, shall direct and conduct the whole business of government and instrircand another from that of Lancaster; and one of great generosity from tion, subject to the rules of the Board and the supervision of the VisNew Salem, in the county of Franklin. No offer of assistance was re-liters.

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