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tensive operation, and that is, the individual action of those who are ed to prevent. Besides, it would be adopting as a reading book, th friendly to the object, and know how to advance it. Men enough best model of idiomatic English, and only beginning in the Schools, are found to fill offices of honor or profit, in either church or etate ; what is afterwards carried on in your higher places of education. associations can be formed for almost any purpose, but it is extreme. ly diflicult to find those, who in the true spirit of christian philan. thropy, are willing to go about doing good for the simple considera

MASSACHUSETTS. tion of doing good. Could a small part of those who have both time and talents for this work, be induced to set about it in earnest,

EXTRACT FROM GOV. MORTON'S MESSAGE. independent of sects and parties, the most extensive benefits would be conferred on our common country.

Thc education of the people, is a subject which has commanded so much of the public consideration, and been so often and so ably

presented to successive legislatures, that it will not fail to command SOUTH CAROLINA.

your earliest attention and most anxious deliberations. Its impor.

tance in a democratic government, which must be sustained by the We have not seen Gov. Noble's annual message, but we have re- intelligence and virtue of the people, cannot be too highly apprecia. ceived a copy of a report of Professor Elliott and Thornwell, on the ted. The system of free schools which has been transmitted from Free School System made to the Governor at his request and by him generation to generation, has improved in its progress, and is now submitted to he Legislature. From the remarks contained in the in a high degree of perfection. But it is capable of still further im.

provement. Recently, great labor has been bestowed upon, and report it is very evident nothing like a system of common schools great advancement made in, some departments of education. But as we understand here in New England, prevails in South Carolina. the very improvements in the higher branches, and in the more ele. Their free schools spoken of are professedly schoo


vated seminaries, excite the ambition and engross the attention of such as in the main, all public schools are likely to become unless those most active in the cause of education, and thus expose the

common schools to fall into neglect and disrepute. To arouse that they are both good and cheap, so as to meet the wants of the rich strong and universal interest in them, which is so necessary to their and the poor. We make a few extracts :

utility and success, an interest that should pervade both parents and

children, the responsibility of their management should rest upon The difficulties in the way of an effective Free School System, the inhabitants of the towns. And the more immediately they are are of two kinds, physical and moral. The physicul difficulties are brought under the control of those for whose benetit they are estab. the sparseness of ihe population, the great extent of country over lished, and at whose expense they are supported, the more deep and which a limited appropriation has to extend, and the sickliness of active will be the feelings engendered in their favor, and the more particular sections of the State. The moral difficulties are the care certain and universal will be their beneficial agency. In the town lessness of the poor about the education of their children, the sel. and district meetings, those little pure democracies, where our citi. fishness which leads them to prefer their labor to their improvement, zens first learn the rudiments and ihe practical operation of free in. and the foolish pride, which prevents them from receiving that as a stitutions, may safely and rightfully be placed the direction and the bounty, which they cannot procure in any better way.

government of these invaluable seminaries. In my opinion, the We need not the Northern systems, for our white population, that main efforts and the most unceasing vigilance of the government requires the help of government, is too small to call for the sacrifice should be directed to the encouragement of the primary schools. of a higher education, on the part of the great body of the people, These are the fountains whence should flow the knowledge that by the expenditure of a large amount of money, on the part of the should enlighten, and the virtue that should preserve, our free insti. State ; one or the other of which consequences must be the result cutions. Let them ever be kept free and pure. The instruction of of the adoption of any Common School System upon a scale coni. the common mind should be the common concern. Let the whole mensurate with the whole white population of the State ; for any people be educated and brought up to the standard of good citizens general System of Schools, except it be maintained at an expense and intelligent and moral members of society. Let the government equal to the highest moneyed rate of instruction, while it extends care for those who have no one else to care for them. The poor, the benefits, inevitably lowers the standard of education. *

the weak, the depressed and the neglected, have the greatest need We would therefore recommend as the first step in the revisal of the protecting arm and succoring hand of the Commonweath. of the Free School system of the State, that there should be elected by Let the children of such be deemed the children of the republic, the Legislature, a Superintendant of Free Schools, holding his of. and furnished with suitable means of instruction, that their powers fice for four years, and re-eligible, with the salary of a Circuit Judge, mental and physical, may be developed, and they be converted into whose duty it should be to devole his whole time to the arrangement ornaments and blessings to the community. Let the town schools be and superintendance of the Free S hools of the State, and be the open to all, and made so respectable and so useful, that all may de. responsible organ of communication between them and the Legis- sire to enter them. The district school, properly governed and inlature. The information which such an officer, and such an of structed, is a nursery of democratic sentiments. It str kingly illus. ficer only, could give to the Legislature, of the number and posi trates, the fundamental principle of our government. There before tion of the poor children in the respective districts of the State, of the pride of family or wealth, or other adventitious distinction has the difficulties to be overcome in each particular case, and of the taken deep root in the young heart, assemble upon a perfect level, operation of the system under varying circumstances, could enable children of all circumstances and situations in life. There they it, in a few years, iv rectify most of the evils which are acknowl. learn that rewards and honors do not depend upon accidental advan. edged to exist, but which many of the Commissioners a tribute tages, but upon superior diligence, good conduct and improvement. rather to the improper execution of the Acts than the system itself. There they have practically written upon their tender minds, 100 We have recommended a high salary, and a tenure of office of deeply to be obliterated by the after occurrences and changes of life, some years duratio 1, because we think them necessary for the pro- the great principles of equal rights, equal duties and equal advan. curing an officer of the character, and the acquirements, roquisite tages. to fill such a station.

It is the illumination of the universal mind that is the sure founda. The Free School System was organized mainly for the benefit tion of democracy. It is th: clevation of every rational soul into of the orphans and indigent children of the State and the approba. moral and intellectual consciou zness and dignity, that is to carry on. tion should be distributed with a distinct view to that object. *

ward improvements in our social and civil institutions. To this We would recommend in the fourth place, but this we do with end should be directed the highest aims and efforts of the legis. some hesitation, the establishment in one of the healthy Districts of lature. the State, of a Teacher's Seminary. We doubt whether a proper supply of Teachers for Free Schools can be obtained in any other way. The only expenditure which it would require, would be the

SUMMARY OF THE MASS, SCHOOL LAW. salary of a Teacher, or Teachers, and the erection of buildings sui. table for such an establishment. Those who went there, ought to Massachusetts Bay, was a law making it obligatory on parents

One of the earliest acts of legislation of the colony of be expected to support themselves during their term of preparation. to educate their own children and apprentices : Harvard Col. Many doubtless would be sustained by private charity; and others lege was founded in 1636 ; and in 1647 the colony provided would invest their litile inheritance in what would eventually prove by law for the support of schools at the public expense, for a certain and respectable profession.

The Legislature should insist, we think, in the provisions of its instruotion in reading and writing, in every town containing Act, that the Bible should be a Text Book in all of its Schools, and fifty families, and for the support of a grammar school (the that religion should be more or less incorporated into its system of instructor of which should be competent to prepare young instruction. Knowledge, unless it be accompanied by virtue, and men for the University) in every toivn containing one buothe highest virtue is the fruit of religion, may only quicken the vice dred families. it was intended to eradicate, and sharpen for the crimes it was design. The requisitions of the law, as it now stands, are substan


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tially as follows:- Towns containing fifty families or house-mation, it contains the reporis of nearly one frondred schoo
holders are required to maintain a school or schools for terins committees in as'ınany towns, respecting the actual stale and
of time which shall together be equivaleut to six monihs in condition of school-houses, teachers and schools. lo reading
each year, in which children shall be instructed in orthogra-
phy, reading, writing, English grammar, geography, arithine- these, we have selected and classified under appropriate leads
tic, and good behavior, by teachers of competeni ability and many suggestions, which, while they show "how deeply decay
good morals.

has eaten into the vitals of the school system" of Massachu-
In towns of one hundred families or householders, schools
of the same kind are to be kept for terms which together shall seits

, will serve as a mirror in which we may study the fea-
be equivalent to twelve months.

tures of our own system. We know not where to find more
In towns of one hundred and fifty families or householders, valuable matter for our columns.
schools of the same kind, and not less than iwo, are 10 be
kept for ternis not less than nine months each, or ihree or
more schools for terms together equivalent to eighteen monihs. Holden.-The committee feel constrained to say a word respecting

In towns of five hundred families, similar schools, not less school-houses. Some of these they regard as any thing rather than
than two, are to be kept for twelve months each, or three or places of comfort. Some are exceedingly cold in winter, and most of
more such schools for terms logether equivalent to twent them are excessively warm in summer. Some are not even plaster.
four months; and, in addition to the above, they are required ed, and the committee know, from experience, that there can be no
to maintain a school for the benefit of all the inhabitants of comfort in them in a cold day. But few of the houses have either a
the town, ten monihs at least, exclusive of vacations, in each shutter or a blind, or even curtain, to prevent the entrance of the full

blaze of the scorching sun of July and August. It is not expected,
year, in which the bistory of the United States, buok keepin

: that the scholars will be kilied by this excessive cold and heai; per. surveying, geometry, and algebra shall be taught by a master haps they will not materially suffer in their health ; but, neverthe. of cornpetent ability and good murals. And if the town cop less, it must prove a serious hindrance to progress in know edge. tain four thousand inhabitants, the teacher shall, in addition The committee regard the construction of the seats as decidedly to all the branches above enumerated, be competent to in- bad. They are generally much too narrow. When religious meel. struct in the Latin and Greek languages, general history, ings have been held in these houses, complaint has often been made rhetoric and logic.

of the difficulty of silliug an hour on such seats. If u be so, then
The schools provided for by the law are open to children of how can scholars sit on the six hours a day, for three or five
all classes, and the expense of maintaining ihem is paid by a months in succession. Sometimes small scholars are placed on
tax on the people, raised chiefly on their property.. Each seate not more than four or five inches wide, and raised so far from
lown is made responsible for the execution of the law wishin the floor as to prevent the possibility of their reaching il; and then,
its own jurisdiction; and it is the duly of the school comunit- | because, that, in the course of half a day, they move to and fro a
tee (which consists of five persons chosen annually by the little, the little creatures are thought to be made of very rest ess
town) to overlook the schools, 10 visit ibem at least once in

six months, 10 employ and approve the instructors, and to di- in the school house, that the general condition of those buildings, and

Fall River.—Children spend so large a portion of their early life
rect in the selection of school-books.

their influence upon young minds are topics of prominence and mag.
The school committee are further required to make annual-

The construction and comfort of school rooms are closely
ly a detailed report of the condition of the several public conected with the love of study-with proficiency in study--with
schools in their respective lowas with suggestions for their health, with anatomical förmution-and with length of life. These
improvement, which report must be read in open town meel a e maliers of great interest, and suggest important duties. Most
ing and an altested copy thereof transmitted io lhe Secretary of the public school houses in this town are of recent construction,
of State, together with official returns showing the number or and weli filted to the purpose of their designation.
name of every school-ihe whole number of scholars in each. Kingston.There is not a single public school house in town that
in suinmer and winter-the average attendance-the length is not a disgrace to us, and a sure and inevitable cause of much
of each school-he number of teachers, their sex and com- sickness and coniinued ill health to many of your children.
peusacion-list of books, and amount of money raised by tax of the bleakest, and most exposed situations in the dis'rict :-perched

Let us take, for insta:nce, the house in District No. 1. It is one
to support schools, &c. &c.
ed to each town according to the number of children between liable at any time to be cut down by the surveyor —without an inch
The income of the school fund is apportioned and distribut- upon a sand hill, with but little more than half the land it stands on

belonging to the district,-projecting sx feet into the highway, and
the ages of four and sisteen, on condition that the above requi- of ground around it for the children to exercise upon.
sitions of the law respecting the school returns and reports Confinement is never pleasant under any circumstances. Who is
have been complied with, and a sum equal to one dollar and there, that would accept the wealth of the Indics in exchange for
twenty-five cents, for each person between the ages of four fresh air and the free use of his limbs? And yet you crowd from
and sirleen, has been raised by taxation for the support of forty to sixty children into that ill.constructed, miserable shell of a
schools, including only fuel, wages and board of teachers. building, there to sit in the most uncomfortable seats that could be

The Board of Education composed of the Governor, Lieut. conirived, expecting that, with the occasional applica ion of the birch,
Governor, and eight others appointed by the governor and they will sit still for six hours in the day from four to six months in
senate are required to make out an annual abstract of the the year, and then come out learned in all the mysteries of knowledge,
school returns, and to ascertain and report to the legislature educated for manhood or womanhood. Now it is a fact beyond dis.
the actual condition and efficiency of the common schools pure, that in a room of that size, (say 16 by 24 feet: 35 children will
and other means of popular education, and to diffuse as wide- fresh air is admitted by the numerous cracks and crevices all

render the air unfit for breathing in 45 minutes. To be sure, some
ly as possible, information of the most approved and success- around, but, allowing one fourth for this, and after one hour, the
ful methods of arranging the studies and conducting the edu- children are injured by every breath they draw. The injury at each
cation of the young. To accomplish this the Board are au- breath is small, we grant. "But who, that has been confined in a
thorized to appoint a Secretary, who must once in each year crowded school-room, or any other room, has not felt the want of
attend a meeting of such teachers, school committees, and fresh air—an article wiih which the Almighty has supplied us in
friends of education in each county as may assemble on invi- greater quantities than any other, but only in proportion to our
tation from the Board.

Who has not felt the dull headache-the pressure of the

brain, as it seems, (when in fact, it is cruel oppression,)—the dızABSTRACT OF THE MASS. SCHOOL RETURNS, (not remember the new life and animation, the renewed strength and

zy, sleepy drowsiness of a atmosphere? Who does FOR 1838–9.

courage he has often felt when he has emerged from one of these We are indebted to Mr. Mann for a volume of 340 closely real prisons, to breathe the pure air of heaven?

NorturieLD.-In District No. 3. there is a very small, inconve. pricted pages octavo, with the above title, which was preparednient house. Children, teachers and many parenis, complain of its by him, and laid before the Legislature, in January last, in inconvenience and uncomfortableness. In winter the air becomes compliance with the requisitions of the law. It is the most ) hot, impure and unpleasant; while some are suffering from heat,

others are suffering from cold. There are not seats enough to ac complete a iu useful document of the kind which has come commodate all conveniently, nor is there room for any more. When under our notice. In addition to the ordinary items of infor-Ithe school attends to writing, it is necessary to make a great


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Change in order 10 accommodate the writers. This causes confu. Haverhill.—One of these obstacles is found in the character of sion and loss of time, every day; besides, some of the forms are the teachers. The rate of compensation granted to teachers, both loose, and easily joggled. The building and the room presont no male and female, in this town, has thus far been lass in general, attraction to the young, but rather the contrary,

than could be obtained by the same individuals in other employRichmond.—To pass by some of the school.houses, in this town, ments, for which no expense of education is necessary to prepare during the winter, look at the broken windows, and see a small load one-which are in themselves equally reputable with school teach. of green beech or chestnut wood before the door; and then, too, to iny, less confining, and by no means more laborious. The inevila. think of the cold air rushing through the windows, and in the pleni. ble consequence has been, that those engaged in the business of in. tude of its power, putting a “veto” upon the efforts of a small fire, struction have engaged in that service for a short time only and which is making tremendous struggles to be cheerful, is enough to that they often fail in two very important particulars,-aptness to make any feeling parent shiver, to think how the mortality of his tench, and capacity 10 govern. Furthermore, the character of a chid must ache, before such wood can be made combustible. Are teacher in these two particulars is only to be ascertained by experi. these things as they ought to be ?

ment. Hence it will sometimes and that too notinfrequently occur, that Two of our school houses are nf brick, pleasantly located, and afford- an individual appears well upon his examination before us, and sub. ing that comfort and convenience which serves as a pleasant stimu. sequently fails in these very particulars. Jant to those childern who go there. But the other three look as though SHARON.-[( may be a father has a son or a daughter avhom he the wrath of the elements had been poured out upon them without wished to have teach the school; an uncle, a nephew or a niece ; stjnt or measure.

When we inink of these toitering frames, or chere is a cousin in a neighboring town, who wants the school; uneven floors, broken windows, and, above all, the polar breezes or some one in the district sent his scholar 10 a person, and the which reign within, can we not find some excuse for the reluctance scholar learned wonderfully; or the prudential commitee has no of the children to attend school, or, what is far worse than reluc. time to look up a belier teacher ;-still, when brought before the tance, their willingness to attend it for a wrong motive and for wrong examining committee, he wishes him to paes, and ihus, the son, purposes ?

nephew, or cousin, is palmed upon the district. Edgartown. There is not a single district school-house within FRAMINGHAM.—The want of thoroughly-furnished teachers is the the bounds of the town, that is anything like what such a building great want of our schools. The public demand, in this respect is should be, in order that the children and youth attending the schools yearly growing louder, and is more particularly attested by the in. may reap the full benefit of the money, we raise yearly for their creased liberality with which the labors of competent and skillful maintenance.

teachers are remunerated. In one district, there is a house nearly new and of sufficient size; HARDWICK.The nin!h and last, but by no means the least defect but it is so badly constructed within, that your committee would deem in our common schools, is the employing of cheap but incompetent it quite a sufficient pur.ishment for almost any of the less offences teachers. The consequences of such economy are too plain and against the state, to be ed to ocupy one of its seats for one evident to need description. It is but starving and stinting and short werk, six hours in a day; and the conveniences are less, or dwarfing the youthful mind, for the sake of saving a dollar in the rather the inconveniences are greater, for children than for adults. price of the reacher's wages. This is a kind of economy which no In ail other districts, the houses are old, very deficient in size, and wise man adopts in other inatters. If a horse is to be shou, or any almost a 'together so, with respect to the proper means of venula. other work to be done, it must be done by a workman. lia col is tion. To say the most we can in their favor, they are very unsuita. 1o be broken and traired to the hamess, it inust be done by a horse. ble for the purposes for which they are used, except in the milder man, well ski led in the business; but any bungler, who will work seasons of the year, and they but poorly answer those ends, even cheap, will do to teach and train up children. then,

RUTLAND. But the committee are obliged to accede to the uni. TEACHERS-EXAMINATION OF.

versal coniplaint of a want of able, faithful and devoted teachers. FRAMINGHAM.- Viewing it as now a setiled maxim that, as is the Enterprising and thoroughly educated young men can do better in teacher so is the school, and that the only method by which to ele almost any other kind of business, than in that of teaching. And vate the character of the schools, and the standard of education, is till teaching in a common school becoines an honorab.e profession, to raise the qualifications of those who instruct, tie committee have we may despair of our schools being nurseries of vir.ue and of in

telligence. esteemed it one of their first duties to be exact and faithful in the examination of instructers, requiring of those who profess to teach FACULTY OF GOVERNMENT NOT TESTED BY EXAMINATION that they be themselves thoroughly taught,-equal to the work they

BUT BY TRIAL. assume, and the just respousibility they bear. Brimfiel).- In their examinations, both for the summer and

SHIRLEY.—It is a fact not to be denied, that teachers have sus. winter schools, they have been minute and particluar, and have seen tained theinselves honorably when examined for apprubasion to in. very carelul not to approbate any, who did not, on examination, give ment, have shown that they were entirely unqualified to perform the

struct your schools, who, in consequence of their failure in govern. evidence of being Thoruughly furnished for their work. They arduous and responsible duries of a teacher. In view of these con. have acied upon the principle, that they would not employ one to siderations, your committee unanimously resolved, that they would, teach the children of their neighhors

, to whom they would be unwil. under ordinary circumstances, approbate no persons to instruct your ling to commit their own children, for instruction.

schools, who had previously instructed, unless they could produce WANT OF WELL QUALIFIED TEACHERS.

satisfactory evidence, that they had succeeded in governing the ANDOVER.–One of the greatest “defects" in our present “ means schools which they had taught, to the satisfaction of their employere. of education,” is the want of capable and well.qualified teachers. Your committee feel that the more strictly they adhere to this The town has, indeed, been favored in this respece during the past resolution, the more profitable will your schools bé 10 all connected year. But many are aware what a loss of time and money is often with them. But while they regard an adherence to this resolution occasioned by the ignorance and incompetence of instructers. The as indispensable to the welfare of your schools, still it does not, and commitee would gladly defend the town from this evil, but to do it I cannot reach every case. entirely is beyond their power. It is impossible for them to decide,

FEMALE TEACHERS AND SUMMER SCHOOLS. in all cases, even after a rigid examination, that a candidale will be successful in the management of a school. The person may be

BRIMFIELD.—Your committee would respectfully inquire, whether thorough as a scholar and have ample recommendatione, and yet the best interests of learning among us, do not most imperiously re. utterly fail in the energy, and good government essential to a well. quire a change in the customs of the people on this subje«ı; and regulated and profituble school. Bue this deficiency sometimes can. whether we shall not be induced to make an effort

, the approaching not be known uniil it is too lare-until the teacher has obtained a

season, to raise the character of our summer srhools, and make ihem certificate of approbation, and hob a right to insist on the fulfilment what they should be, nursrries of sound learning, rather than con. of the contract; and then the committee do not feel authorized to

vert them into mere pastime, or substitute an empty form, for the interfere, except in extreme cares. And it is a truth not to be deni.

real substance. ed or concealed, that many teachers, some of whom are quite ac.

We are the more desirous of increasing the number in attendance, ceptable and useful, are nevertheless sadly deficient in their qualifi. and raising their character, as they are uniformly taught by females, cations. If the committee were always w insist that teachers who, other things being equal, are, in nine cases out of ien, better should be fully qualified, in all respects, it would sometimes incon- adapted to promote the improvement of our children in learning, veniently delay the instruction of a school, if not altogether prevent

than teachers of the other sex. Indeed, if more females, of snitable it: schools must sometimes go untaught for the want of such qualifications, should be employed to teach our winter schouls,

we teachers.

believe, that, ordinarily, more good might be accomplished and at The surest remedy for this deficiency which the committee can been made in any schools in this town, during the past winter, as the

much less pecuniary expense. The greatest improvement that has suggest, is to provide for the proper qualification of the sons and daughters of our own inhabitants, and then to give them the prefer. committee fully believe, has been in the schools taught by females. ence as teachers.

RandoLPH.-The younger boys and all the girls might attend

schools kept by competent females, and thus all might receive the Lowell.—One of the strongest arguments in favor of placing it at benefit of a longer school term than they now do. Your committee once on the most permanent and respectable basis, is, that it may are decidedly of opinion, that female teachers are far the most pre draw to its halls the children of all classes ; that it may be the place ferable to be employed in such schools. They are ondowed by where the rich and the poor may meet together ; where the wall of nature in a much higher degree than males, with those feelings and partition, which now seems raised between then, may be removed ; sympathies requisite for the proper management of younger children where the kindlier feelings between the children of these classes of both sexes.

An organization of our schools upon this plan would may be begotten ; where the indigent may be excited to emulate the be less expensive than on the present.

cleanliness, decorum, and mental improvement of those in better cir. RUTLAND.--There has been less failure on the part of female teach cumstances; and where the children of our wealthier citizens will ers, indeed they have generally excelled, and, in some instances, bave an opportunity of witnessing and sympathizing, more than they have taught as good schools as we have ever visited. Three now du, in the wants and privations of heir fellows of the same fourths of the pupils could be taught better by them than by our age; where both insensibly forget the distinction which difference most able male teachers. Let two or more districte unite, accord, of circumstances would otherwise have drawn between them, and ing to the provisions of a late statute, and put their first classes under where all feel the conscious dignity of receiving their instruction as the care of an able male teacher, and provide female instructers for a right, to which, as the children of citizens, they are entitled, and the other classes; and not only would our children be better educa. which cannot be denied them. ted, but there would be a great saving of expense, so that such MEDFORD.-Last not least, we come to speak of the High School, compensation could be offered as to secure the most able teachers. ranking probably with the first academies in the commonwealth;

GARDNER.-As is usually the case, the summer schools have in the pride and hope of its friends ; where are developed not the general succeeded better than the winter schools. There is an powers and faculties of the mind only, but the better feclings of the aptness to teach, and a faculty of gaining the good will and affec. heart; & community governed by virtuous principles and kindly tions of children in the female character and disposition, which em- feelings-where profane, vulgar and obscene language is discarded; inently fit them for the successful management of a school.

and selfishness, pride, anger, wrath, malice, hatred, revenge and FRAMINGHAM.--The idea once so commonly entertained, that any all the baser passions are by law shut out; and forbearance, meekinstructer is good enough for young children, is now exploded, and ness, patience, brotherly kindess and love are the acknowledged the conviction is becoming univereal, that the twig must be bent principles of action ;-a little republic, prescribing its own rules, with no unskilful hand, if the expanded and hardened tree is to be enacting its own laws, judging its own causes, and punishing its rightly inclined. The first, the elementary instruction of the young own offenders ;--the teucher, a mere executive officer to enforce mind, is, doubtless, its most important instruction ; and errors and the decisions of ihe majority against the lawless and disobedient faults contracted in the budding season of the mind may continue to of this self-governed and happy community. Such should be the grow and strengthen, withont iħe power of correction, to its highest lligh School; to such a condition it is rapidly approaching, and to maturity.

teacher and pupil we award our unqualified praise.

SOUTHBOROUGHT.-We have in our schoo's a considerable number GRADATION OF SCHOOLS.

of scholars, so far advanced that they need a school of a higher WEST CAMBRIDGE.—The separation of the younger from the older grade. The number of different studies already pursued in our children, and the placing of the former exclusively under female common schools, is quite too large. No teacher, in schools so proteachers has, we think, contributed much, and will contribute more, miscuously assembled as our common schools, can profitably attend to the correct discipline of the schools and the progress of the child to so great a variety of studies The common school is not the dren in learning.

proper place for pursuing the higher branches of an English educa. AMHERST.-They have no doubt at all, that great benefits would be tion. Yet our talented and ambitious youth ought to have all the experienced at once by all the pupils in the common schools, from a facilities possible for acquiring a finished education. And this classification and separation of the older and more advanced, from ought to be afforded to all classes, without distinction, to the females those who have proceeded but little, if at all, beyond the rudiments of as well as the males, the poor as well as the rich, the black as well education. No reasoning, and no array of facts, can make this posi. as the white. Hence the cause of education among us, requires a tion plainer than it must appear on its first statement, to every intelli. school of a higher order, so arranged as to ifford to all our scholars, gent mind. It is a principle perfectly well settled, and invariably acted sufficiently advanced in studies in our common schools, an opportu. upon in all large towns and villages and wherever the numbers in any nity of acquiring at home a thorough English education. Many of district are so large as to require a division of the school, while the ter. our scholars, who would gladly press forward in their studies and ritory is not so large as to make a division of the district expedient. rise to very distinguished usefulness, are kept back, and kept down,

This town has for many years been divided into eight school dis. because they cannot afford the expense of obtaining an education tricts. This arrangement enables the inhabitants of all parts of the abroad. town to send their children of all ages, to schools within a convenient

PRIVATE SCHOOLS AND ACADEMIES. distance of their several residences. But it should be borne in mind, that while the younger children find it quite as much as they can do, West NewBURY.-It is generally believed that academies have without excessive fatigue, to walk the distances that some are required done much indirecily to injure the district schools. Now, subto do; the older pupils can, with much less inconvenience or injury, scription schools do the same injury on the same principle. The travel twice or even three times as far. So that if the present accom- poor cannot well afford to send to subscription schools. In many modations are not lessened to the younger classes of pupils in the districts the sentiment is prevailing that they want all the town schools, the advantage of a classification of scholars may be obtained, money for the winter school. Hence in many distric's there is no by bringing the older, who are well able to come, from a greater dis. school open for the poor, during the best period of the year. Con. tance. It is obvious, that in this way, the same advantages of classi. sequently if, summer after summer, the children of the poorer fami. fication, substantially, can be reached, as from the div sion of one lies are kept from school, is there not a strong reason in human na. school, and the establishment of its two or more branches, in the same ture, why these same children will not like to stand side by side in building or neighborhood.

the winter schools, with those whose suinmer advantages in sub.

scription schools, because their parents were more able, give the PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS.

latter children so much pre-eminence? Not to have suminer GLOUCESTER.–That all education beyond the mere rudiments of schools of the best character is wholly an:1-republican, if not il. learning taught in the district schools ought to be confined to the liberal. families of a few fortunate citizens, who can afford to send their RANDOLPH.-The superiority of academies and private schools children out of town to school, is a proposition so aristocratical and over our common schools is atlained by the better qualifications of justly odious, that it would not be listened to for a moment; yet their teachers and the manner of their organization ; the interest Buch is the practical consequence of the neglect, on the part of the fett both by the teacher and the parints of their pupils, for their town, to provide higher schools.

efficiency and prosperity, and their independence of any interference CHARLESTOWN. The design intended to be pursued in these upper by parents with their government and mode of instruction. Were schools, is to give all the pupils thorough instruction in all the com our common schools supplied with teachers of equally goud qualifi. mon branches, and as they are well grounded in these, to give addi. cations, their government as free from interference of parents, and tional instruction in the higher branches. It has been the prevalent their organization reformed, they would be able to compete suc. mistake of academies and other seminaries, that exclusive attention cessfully with academies and private schools. The great inconvenwas paid to the higher branches, to the neglect of the common ience which these now suffer, by having children of all ages placed studies. Our free schools should never fall into go fatal an error; in under the same instructer, should be remedied by a separation of them the solid foundation of the common studies should be preferred the older from the younger. Such an organization would lesson to a superficial overlaying of the sciences. The scholars should be the number of classes, and render their government more simple occasionally obliged to review the arithmetic, the geography, the and easy. And it is believed there are few, if any, districts in ihe grammar, the spelling and the reading book, as long as they remain town, which cannot adopt this arrangement, either by themselves, under tuition.

or by two or more of them upiting for the support of a winter



school for their male children, who are too old to attend upon the languages were taught. Of course, in order to give any attention, instruction of female teachers.

not io say to do any justice to then, the smaller scholars must be


MedwAY.-We think it an evil for children to commence the Sharon. While present, [in schools) the object has been, to study of history, astronomy, philosophy or chemistry, before they are watch the internal operations of the schools and teachers and their able to read with fluency and propriety, and are well versed in com. progress, w suggest such alterations and improvements in studies, mon arithmetic, grammar and geography. If they pass to the highbooks and method of teaching, as were deemed necessary. To do

er branches, before the are sufficiently familiar with !he lower, this, it has been found necessary, sometimes, to allow the teacher they will not only be embarrassed in their progress by ignorance and scholars to proceed in their regular course, at others, to take of principles involved in the subjects of their investigation, and the labor of hearing the exercises, and at others, to intersperse which the student in these branches is supposed to know, but they questions of our own with those of the teacher.

will be likely still to neglect, through all the future circumstances Fall River.-In our monthly visitation, it has been our practice or life, what they refuse to learn at the proper time. The commit. to inquire into the abuses, wants and deficiencies of the school ;-~-10 tee see no good reason why those scholars, who are sufficiently fa. examine the progress of the scholars, and the discipline of the teach. miliar with the lower branches, should not be permitted to advance ers; - 10 enjoin upon the former obedience, diligence and the princi. to the higher; but they find that many, who are not prepared to do pls of sounil morality; and upon the latter, fidelity, promptitude this, are inclined to do it, and the indulgence of one in this course, and decision; and in all respects, as far as was practicable, to renders many more desirous of pursuing the same. strengthen the hands of the teacher, and to encourage the efforts of the pupils. With the government, order, ins/ruction, progressive improrement and general management and condition of most of the WEST CAMBRIDGE.-Far better would it be that even more pains public schools of this town, your committee were well satisfied; and should be taken in future than has been in times past to make the we are quite confident that our schools are taking a position very children correct in spelling, intelligent as well as fluent readers, considerably in advance of what they have held in former years. emulous to acquire the beautiful accomplishment of a fair hand.wri.

ting, and a ready and thorough knowledge of arithmetic.

MIDDLEBOROUGH.-Our teachers have paid too much regard to the Lincoln.— The number of books in several of the branches is far higher branches of education, to the neglect of first principles. too numerous. In the opinion of successive committees, this They have been too eager to study rhetoric, philosophy and the lancircumstance operates as a powerful impediinent to the gereral guages, before they have obtained a thorough knowledge of reading progress. It unnecessarily consumes an undue proportion of the and spelling. One very general failing of our teachers, arises from time; it increases the labor of the instructer, without yielding a this very deficiency. They have not studied sufficiently, those very corresponding advantage; it is a serious inconvenience. All expe. branches which they are required to teach. The cons, quence is, rienced schoel committees and judicious instructers agree, that uni. that they cannot thoroughly instruct what they have not been thor. formity in books is of the greatest importance. And this uniformity oughly instructed in themselves. cannot be dispensed with, but at the expense of the good of ile

Reading and spelling should be thoroughly taught in our common schools generally.

schoo's. They are branches of education, in which every teacher Fall River.—The lack of suitable books in a few instances, forms should be competent to instruct The same may be remarked of another serious ground of complaint. As well might our urtizans the first principles of arithmetic, grammar and geography. If a be required to build complicated machinery without tools, as our scholar 18 permited to come out of the district school, without this children to acquire education wilhout books.

foundation laid, he will always suffer by the defect. This every MuddleBOROUGH.—In consequence of the almost endless variety body knows. If a scholar leaves the district school a poor of school books in present use, scholars have oftentimes been kept reader or a poor speller, he is likely to remain so all the days of his at school under great disadvantages.

life. He has very little prospect of making up the deficiency any. Some scholars were in the hubit of using old, antiquated books, where else. while others were suplied with more modern books. Some schol.

Conway.—Three or four years since, the committee became deep. ars were supplied with one author and dition, while another scholar ly impressed with the fact that the fundamenial branches of educa. would be likely to have another author or another edition. Every tion, viz. reading and spelling, were quite 100 much neglected in our different kind of books has been for years accumulating in our schools, and from that time they have been making unwearied ef. schools. This great variety, in the opinion of the committee, so

foris, in connexion with the examination of teachers, and visits to far from diminishing, hat every prospeci of increasing. New books schools, to remedy the evil, and, in most cases, we are happy to say, from new authors were constantly appearing, in our schools, and the e efforts have been highly successful. But, while the spelling classt s, almost as numerous as the scholars themselves, were obli. book has been more thoroughly and understandingly explored, the gud to be formed 10 accommodate, not the instructer, but the books. attention has not necessarily been confined to the first rudiments ;

They were unanimous in the opinion, that one regular system scholars have been encouraged 10 advance in the acquisition of of school books might be adopted, with great advantage to the town; knowledge, and instead of pursuing the old mode of iraversing the

It may be proper, also, to notice, that the committee authorized same ground, year after year, they have taken up particular studies, the town treasurer to purchase a certuin number of each of the and when they have thorougly mastered then, their attention has books prescribed, for the use of the town to be sold and accounted been directed to some other pursuit; and in this way, many have for by him. They directed the town treasurer to furnish these not only become fair candidates for the higher departments of sci. books to any scholar in town, desiring to purchase at the cost. This regulition, the committee have the highest confidence, will ence, but have been successfully engaged in studi's common to our

academies and high schools; and, we have noticed with interest, prove a great benefit to the town.

tha: in those schools where the higher branches have received the most attention, the lower have been most fully appreciated and un.

derstood. Danvers. We allude to this variety for the purpose of express. ing the opinion, ihat the course is not the most profitable for the pupils themselves, whose minds are so otten turned from one sub.

WESTPORT.-The common method of teaching orthography in our jeci to another; and also, that the school, as a whole, is by this schools, is to learn a column or pase from the, and means deprived of atiention by the teacher to the common brunches then have the words put out to them by the teacher and spell for of study, to which it is equitably entitled. As is to be expected un. places. The consequence of this is, that, though they may be kept der the circumstances, we are unable to speak as well of the im. in spelling classes from the time of their carliest combination of portant branch, reading, in this school as in several others; the letters, up to the rime of their leaving school, when they are called same is true, to some extent, of the recitations in geography and

upon to write a letter to an absent friend, they will make the most arithinetic.

egregious blunders. As we seldom or never have occasion to spell The variety of studies, (we say it to the praise of the school, the a word in the practical business of life, except it be to write it, we variety of studies was less here [No 13.] than in most districts. think this will indicate the true method of learning the art. We say, too, and perhaps it is a consequence of the face just stated,

CHARLESTOWN.-Whenever a pupil made a mistake in recitation, that we have no where else found so few poor readers and reciters, he was compelled afterwards to repeat that part of his answer cor. --no where else found improvement extended more generally to rectly. Thus, if a word in spelling was given out, and it should every pupil, and in every branch of study. *

almost go round the class. yet every one who had missed that word LEXINGTON.—The scholars applied themselves to their studies,

was obliged to spell it afterwards as corrected-no matter how but the great difficulty seemed to have originated in the multiplicity much time it might take up. of the studies to which attention was given. With an average at. ciple.

And this is going upon a correct prin. tendance of thiriy, there were twenty-five classes. Ancient hi tory,

BRIMFIELD.—While other branches may be, and should be, intro. philosophy, chemistry, alg bra, astronomy, and one of the dead | duced, it should, we think, be a setiled principle in our common





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