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inhabitants of each of such districts, shall at legal meetings the time of their appointment, and until others shall be duly called for that purpose, agree to form such union by a vote of elected in their places. two thirds of the legal voters present.
Failure of appointing officers at the annual meeting, &c. to be appointed by the Union districts to have corporate powers, &c.
committee of the school society. Sec. 19. Any union district thus formed shall have all the Sec. 28. In case any district shall fail or neglect to appoint corporate powers of school districts, and shall hold its first any or all of the officers authorized and directed to be apmeeting on such notice, and at such time and place as may pointed by this Act at the annual meeting, or any vacancy be agreed upon by the associated districts respectively by a shall occur by death, removal from the district, or otherwise, vote of the same at the time of forming the union.
it shall be the duty of the committee of the school society in Annual meeting of union districts, when held—what notice, and how given. which such district may be located, to make such appointment,
Sec. 20. The annual meeting of such union district shall and 10 fill such vacancy, on receiving written notice thereof be held at such time and place, and upon such notice, as the from any three members of the district, and lodge the name or district may at its first meeting prescribe--and notice of all spe- names of such officers so appointed, with the district clerk. cial and adjourned meetings shall be given as provided for in the Governor to fill vacancies in the board of commissioners of common schools, &c. case of school districts.
Sec. 29. The Governor is hereby authorized to fill any Powers of the legal voters of union districts. Sec. 21. The legal voters of such union district shall have vacancy in the Board of Commisioners of Common Schools,
occasioned by death, resignation, or otherwise. power to designate, and purchase or lease, the site for a school
Repeal. house for the union school, and to build, hire, or purchase a building for such school house, and to keep in repair and fur
Sec. 30. All acts or parts of acts relating to school societies nish the same with fuel, furniture and other necessary articles for schools, inconsistent with the provisions of this acı, are for the use of said school and to assess and collect a lax for
hereby repealed. the above purpose, in the same manner as is prescribed by law An Act in addition to an Act entitled "an Act for the regulafor other school districts—and in case the district shall not be tion of School Societies and for the support of Schools.” able unanimously to agree on the location of the union school If school visiters and clerks of school societies have failed to make returns a house, the school society committee shall on application deter provided in an act passed 1838, still the comptroller to draw an order, &c. mine the same.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representative ; Who to be the committee of a union district, and their powers.
in General Assembly conrened, That in all cases, in whicn Sec. 22. The committees of the respective districts forming the school visiters and clerks of the several school societies, the union district, shall constitute the school committee of said have heretofore failed to make returns according to the prodistrict, with power to appoint their own clerk, treasurer, and visions of the third and fourth sections of an act entitled "an collector-and said officers shall have all the powers, and dis-act 10 provide for the better supervision of common schools;" charge all the duties in reference to such district, as the same passed May session 1933, the comptroller of public accounts, officers have in the case of school districts.
shall not for such cause, refuse to draw an order on the treasFurther duties and powers of the union committee.
urer, for such proportion or amount of school money as said Sec. 23. The committee aforesaid shall also determine the societies may be entitled on the first days of October and ages and qualifications of the children of the associated dis- March next respectively. Provided, the returns of said so. trict, who may attend the union school, and make all rules and cieties shall in other respects conform to the statute law of regulations for the studies, books and discipline of the school, this State. subject to the approbation of the visiters of the school soci. ety in which said union district may be located, and to any “The Public Schools, Public BLESSINGS. By a Father. votes that may be passed in any legal meeting of said dis Published for gratuitous distribution by the Executive Comtrict.
mittee of the Public School Society, in the city of New What public school-money shall be received by the union districts-also mode of York.
taxing. Sec. 24. Such union school shall receive such propor
This is a small pamphlet of some 20 or 30 pages, the obtion of all money accruing to the use of each of the associated ject of which is disclosed in the title. It is written in a very districts, as the children between the ages of 4 and 16 attending plain, matter-of-fact style, as it was designed to infinence those the union school from each of said districts, bear to the number attending the district school in each—and the expense of parents in one of our great cities who prize so slightly the adşustaining the school beyond the amount thus received shall vantages of common school instruction, that it requires a strong be borne by the union district, in such manner as the legal array of motives to induce them to afford these advantages to voters of the same shall prescribe; and a tax or rate for this their children, even when it can be done at no expense. There purpose shall be assessed and collected in the same manner as
are a few such parents in our own enlightened Connecticut, in the case of any other school district. Duty of school visiters over union districts.
and probably more who, to say the least, do not estimate the Sec. 25. The visiters or overseers of schools, shall have privileges of our system of public instruction as they ought, the same power and perform the same duties in relation to such nor feel anxious to have those improvements made in it which union schools, as are prescribed to them in relation to other dis- the progress of society imperiously demands. To lay before trict schools. No child to be excluded from any school, if said school is supported in, all or part pamphlet, it is thought will not be without its use, not only to
the readers of the Journal, therefore, a considerable part of this Sec. 26. No child shall be excluded from any school sup- such parents as have been just referred to, but to all who take ported in all or in part out of any money appropriated or raised by an interest in the subject, as affording them one additional law for this purpose, in the district to which such child, belongs, means of information with regard to it, and of seeing the doon account of the inability of the parent, guardian, or master of the same to pay his or her tax or assessment for any school ble efforts which are made in the city of New York to improve purpose whatever; and the school committee of such district, the condition, and elevate the character of their public schools. and the select men, or a majority of the same, of the town or Do ours fall behind them in any places ? T. H. G. towns in which such district shall be located, shall constitute a Board with power to abate the taxes or assessments of such
PUBLIC SCHOOLS ARE PUBLIC BLESSINGS. persons, as are unable to pay the same in all or in part, and said select men shall draw an order for the amount of such abatements upon the treasurer of the town in which such per
MY FRIEND, sons reside, in favor of said district.
Are you a father, or mother,-or have you children under your
care? Will you permit a fellow.citizen to say a few words to you Term of all school officers, both of society and districts.
about them, for your and their good ? Sec. 27. All the school officers, both of the school soci I have, myself, a large family. You and I are deeply interested ety and school districts shall hold their respective offices untill in the welfare of our children. What a comfort it will be to us, the annual meeting of such society and district next following should they all grow up to become intelligent, virtuous, and respect.
able citizens! What an unspeakable, public blessing, if all the Other situations in some of the various trades, will be open, too, children in the land should be so educated as to grow up and have for such young women. And in managing business for others, or this character! Then we might expect that our country would con. in attending to their own concerns, as they get along in the world, tinue to be flourishing and happy; and that its privileges would be they will have great advantages, in being able to read and know enjoyed by our children's children, without fear of losing them. what is going on around them ;-io write a good hand, so that they
Do your Children go to School ? If they do not, or if they are can both understand letters and answer them; and to use figures not constant and punctual in their attendance,-permit me to ask if and keep accounts correctly. you have thought upon this subject as much as its importance de. Now an ignorant girl, or young woman, in this land of intelligence mands? Perhaps you have been so much taken up with other and of schools, who cannot even read and write, will never be thus things, that you have not considered what you and your children cer- treated and respected. It will be very difficult, if not impossible, tainly must lose, if they do not have good schooling; and what, if for her to rise above some of the lowest stations. From the advan. they have it, they will be in the fair way of gaining.
tages and expectations which I have heen describing, she must be Suppose we attend to this subject, a few minutes. Or, if you are forever cut off
. People will not employ such an one for such situtoo busy to do it now, you can take up the book again when you are ations. Indeed, if she could obtain one of them, her sad ignorance less engaged, and then give me your patient attention. If you will would soon be found out, and she would only suffer disappointment, do so, I think, I shall show you clearly that the subject is one of the mortification, and disgrace. greatest importance both to you and your children. You love them, Think, what your daughters must lose, if by your neglect in not and wish to do all that you can for their good; and we shall see, as sending them to school, they should be deprived of the prospects we go along, that one of the very best things you can do for them, which I have mentioned. As you and they grow older, you will is to send them to school.
see other young women of your acquaintance, who have had good Should your children grow up, without learning how to read and schooling, rising to places of respectability and usefulness. Such write ; to cipher and keep accounts; and to understand something places your children would be equally well fitted to fill by their natu. of geography, grammar, and other useful things that are taught in ral talents and capacity; but they will lose them just for the wani our
Public Schools ;-how can they ever expect to rise in the world, of that amount of learning which they might easily have acquired to acquire property, and gain respectability and influence.
at our Public Schools. What sorrow and regret both you and they We will take the boys first. Unless they know these things, will feel. But it will come 100 late. They will be too old to think or, at least, some of them,- and live to be young men, how can they of going to school. They must be content to plod on through life, get good situations ; or hope, by and by, to do business for them with little or no hope of ever overtaking those whose good school. selves? Who will like to take them as apprentices and clerks? ing, when young, has favored them with so many advantages. Who will be willing to trust them with any important concerns? And all these considerations apply with equal force to one other How will they acquire the good opinion and confidence of others ? subject, connected with the future prospects of your daughters,
Young men cannot jump into employment and business at once. which must not be passed over in silence. The time will come, Even those that have had good schooling, have to get along step by when young men will be looking out among them, and other young step. They must let those around them see that they are worthy of women, for companions for life. Some of these young men will being trusted on account of their good conduct, useful attainments
, have had good schooling themselves,
and will understand how im. industry, and skill in doing business. And there are so many who portant it is that a wife and mother should have had it also. They are taught at our Public Schools, and who leave ihem with an ex- will know how often a wife who can read and write a letter, and cellent character, that they will always be preferred to the ignorant. use figures, can be of great service to her husband, when he is hur. So that for these reasons, a lad who cannot even read, write, and ired, or unwell, or called away from home. They will know, too, cipher, will find it very, very hard to begin to get forward in the what a difference it will make in their families, and in the bringing world.
up of their children, whether the mother is an ignorant woman, or Besides, what possible chance will such an ignorant lad ever have, has had some education. In addition to this, every man knows of becoming a partner in trade with some one who is looking out that his respectability is increased by the respectability of his wife ;for a smart, intelligent, and upright young man to aid him in carry that his influence is ;—that his friends are ; that his very business ing on, and enlarging his business? Such instances often happen ofien is. Then he wants an intelligent and pleasant companion at in this great city. How sorry both you and your sons will be, to see home ; one that can entertain and improve him by her conversation; other boys of their acquaintance, as they grow up, securing such who can understand him when he reads to her, and who can somesituations, and they, because they are so ignorant, cut off forever times read to him whon he is tired or ailing. How many husbands from them.
would thus love to spend their leisure hours at home, and make Those who wish to employ young persons, either your sons or their families happy, and be kept from ruinous temptations if their daughters, or who can place them in good situations, are getting to wives were such as I have been describing. be more and more particular about these things. And, unless some The fact is, young men are getting more and more education peculiar misfortune prevents parents from giving their children good themselves, and will feel more and more the need of it in their wives. schooling, (especially when the Public Schools are open to all, with. And if you let your daughters grow up without giving them suitable out any expense,) if it is found that a boy, or girl, of a suitable age, instruction at school, they will stand a very poor chance of getling has made no progress in learning, it is always considered a very bad husbands that are at all worth having. sign against them. People will think there must be something I wish you had time to consider a number of other things conwrong about it, and doubt very much whether the character of the cerning the schooling of your children, which I should like to state: young person is what it should be.
I hope, however, you will be able to attend to a few more. Or, if On the other hand, where they find good schooling has been given you must stop, you know you can put the book carefully away, and to the child, they will, so far, think well of the child and parent both, take it up again, in the course of the day or evening. And then I and be much more ready to believe other good things that may be will not detain you long. told them about your son or daughter.
And, believe me, this is a thing of no small importance in this changing and dying world. For you know not how soon your child. CO-OPERATION OF PARENTS IN IMPROVING COMren may be left without your care, to get along as well as they can ;
MON SCHOOLS. — CONTINUED. when, under the blessing of God, every thing may depend upon their character, and the favorable opinion that kind and respectable the children who attend it, for their co-operation, and is disap,
A teacher of a school looks to the parents, or guardians of persons may form of them.
Let us now consider a little the case of the girls. In whatever way pointed if he does not receive it. He has a right to expect they may wish to get their living as they grow older,--they will ibeir aid in carrying out his plans of instruction and governcertainly lose many, very many advantages by not having had good ment. They have placed him in the very responsible station schooling. Every body loves to be treated well, and to be respect. which he occupies. He has been examined and considered ed by others. And the young woman who has gone to one of our worthy of it by their appointed agents, clothed with the official Public Schools for a few years, and been attentive to her studies : authority of the State. He may surely claim, under such cirand acquired habits of industry, neatness, punctuality and order; cumstances
, their confidence and support
. if he is unfit for and conducted well; will be sure of having good treatment and his situation, are not they in fault
, who have introduced him and will always find useful and profitable employment. At this very do but to remove hin as speedíly as possible, and to supply his time, nine of the Primary Schools, which the younger children at. tend, are taught by young women who were not long since scholars place with one more worthy of it? Surely the great toly of in our Public Schools ;-and they have good salaries. Such young
the teachers, both male female of our common schools, women, also, are often employed in families to teach the children; have an undoubted right to expect that they will receive the and in private schools, as assistants; or they may set up such schools hearty co-operation, especially of parents, in the management themselves.
of the children who are placed under their care; and I have no
doubt, that the great majority of teachers will say, that one of ded to the importance of separating children, by some means the greatest difficulties which they have to encounter, in the or other, so that they may not encroach upon each other. discharge of their arduous duties, is, that they have so very “You can't think how uncomfortable I am sometimes," relittle of this co-operation. Such a failure of support on the part of parents, must discourage them greatly; and in many
marked a child in my hearing, the other day: “for part of the cases it is the principal reason why things go wrong in the time I sit at a desk where I cannot touch my feet to the floor, school.
and part of the time I am on a low bench, where the other There is an intimate conneetion between the conduct of the boys crowd me. Sometimes there are 100 many, so that we children at home and in the school. It is impossible to sepa- can't help sitting too close ; and sometimes the great boys rate the one from the other, so that there shall not be a strong, reciprocal influence. If the teacher has bad management, and push up against me, when the teacher does not notice them. thus counteracts the good discipline of the parent, the latter is I get so tired that I feel as if school would never be done." quick enough to complain. Why should he not be as ready to feel that he is under equal obligations, to aid the teacher in ted in like circumstances; and although the complaint might
Now we can easily appreciate the feelings of a child situaconducting his part of the training of the children with success ?
sem to some hearers as puerile, and worthy of do serious atIn aiming to make our common schools what they ought to tention, or perhaps as deserving a rebuke, it arose from real be, it must be borne in mind, that nothing effectual can be ac-evils, from sufferings of no sligbt nature, but such as naturalcomplished without good teachers. The best system, and the ly might, and probably did exert an unfavorable and a necesbest prosecution of its pracuical operations in all other respects, will avail nothing if there be a failure here. But good teach-sary influence on his studies, and his feelings towards the ers are not made all al once. Our young men and young wo- school and every thing connected with it.
This may serve men, when they enter upon the business of teaching, have their as a specimen of what we may call the trials of children. characters as instructers yet to form. Surrounding circum- They have trials, and many of them are such as are peculiar stances will have a powerful influence in moulding their characters; and scarcely any a greater, than the manner in which to themselves. They are however often important, and the parents conduct towards the teachers in co-operating with them, more so, because they are of frequent recurrence. Probably or in not doing it, in the instruction and training of the child- they suffer more severely and more repeatedly from them, beren. Here and there, it is true, a teacher will be found pos- cause their elders are pot exposed to them, and therefore are sessed of a degree of energy and self-reliance which will enable bim, in spite of the neglect, or even considerable counter- apt to overlook them. Suppose we were unprotected, by the action of his plans, on the part of the parent, to go forward and good manners of others around us, from such encroachments keep a good school, and mature his character for excellence in and interferences with our convenience and commou comforts his profession. But by far the greater number will fail of do- as the ill-bred sometimes make: how much vexation and iring this, if they are not sustained and encouraged by the par ritation might we experience! In a crowded vehicle we ocrents of the children ; and the writer believes that this is one of the principal reasons why there is so often a want of good casionally have a specimen of what might more frequently government, and of what is called tact in the management of try our tempers, if circumstances were not usually more favora school. To acquire this, young teachers need themselves a able. Whoever can recal his sensations in sucli a case, will suitable training. One essential feature of the right kind of this training, is, that they should come under the countenance
probably be ready to admit, that the trial, is daily repeated, and judicious influence of intelligent parents, who understand might work an unhappy effect on his character, in spite of all practically, the wise management of children. Teachers, in his self-control and good judgment. Could he study to the order ty succeed, especially in discipline, must have much of best advantage, while confined, without the free use of his parental experience and feeling; and it is necessary in order limbs ? Could he suppress such feelings of irritation as are io their acquiring this in the best and most expeditious way, that parents should take an interest in them and their employ: api to arise from a sense of indignities received ? If a case ment, and afford them much of their counsel and co-operation. can be supposed, in which an adult could be situated in cir
We have, as yet, no normal schools, or seminaries for the cumstances similar, in these respects, to those of the child retraining of teachers. Till this is the case, they can be trained ferred to, might we not even compare his trials with those of only in the very schools where they teach. The condition of these schools, and especially the manner in which parents re- a victim of oppression in a prison or an inquisition ? gard and treat them and the teachers, it must be evident, will It is not our intention in any degree to magnify the diffi. have a tendency, either for good or for evil in this matter, culties of the case, nor 10 exaggerate the inconveniences to which can hardlý be estimated. The simple fact that a teach- which children may be exposed through mismanagement at er, and particularly a young and inexperienced one, perceives that he is countenanced and approved by the parents of his school; but it is evident that they may suffer great and proscholars, has a wonderful effect in inspiring him with resolu- longed trials, even through inattention or a want of considertion, and hope, and zeal in the faithful and successful perform- ation in their teachers; and we know that physical comfort ance of his duties. What a heavy responsibility, then, rests and ease are of primary importance to their moral and intelgle point of training and qualifying for their occupation the lectual improvement. Many a teacher, we have but little teachers of our common schools.
T. H. G. doubt, may now be daily counteracting himself, through want
of sufficient knowledge on subjects of this nature. Many a CHILDREN SHOULD BE COMFORTABLE IN SCHOOL. school might be rendered more orderly and studious, by being
There are so many ways in which we are exposed to phy-made more commodious, and better regulated for physical sical inconvenience, and our ability to apply our minds to any comfort. thing useful is so much influenced by our feelings, that we should be exceedingly attentive to the condition of children SCHOOL COMMITTEES AND JUSTICES OF PEACE.
The more thought and regard should be had Compare the office and the duty of a school-committee man, with the for them, because they are generally so unlikely and so ill highly esteemed office of a justice of the peace. Here are two classes qualified to account for their sensations, and to trace their the public sovereignty. But here the analogy ends. The grand aim
of legal officers, each intrusted with the administration of a portion of conduct to the right sources, when it springs from the circum- of the school-commitiee man is, to educate the rising generation, --his stances in which they are placed at school.
own children, and the children of his neighbors and townsmen-in a
fitting and proper manner ;-to educate them as though they were men, In the suggestions we have made, from time to time, re- and not animals; beings who are incapable of remaining stationaryspecting school seats and benches, we have repeatedly allu- necessitated to rise or fall—who have started upon a career, and who
under our care.
must run that career-who must advance in some direction, either to- tion will be extremely formidable. How often have not only child. wards honour or infamy. These children are now ignorant, but they ren, but their elders, been puzzled by the simple question,, . What cannot remain so. It is the compulsion of their natures, and of the in- is two thirds of three-fourths of any thing?' Now to get at the truth stitutions under which they were born, that they must learn something; required here, it will be seen how necessary it is to get at that part and if they do not require a knowledge of good, they will of evil
. of the proposition that can be laid hold of; that is to say, the part Company after company of these children are daily coming upon the to which the mind can attach, from its being something known: je stage of life. They are becoming parts and members of a system, would in this case, of course, see first that three-fourths were threewhere true knowledge is indispensable to happiness, and in which er- quarters; and then it would soon discover that two quarters, the roneous notions and convictions will inflict dreadful privations and two-thirds of them, must be half. We give this and other illustracalamities. The moral, like the natural world, is full of irresistible lions, to show tbat, by applying the analytic process properly, a very movements and tendencies, and if one understands them and acts in ac- small quantity of real knowledge will produce a very large proporcordance with them, they are his co-workers, they will carry forward tion of arithmetical power; therefore it is not so much the knowl. and perfect all the plans which his wisdom may devise ; but they over edge that they may be fixed dogmatically in the mind, that will serve whelm whomsoever is ignorant of them, or acis in contrariety to them. The children, too, are daily forming characters and habits. These are your purpose, as that which the mind itself evolves in its process of to fix their internal state of mind, and their social position in afier elaboration. It will be the business of the teacher to help the mind life. By these, they are to be contented, happy, respectable
, useful, to create its own strength, and this he will do by subjecting it to honorable, nobly great and good: or depraved, grovelling, infamous wholesome and judicious exercise." in life, ignominious in death. The habits, they are now forming, are
Take care that your pupil never proceeds to a second example in accelerating velocities towards the gulf of rnin or the summits of bless- any rule, until you are quite sure that he thoroughly understands edness. The duties of the school-committee men point not only to the the first. No matter what time may be consumed upon this intro. welfare of the rising generation, but to that of their descendants, and ductory effort,- he must not be allowed to go on with partial and in. so onward, through indefinite periods;-to the welfare and prosperity accurate notions of what he is about. of their country, and to the influences of that country upon other coun
If he does not understand it, the teacher should be able to discov. tries and other times. Their infiuence has no limits. Earth and time er the reason why, and then he can apply the remedy. This is to present no bounds. It enlarges outward and onward into immensity be done only by questioning the scholar and tracing his associations, and infinity. The human imagination cannot compass it. And the and finding out what he is thinking about, and how he is thinking duties of this officer are connected, not remotely and cautiously, but about it. Without doing this, the teacher is as likely to perplex the immediately and directly, with this universe of interests.
scholar as to assist him by his explanations. Secondly, when a Now we have no disposition to disparage the rank, or slur the lon- scholar does not understand the question or proposition, he should or, of those who hold commissions, as justices of the peace. Let them be allowed to reason upon it in his own way, and agreeably to his have the credit of it. With some exceptions, the office is conferred up own associations. on men of more than ordinary intelligence and respectability ;--and The business of the teacher is, not to send his pupil to an unintel. surely it is as just, that a man should enjoy the fruits of his own in- ligible rule, but first to make him see the difficulties of the question dustry. We are simply aiming al à comparison of the inherent which has baffled his ingenuity; then to lead him on, by a surcession worth,—the intrinsic merits of deciding on twenty dollar cases and of questions, to discern the principle he is in search of; and, finally, small'assaults and batteries, and petty larcenies, as compared with the to let truth so break upon his mind, that, by the posses-ion of it, he power of communicating that knowledge, which will enable a man to mect the various events, and perform the various duties of life, under- may be only incited to pursue with fresh vigor other and
. standingly; as compared with an opportunity to inspire the love of cult investigations. Arithmetic thus taught becomes a fine mental
discipline, and strengthens the intellectual powers, instead of rest. order, of harmony, of good neighborhood; as compared with preventing street brawls, coarse insults, violence, and riot, and making it im- ing only in the memory.
But in order to carry on this mode of tuition, your own explana. possible, not merely that a man should purloin another's property, but that he should obtain it by craft, fraud or circumvention.' In genuine tions must be clear and simple. dignity, in intrinsic value, in elevation of object, is not the office of
Again. You should never underrate the difficulties of your pu. the school-committee man indefinitely higher than that of the justice of pils. A child will not apply vigorously, unless it sees that its efforts the peace? The duty of the former is to march in the van of society;
are appreciated; unless it perceives that you recognize the differ. to lead munkind in the way of improvement; to conduct them to high-ence between its capacity and your own. The attention which er and higher points in the noble ascent of civilization. Amelioration, such a one can give to a difficult process is at best but limited; the progress, are inscribed on his bunner. But the justice of the peace intellect is soon exhausted, and the effort it makes is often painful comes in the rear of society; he bears a scourge in his hand; he sen- while it lasts. “A good school-master,” says old Fuller, tences the spendthrift, who will not pay his debts; he imprisons the “minces his precepts for children to swallow, hanging clogs on the marauder upon another's property :
:-- he provides lodgings for the loaf- nimbleness of his own soul, that his scholars may go along with er in the house of correction ; le puts the tipler under bonds to eschew him." ardents and keep the peace. His duty leads him amongst a moily crew of vagabonds, pilferers, brawlers, Bullies, tatterdemalions, is ragged as Falstaff's soldiers,—the scathed and blasted fragments of hu The teacher might commence the conversation by remarking, in manity. He may hold his commission for the whole seven years, and as clear a manner as possible, that every word in the langage, like never have occasion to decide one cause between two respeciable men. every boy in the school, belongs to some class. Stopping some He has nothing to do with radiant, happy children, but only with seconds to ascertain that this simple fact was well understood, he those wrecks of manhood, who float for a short period on the surface of might remark, that the only difference is, there are eight classes of society, before sinking, ignominiously, into the grave.
boys in ihe school, but nine classes of words. This would be fol. How passing strange it is, that the relative honor and dignity, the lowed by saying, "Tell me the names of any things you see.' A social rank, of these two officers should thus have been inverted, -ab- number of things being named, he would say, .Tell me the names solutely turned end for end, in the estimation of society that any of some things which you cannot see.' Several being mentioned, man should be found, who will expend money, fee counsel, buy books, the question would be put, .What have you told me about these to qualify himself for dealing out the retributions of the penal code things ? Ans. Their names.' Now the teacher would observe, ag inst criminals, but will not bestow a cent nor an hour to fit him all these names which you liave mentioned belong to one class; the self to administer the mercies and the beneficence of the law in behalf of the children ;-in fine, that any man should have such perverted Noun means Name. Goodness, Justice, Height, Depth, Length,
name of that class is, Nouns;' all names belong to it, for the word ideas of honor 'as to care more for whipping rogues, than for rearing and Breadth, and every name you can possibly find, even . Nothing' good citizens!-Miss. Com. School Journal.
itself belongs therefore to this class, because it and all these are
names, DUNN'S SCHOOL TEACHER'S MANUAL.
Having proceeded thus far, he would judge it desirable to retrace
his steps, to ascertain if he were thoroughly understood. He would CONTINUED.
therefore ask one, a dull boy in the draft, • How many classes of words are there' Another, What is the name of she class of
words about which we have been speaking:' A third, 'What is Begin, first of all by referring the pupil to se:usible objects, and the meaning of the word Noun?'. A fourth would be asked to men. teach him to compute what he can see, before you perplex him with tion some name which did not belong to it; a fisih, what part of abstract conceptions. A mere infant may in this way be taught to speech Nothing was. In this manner the teacher would ascertain add, subtract, multiply, and divide, to a considerable extent. if the attention of the class had been effectually directed to him.
"You take a skein of ruffled thread; and, if you can find the Pursuing his subject, he would ask them to mention a name. Sup. end, you carefully draw it through all its loops and knots, and in a posing desk' to be mentioned, the question would follow, - Tell few minutes it is unravelled. Now just in this manner must the me something about desk. They would mention long, narrow, minds of children be exercised in finding out the truth of some ab. wooden, strong, and other qualities, in rapid succession. The draft stract proposition. To a mind not so exercised, a very simple ques- thus exercised would be led to discover that these are qualities, and
although intimately connected with, are not nouns themselves. To a map of these points and lines from his imagination as well as from assign these to another class, and to give it the name of. Adjectire,' direct perception. proposing some questions to insure his being thoroughly understood, “But he must in the mean time be taught the construction of maps would be his next object.
of a much smaller space. Let him draw upon the slate, no matter The verb would be introduced, by asking them to tell him some how rudely, a square to represent the table upon which he is writing, word which implied motion. • Fly,' run,' *go,' and many others or the room in which he is sitting. If practicable, let him look being given, he would class them under the name of Verbs. Some down upon it from the ceiling above; but in any event, let him mark general questions would again ensuo.
tho spot on which every object is placed, with its size and shape, Proceeding with his subject, he would ask them to mention one as it would appear from above. As soon as he has repealed this of the verbs they had just named; perhaps -speak' would be se- so often, that he perceives the want of accuracy in his rude repre. lected. • Tell me, he would say, 'how I speak.' Ans. Slowly.' sentations, furnish him with a scale to measure the rooin or the table, Quest. · In what other ways might a person speak!' Ans. · Quick- and the distance of the respective objects from each other; and lý, loudly, softly, intelligibly, roughly. Quest. · What do all these supply him with a smaller rule, adapted to the size of his slate, express ? Ans. The manner of speaking.' Remember, then, divided into an equal number of parts. Then direct him to transfer, all words which express the manner of acting, are ranked in a sepa. after the measurement of every line or distance with the larger rate class, cailed · Adverbs.' Quest. · What is the meaning of the rule, an equal number of parts with the smaller upon his slate, until word Adverb ? Ans. • 'To a verb.' Quest. What is the differ. every object is represented in proportionate size, and relative situ. ence between an adjective and an adverb?' Ans. An adjective ex- ation, with a good degree of accuracy. This he will be told is a presses the quality of a noun, an adverb the quality of a verb.: i plan or map; and as his observations abroad are going on, he will Quest. • Is it correct to say the sea is smoothly?' Ans. • No.' probably be himself anxious to employ the same method to represent Quest. · Why?' Ans. Because sea is a noun, and requires an ad. the various objects of the landscape before him. He should be led jective. Quest. "If I speak of the sailing of a ship, must I use the on, however, by graduated steps. Let him draw an entire plan of word calm or calmly ?' Ans. • Calmly.' Quest. Why?' Ans. the house in which he lives, of the garden attached to it, and of the • Because sailing is an action.'
farm or grounds around it. So far as it is practicable, let every effort “The Pronoun is of very easy introduction; its name for a noun,' be followed by measurement, as in the map of a room, in order that sufficiently expresses its use, and a few examples are all that in this the habit of accurate observation, so valuable in life, may be culti. stage of the business is necessary. The Articles require only nam. vated, at the same time that he acquires a correct idea of distances. ing, referring to a few instances in which they are used; and Inter “ The pupil will now be prepared to delineate with more or less jections are as readily distinguished.
accuracy, the outlines of the country around him, and by observing “ The distinctions of these seven parts being well impressed on carefully the ranges of objects, he may arrive at a tolerable degree the mind of the pupils, the teacher proceeds to the remaining two, of accuracy by mere inspection. He should be accustomed also to which at the first glance, do not appear to admit of a very clear ascertain short distances by paces, and longer ones by an accurate separation. The one is illustrated by the teacher's taking a slate observation of the time which is spent in passing over them, either in his hand, and saying, “Tell me all the words you can think of, on foot or in a carriage, and to register all the circumstances which which express situation in reference to this slate. The answers, are necessary for his map. As his perception of accuracy increases,
above,' below,' 'under,' &c., will bring forth the Prepositions, and he may be taught to trace the deviations from a straight line in a a reference to a hinge, will explain the Conjunction, which, when stream or a road; and if circumstances admit, he should be allowed the other eight are known, requires no further distinction.
the use of a chain or tape measure and a compass, as soon as he is “When the class has arrived at this point, the teacher reads some capable of employing them. Bentences from his book, and requires each boy in turn, to class the “After the pupil has become familiar with the construction of words and give his reasons. Being well prepared for this exercise, these simple maps, he should be taught to draw them on every vait is rarely of long continuance. In the ensuing lessons, it would riety of scale, until he ceases to think of the size of the map before be observed that the articles, the gender and properties of nouns, him, and by immediate reference to the scale of measurement, the degrees of comparison in adjectives and adverbs, the kind of should learn to perceive at once, through the medium of a map, the verbs, and the varieties of the pronoun, have all relation to the num great objects which it represents, instead of the lines and points ber three. This presents an opportunity of giving a sure and ready upon its surface, just as we receive ideas through the medium of index to these variations which so often and so long perplex master words. It will also facilitate his transition to other maps, if he be and pupils. Thus learned, they are obtained at once and forever. accustomed to draw a meridian through some prominent object,
" The influence of one word on another, or syntactical parsing, is from an observation of the North star, or a shadow at noonday, and now easily unfolded. A sentence being read, the teacher, at his to divide the map by other lines, drawn parallel and perpendicular discretion, makes various alterations in its construction, each of to it, at regular distances. It will aid still farther in his transitions, which is made the subject of inquiry. Care being taken that the if the central line from east to west be assumed as an equator, and difficulties are seen and felt, the teacher gradually leads the pupils distances be reckoned in both directions, from this and the first by questions to their elucidation. Other sentences of a similar kind meridian. are then introduced, and the rule comes in as the result of their own “Let me not be told that this is theory, plausible upon paper, but observation and inquiry. It is thus seen to rise necessarily out of the impracticable in its execution. It is but the history of what has been language, instead of being arbitrary and indefinite; and so far from done, and still is done, in the schools of Pestilozzi and his followers being a burden on the memory, and exciting disgust, it is welcomed in Europe.
To be continued. as the result of a clear investigation, and cherished in the memory, from a thorough conviction of its truth and suitability."
A SUPPLICATION TO THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED “The first step necessary to enable the pupil to acquire ideas from
STATES.--CONCLUDED. representation, is to teach him the relation of the one to the other. I know not of any mode so effectual to make the pupil familiar with Gare,—that generous benefactor, -that magnanimous philanthrothe nature of maps, as to teach him to construct them from mature, pist, is almost provoked. He declares that he has a good mind, for and this may be accomplished, at the same time that he is learning once, to demand back his donations from the temper-trying miscallers. to observe the objects around him.
I gave a thonsaud dollars, this very day, towards the completion of “Let the course of observation to which we have referred, be Bunker Hill Monument. But don'i say of mc-he gin. I never gin extended to every thing within his horizon, and let him loarn the a cent in my life. individual name attached to every object of importance. Let him
Gel,--that enterprising and active character, who, generally, in this learn to observe them from different points of view. Point out to country, helps Give and Gave to the whole wherewithal of their him the varying position of the sun. Let him observe its direction beneficence, and gains for old Keep all his hoarded treasures, and is a in the morning, at noon, and at evening, -and then show him the staunch friend of all the temperate and industrious of the working. north star, and he will thus find the marks for the four standard men's party,—Get stops to complain, that some of those he serves the points to which he is 10 refer all descriptions of the situations of best, call him-Git. And he is very reluctant to get along about his
Get is places. Let the terms east, south, west, and north, be attached to business, till some measures are taken to prevent the abuse. these points, only when he has learned the need of them; and not be still, with a merciless i, make him Gil?
now waiting, ye workies of all professions; what say? Will you employed before he has acquired distinct ideas of them. Let him observe the direction of the great objects of the landscape, first from of his teeth.
Gun, is always on the jaw, that he is so often called Goomb, in spite one prominent point, then from another. Lot him notice those which
Gown,—that very lady-like personage, is sighing away at the deare in a range or row' with cach other from his station-those plorable de-formity' that de-spoils her beauty in the extreme, as is dewhich are on opposite sides—those which would form a triangle-veloped in the following detail, Gound. 'Oh! ye lords of language! and those which would make a square, or a cross, and thus fix the if ye have any gallantry, come to the deliverance of the amiable goun, positions of every important place in his mind, so that he could sketch that she may shake off this Dependent.