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more immediately on the educational board at Vienna. Over
males, 874.720 general management, in point both of discipline and instruc
females, 661,384 tion, acting under the orders of the board, or lhe edicts of the emperor. The various professors and teachers are all either
1,536,104 nawed or approved by the landessielle, or the educational board ; the same discriminating precautions being adopted as mainly gratuitous, yet a sma
It has been stated, ihat although the course of education is
sum, amounting to 12 Gorios at the popular schools, for the religious instruction of those at the gympasium, and from 18 to 30 forips at the universities, who profess non-Romish creeds. In every station, and in the is paid by all who have not certificates of poverty, towards a various branches of education, the pupils are subjected to half- fund for ihe grant of stipends to poor students. yearly examinations by authorised visitors; and from the result of these examinerions, as well as from the testimonials first volume of the Central Society of education. There are 9
The following statistics are gaihered from an article in the which each is bound to produce as to moral conduct, and also Universities, 36 Lycea, or Colleges, 21 Ecclesiastical Seminaas to religious knowledge from the minister of his commun-ries, [these three classes of institutions numbered in 1834, ion, the director forms the reports which are furnished to the 864 professors and teachers in Theology, Physic, Law and government. For the erection of popular schools, certain rules are laid 3.914 pupils, 127 Gymnasia with 900 masters, and 28,963
Philosophy, with 20,586 students,] 26 milijary schools with down which ensure ibeir erection as occasion may require. pupils,' 24,931 national schools with 32,0533 teachers, and Although no ordinances compel education, yet the induce-1,994.500 pupils. There are besides, an Equestrian Academy ments held out to desire it are so great, that for schools of this and Polytechnic Institute at Vienna; a Technical Institute description there is a constantly increasing demand, parily at Gratz with 250 students, and another at Prague with 400 arising from the people themselves, and partly instigated by pupils. the spiritual and civil authorities; and, indeed, so urgent have of late years been applications to this effect, that it has become
POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE OF VIENNA. a usual, although not universal practice, to require of the pa
The whole institution is intended to fulfil a hreefold purposerishioners, or the inhabitants of the district petitioning, that they shall bind theasselves by voluntary assessment ið bear | as a school for the mechanic arts, manufactures and commerce, as a the whole or a portion of the attendant espenses. After the promotion of national industry. The last named object is effected
conservatory of arts and manufactures, and as an institute for the locality has been fixed by the aufseer and the kreisampt, it de. by public exhibitions, from time to time, of the products of manutac. pends on the landesstelle to issue the decree that the school be tures, under the direction of the institute. For the better execution built; and, this being done, the law then provides for its gra of th 's object, a spacious building is now erecting on the premises, tuitous erection and completion. The lord of the soil is adapted to the occasional display and permanent deposite of speci. bound to grant the land and the materials; the inhabitants of mens of the mechanic aris. The collections which form the conser. the district to supply the labor; and the patron of the parochialvatory of arts, are also used for instruction in the school, and will be benefice the internal fittings-up; all subsequent repairs, as described in connexion with it, well as the hiring of buildings for temporary accomnioda
The whole institution is under the control of a director, who is tion, being a charge on these three parties jointly,
responsible to the higher authorities of public instruction, and of Notwithstanding, however, these ample provisions for gen. trade and manufactures. The director is the general superin. eral education, it will be readily conceived, that in a country tendent of the business of the institule, and of the instruction, but where certain classes possess large pecuniary means, and high pline. The mɔney concerns are under the charge of a treasurer,
He regulates the admission of pupils and the disci. aristocratic feelings, instruction cannot be absolutely confined who is responsible to the director. The interior officers are re. to public institutions. In Vienna and other cities many aca spoi ble to the same authority. The discipline of the scholastc dennic establishments of a superior order exist, endowed in department is simple, but rigid, no pup / being allowed to remaia the manner of our public schools ; and in these, or in the connecied with it whose deportment is not proper. The courses are schools of the monasteries before mentioned, wherein board - gratuitous, except a small entrance fee, and this is considered as ers are permitted to be received, or, finally, under private warranting prompt removal when the pupil does not perform the tutors in their own families, a large portion of the higher duties prescribed by the institution. classes receive their education.
The department of instruction is composed of three schools, a To the reign of the late Emperor Francis belongs the prin- technical, a commercial, and a "real school.” The last named is cipal organization of the existing system, the foundations of a preparatory school for the iwo others, and may be entered as early which were laid in the earliest years of his reign (perhaps German language, elementary mathematics, geography, history, nat.
as thirteen years of age. Its courses are of religious instruction, of partially in that of his predecessor,) and the superstructure history, elocution, calligraphy, and drawing, and are obligatory upon raised and moulded by a great variety of subsequent edicts. the pupils. Italian and French may be studied if the pupil desires it. Ils progress has encountered difficulties in various quarters. As these courses lead, in three years, to the other departments of
To surmount these various obstacles, whether arising from the institution, the candidates for admission are required to possess indifference in the lower classes or repugnance in the higher, the elementary attainments necessary to their successful prosecu. the government adopts, as usual, a gradual and cautious, buition. There are five professors and four teachers connecied with mosi persevering policy; often yielding for a time, but gen- this school, which is superintended by the vice-director of the insti. erally triumphant in the end.
tute. The instructors rank by regulation with those in the gymnasia Thus every year witnessess a decided progress; and so far or classical schools of the empire. The course of instruction is not as has the system already succeeded, that, with the exception of comprehensive as that in the Prussian real schools, but is an ade. Hungary, whence no returns are made, and where education is quate preparation for the next higher divisions, which supply in very loosly and inadequately attended to, above three-fifths of part these deficiencies. the juvinile population of the empire do actually receive scho- according to the intended pursuits of the pupil, though he may, in
The technical and commercial schools furnish special instruction lastic instruction. According to official reports, there are in fact, select the courses which he wishes to attend, nor being limited Transylvania, 52,698 children attending school, out of 64, as to the number or character of the branches. The director advi. 227 capable of doing 30: in the Military Frontier, only 60,- ses with the pupil, on admission, as to the studies most appropriate 878 oui of 124,778 ; and in the entire residue of the empire, to be followed, if his intended calling is fixed, anu he is not allowed to German and Italian, but always exclusive of Hungary, 1,636,- join the classes, the courses of which require preparation, without 104 out of 2,529,171. It appears, moreover, thai, on the presenting a certificate from the school at which he has been in. whole, a larger portion of boys go to school ihan of girls, as structed, or being examined, to ascertain his proficiency. In regard may be seen from the following analysis of the two last num to other courses, there is no such restriction. The age for admis. bers giveu above, viz. :
sion is sixteen years. In the whole empire, exclusive of Hungary, Transylvania
The instruction is given in the technical school by eight proses. and the military frontier
sors and two assistants; the professors lecturing, and in some of the
courses, interrogating the pupils. Certain lectures are also gone Capable of going to school
over by the assistant with the classes. The courses which combine females, 1,221.394
practice with teaching, will be pointed out in enumerating the sub.
jects of study. The division of ihese subjects, and the time devoted 2,529,171 to them during the week, are as follows:
I. General Chemistry, applied to the arts, five hours.
manufactures in general have received a great impulse through the II. Special Technical Chemistry, ten hours. This course gives a
medium of this institution, and particularly ot its scholastic depart. particular account of all the processes of the arts of which the prin. ment, but while praise is yielded to the different courses, the ar. ciples were developed in the general lectures. There is a special rangements for teaching chemistry must be considered as having a laboratory devoted to the course, where, under the superintendence preference over the others. of the professor or of nis assistants, the pupils go through the pro.
The lessons in the commercial school embrace the following sub. cesses on a small scale. Those who have a particular object in jects: - I. Commercial correspondence, three hours per week. II. view, as dyeing, bleaching, printing upon stuffs, or the manufacture The science of trade, three hours. III. Austrian laws relating to of chemical preparations or metallurgy, are directed in their investi. trade and exchange, three hours
. IV. Commercial arithmetic, six gations especially to the parts of chemistry which they will have to VI. Account of the materials of trade, their sources, uses
hours. V. Book-keeping, by single and double entry, four hours. apply. Practice and theory are thus conibined. III. Physics, with special reference to its applications, five hours. !V. Elementary ties, kinds, adulterations to which they are subject, &c., four hours. Mathematics, including arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and mensu.
VII. Commercial geography, three hours. VIIL History of com. ration, ten hours. This course is intended for those who have not merce, three hours. There are five professors in this school. passed through the real school. V. Higher Mathematics, five
Once a week the professors of the institute meet, under the presi. hours. There is a repetition by an assistant, also of five hours. dency of the director, to conter on the business of the institution. VI. Mechanics, including the description and calculation of ma- Saturday is appropriated in part to this purpose, and there are no chines, five hours. This subject is founded upon a course of ma.
exercises for the students on that day. One of the professors is chines, considered as an apprication of descriptive geoinetry and secretary of the Board. The professors rank by regulation with
those of the universities. drawing, superintended by an assistant. VII. Practical Geometry, including land and topographical surveying, levelling, &c., tive hours.
The lectures last from October to August of every year. At the The lectures are accompanied by practice in the use of instrumenis close of them, a pupil who wishes a certificate in any branch, presenis in the field. VIII. Civil and Hydraulic Architecture, ten hours. himself, and is examined by a professor, in presence of the director This ineludes a complete course of engineering, in its various bran and of two members of the imperial commission of studies. A stu. ches. It is accompanied by exercises in drawing. IX. Technology, dent who has attended the lectures, and does not wish to be exam. or a general discussion of arts and trades, five hours. The subjects ined, may recive a certificate of attendance. which come under the head of special chemisty are omitted in the To supply the place of a regular division of studies for different lectures of this division. X. The assistant professor of chemistry callings, one of the earlier programmes contained a recommendadelivers an extra lecture, daily, on the methods of measuring Spe- tion of certain courses of study as preparatory to particular occupacific Gravities, during part of the course. XI. Elementary Drawing
The recommendations were ibe following:--For iradesmen, for thuse who have not passed through the real school, tive hours, the two years of the real school, and one year of the commercial There are extra courses in the Latin, Buhemian, and English lan- school; or for a more complete education, an additional year, em. guages, for those who wish to follow them.
bracing the courses of chemistry, physics, and technology of the The time devoted to drawing depends upon the student, but it is technical school. For dyers, printers in stuffs, bleachers, manufac. obvious that his knowledge must be very incomplete, and that he wirers of chemical producis, of salt, of salıpetre, for miners, metal. will carry away from the school but an imperfect record of descrip. Jurgists, brewers, &c — special chemistry, physics, and technolugy, tive geometry and its applications, unless he devotes a great deal with some of the courses of the commercial school. For machi. of tiine to th s branch. In this respect, the arrangement of the Dists, hydraulic engineers, mill.wrights, foreman in manufactories, school is entirely differen from that al Berlin, where the drawings the first to embrace mathematics, physics, and drawing, and the sec.
and mining engineers a course of two years was recommended, accompanying the courses are made as much a matter of regular duty, as the aliendance upon the .ectures themselves. This is cer. ord, mechanics, machine.drawing, and technology. Ae a preparation tainly the proper plan, and while it appeared to me that the time for agriculturists and foresters, courses of mathematics, physics, prac. speni in the graphic exercises at Berlin was even beyond the meas. t.cal geometry, chemistry, and book-keeping. For miners-math. ure of their importance, I am decidedly ot opinion that a strict at. ematics, physics, practical geometry, mechanics, drawing, and bouktention to this department is essential.
keeping. For surveyors-mathematics, physics, practical geome. The collections, by the aid of which these courses are carried try, drawing, and book-keeping. out, are-1. An extensive collection of chemical preparations for
There is still a regular course laid down for architects and civil both special and general chemistry. The pupils in special chemis. engineers, the satisfactory completion of which entitles to a diplo. try, as already stated, make preparations in the departments of the The first year includes elementary mathematics, technology, ari which they intend to hollow, and some of these are left behind and drawing ; the second, bigher mathematics, physics, and draw. them as specimens of their skill. In the department of the dyer, ing; the third, the applied mathematics, mechanics, practical geom. there is quite a large series of specimens collected in this way. etry, and drawing; the fourth, architecture, engineering, drawing, The laboratories for both special and general chemistry are admira. technology, chemistry, and book-keeping, bly adapted to their purpose. 2. A cabinet of instruments for the The library of the Institute is appropriated to the several depart. course of practical geometry. 3. A considerable collection of phys. ments, and is used by the students as well as by the professors. ical apparatus. 4. A collection of models of machines, and in en. Yearly appropriations, beside the entrance and dipluina tees, are gineering. 5. A technological cabinet of a most complete charac. devoted to its increase. The professors have the right of recom. ier, and admirably arranged; it contains many of the best speci. mending such works to be purchased as they may deem of use in mens of Austrian arts and manafactures. All ihese collections are their departments. An annual is published by the institute, consist. under the care of the professor in whose department they find a
ing of original and selected scientific articles, by the professors, and place; there being, besides, curators for the immediate charge of notices of the institution.- Pres. Bache's Report. them, and for keeping them in repair. The cabinet of physical ap. paralus, and of models and machinery, were in the main supplied from the workshops of the institution. These shops have long been celebrated for the astronomical and geodesic instruments furnished from them. They are still kept up, though on a reduced scale, The population of this country amounted in 1835 to 2,455,539, comtheir chief object having been accomplished. They were never in- prising in 2233 communi, forming nine provinces. The general'introtended, like those of Berlin, to attord practical instruction to the duction of elementary schools in Lombardy, commenced in 1822. Two pupils
. The institution, indeed, does not recognize the principle objects are proposed in their establishment; the first being, to afford to that this can be done to advantage in the mechanical department
. the hunblest class, both agricultural and manufacturing, instruction It is certain, as already stated, that great care is required to render adapted to their condition; and the second, to furnish the youth of the such establishments of any avail beyond the point of giving to the middle classes with an education which shall fit them for pursuing pupil a general readiness with his hands, and that even when well commerce, agriculture, or the useful arts. conducted they are expensive. Success in practical chemistry re. which are received separately children of each sex, between the ages
For the first object are designed the lesser elementary schools, in quires essentially a very considerable knowledge of theory; the of six and twelve. The instruction which they here receive comprises · processes on a small scale, represent, in general, fairly those upon religion, reading, writing, arithmetic, the first rudiments of granımar; a large, and experiments thus made, frequently save the outlay and for girls, needle-work and knitting. They are divided into two which is required to make them in a large way. The practice in a classes, and the course of instruction is complete in three years at most. laboratory of a school is, besides, very nearly of the kind required For the children of those above the lowest classes, there are higher for the manufactory. These, among other circumstances, render schools, some of which are divided into three classes, and some into the problem in regard to successful preparation for the arts depend tour. The first are for both sexes, the latter only for boys. In the ing upon chemistry, different from that relating to the art of the ma. two first classes of all these schools, the instruction is the same as chinist. It is in this department that the polytechnic school of Vis that in the lesser schools; in the third class is taught caligraphy, comenna is particularly strong. There can be no doubt that Austrian position, the higher parts of arithmetic applied practically to the
AUSTRIAN DOMINIONS IN ITALY.
necessities of life; and, in the female schools, fine needlework and em. course in the science of teaching, is given in the higher schools of broidery. In the boys schools, which have four classes, the preceding Milan and Mantau, and three months in the other schools of four branches of instruction are followed by a course which lasts two years, classes. After this course, the aspirant to the otfice of master must in which are taught the elements of geometry, natural history and me- pass a year as assistant in the practice of teaching at some public chanics, and the drawing of ornaments, machines, maps, and architec. school. Instruction in the science of teaching is also given to those cure; the manner of teaching being both theoretical and practical. intended for holy orders in the episcopal seminaries. Some of these institutions are at the expense of the central government—some are provided for by the different communes. The bigher
INFANT SCHOOLS. schools of three classes for boys, as well as the lesser elementary schools for both sexes, are entirely at the expense of the communi; and dumb at Cremona, had the honor of first introducing in fant
The Abate Ferranti Aporti, the founder of a school for the deaf whereas the four class schools, and those of three classes for girls, are provided by the government.
One of each of these last kinds is schools into Italy, by the formation of one in the same town in 1829. established in the principal town of each of the nine provinces, as well The tollowing extract from a communication of the founder, will as one for girls in Crema and Cassalmaggiore.
give an idea of the principles upon which those schools are conHere we may observe three points in which the Austrian system of ducted in Italy. popular education is superior to that as yet established in France. First, The Abate first enumerates the evils of education received by girls have equal advantages with boys, as far as elementary education infants abandoned to the care of their parents as observed at Cre. is necessary for them; and the communi are found able to support the mona. whole expense; secondly, the superior schools, which have failed in 1. In the moral habits, obstinacy and caprice often manifest them. France, are here in vigor, being supported by the government; and selves, originating in the over-indulgence of their parents; the nine such, distributed amongst a population or only iwo millions and spirit of revenge taught them by the practice of satisfying the child a half, seems a fair proportion. Another important feature in the edu- for any pain he endures, by guiding his hand to strike the real or cation afforded at Lombardy is, that it recognises the great deficiency supposed author of the injury; shyness and awkwardness, caused ot' any system of which religious instruction forms no part. The by living only with their families; no habit of order; no practice of grand evil of the system is, that the instruction imparted is limited and moral or religious duties. 2. As to their intellectual culture; all moulded to suit the views of the government, and any independent teaching contined to that of some uncouth, and sometimes indecent exercise of the knowledge thus acquired, is jealously prevented. provincialisms; to telling them stories of witches, fairies, and ap.
We will now observe the increase of these various kinds of schools, pariuons, of ghosts and goblins, fit only to fill their minds with vain during the ten years since their estublishment, ending with 1832:
terrois. No developments afforded to the intellectual faculties; no direction adapted to form their young judgment; so that in short, the whole system of education given to their virgin minds, seems rather adapted to corrupt them in their first exertion, and in their earliest development. 3. In reference to their physical faculties ; innumerable mischiefs arise, whether from the practice of condem. ning children to sit for many hours a day without stirring in baby
chairs; or from allowing them to indulge without check their natu. 1822 19 11 2108 492 81,241 26,524
sally immoderate spirits. Excessive restraint causes weakness of 1832 57 142279 1184 112,127 54,610
body and every detormity which alters its proportions, and which
often renders them wretched and useless through the remainder of Besides, these government schools, in which children from six to their days. From the contrary extreme, serious accidents often twelve years old are gratuitously instructed, there were in 1832, 228, occur, which leave behind them permanent injuries or lameness and schools for Sundays and holidays, where 4506 children auove the ages mutilations, which render them a burden to society. From these of cwelve are taught the duties of religion, and perfected in the knowl. causes result injury to their bodily healih and strength, a moral cor. edge which they had acquired at the public schools. These are open- ruption not easily remedied, and talse ideas of things, and habits of ed gratuitously by parish priests and school-masters, in conformity forming erroneous judgments, are implanted in the tender minds of with the following sentence in the instructions of the clergy, attached the children. These iwo last eviis are the more worthy of attention, to the government regulations for elementary schools : The pre- inasmuch as daily experience proves how indellible are the early scribed period of attendance at the public schools being often insuticient for the necessary education of the children; in those places where impressions and first ideas which we receive in tender infancy. it there exists none bui elementary schools, the priest will be required to is a false opinion, that at an early age children are incapable of give instruction in religion, and the school-master in other subjects, on learning anything reasonable. Children are apt to learn as soon as the atiernoons of holidays, to those above the age at which attendance they can speak, and it is a sad waste of the most precious time of at the public schools ceases to be obligatory.”
life, to allow them to occupy their first years in trifles. Noris it more In some large towns, charitable individuals instruct the shop-boys correct to suppose that they do not at that age employ their reason; and apprentices every evening, in all that is most suitable to their con- any one who will observe their little sports, and listen to their con dition.
versation, will be convinced of it. It must not, however, be supAll the asylums for foundlings and orphans have an elementary posed from this, that we think it right to extend widely the sphere of school attached to them. There are also in Lombardy thirty-six instructions which we consider useful to infancy. Having established charitable boarding schools; twenty for 702 boys, and sixteen con- the possibility of instruction and education, we select only those taining 732 girls.
subjects adapted to the nature of infants, and such as are suggested The elementary schools, kept by private individuals, in which the by the exercises they practice when left to themselves, without the scholars for their education amounied in 1832 10 241; containing about direction of guide or master. For instance, we observe that children 5119 boys, and 459 with 8631 girls.
(even of a tender age,) at the sight of a new object, immediately ask The private superior schools or colleges contain 721 boys and 1641 its name. Now, why may we not profitably excite their curiosity, girls.
either by cffering to their consideration objects necessary or useful Altogether, therefore, we may estimate the number of children, to be known, or by asking them, the names which they do not yet chiefly between the ages of six and twelve, who were in 1832 receiving know of objects already familiar to them? In this way is obtained elementary instruction in Lombardy, at the considerable number of the advantage of teaching them the pure Italian, (the patois of all 135,879, i. e. one thirteenth of the inhabitants. At that date, there Lombardy is detestable,) and this, noi by dry grammatical rules, but were only ninety-eight communi without a school, and most of these contained a population below that which the law'obliges to maintain by actual exan.ple, the most efficient method at that age. 2. They of education for their children may be judged of' from the fact, that in late the absurd fables common amongst the people. Let us avail The readiness of the people to avail themselves of the benefits are particularly fond of hearing stories and histories, and thus they
listen with eager attention to their nurses or parents, when they re. 183-2 there were in the 2.233 communi of Lombardy, 3413 public school ourselves of this natural curiosity, and we may advantageously sub. rooms,
of which 473 were gratuitously erected by private beneficence, stitute for these foolish and tasteless stories, some solid information, the rest being entirely at the expense of ibe communi.
The plans of govornment will not be complete till two institutions as, for instance, a sketch of sacred history, which may besides of still higher instruction for merchants and manufacturers shall be serve as an introduction to the doctrines of Christianity, established, one at Milan, and the other at Venice. They will teach
The children themselves are our best guides as to the fittest history, particularly of arts and commerce, the science of commerce, method of communicating this sort of information to their young foreign languages, chemistry applied to the arts, architecture, mechan- minds. If we show them a picture representing either a figure or ics, and hydraulics.
an action, they cagerly examine it, and immediately begin to ask, The government appoint provincial and district inspectors of public Who is this? Who is that? What is he about? Whal’s That ? &c. schools, on whose etficiency much of the success of the system depends. Selecting then the best pictures, representing scenes of the sacred
To secure a supply of proper persons to assume the importani otlice history, and showing them to the children, explaining the subject of school master must be a principal consideration in every system of and the persons represented, they will acquire with pleasure, and general education. The means adopted for training young men for insensibly from their earliest years, much important religious knowlthis employment in Lombardy appear rather deficieni. A six months' edge.
Again, it is a well known fact, that children are fond of singing, at a time, and so on; and the four rules of arithmetic, all by means and this exercise, when well directed, serves to give a proper tone of a great frame having twelve wires stretched horizontally one to the voice, and to cominunicute to the ear a sense of proper intona. beneath another, on each of which are strung twelve balls. Nume. tion and harmony. It is besides of great use (and of this the schools ration, or the value of figures according to the space they occupy, afford repeated examples) in preventing every defeci of the organs is taught by a similar instrument, only having the wires perpendicu. of speech, which, if neglected during the first years of childhood, lar, with nine balls on each, all or any of which may be kept out of may cause at a more advanced age the habit of stuttering; a most sight by means of a spring which retains them behind a board, by serious defect, which often becomes ridiculous and humiliating to which the upper part of the wires is covered. The wires, begin. persons of distinguished intellect. Lastly, children like to write, ning at the right of the speciator, correspond to the places of uuits, read, and count objects.
tens, hundreds, &c. Above each wire, may be placed moveable In conformity with the above observations, the following plan of cards having the Arabic numerals on them, so as to exhibit to the education is constructed. As to the education and instruciion of the childien at the same time the actual number by means of the balls, intellect, it is proposed to effect this by the knowledge of familiar and its corresponding Arabic representative. For teaching frac. objects and of their names, disposed systematically, and distributed tions another frame may be employed with horizontal wires, on the into classes ; so that while children learn them, they may be direct. uppermost of which is strung a cylinder, on the second iwo cylin. ed to distinguish their likeness or unlikeness, the whole and iis va ders, making, when joined, one of the same length as the first, and rious paris, the genera and species. In this part of instruction are thus representing two halves; below is one divided into three equal comprised the names of the various parts of the human body, of our parts, for thirds, another for quarters, and so on. Syllables, and then clothes, and of the most common natural objects, divided into ani. short words, are taught by placing on a frame, in view of all the mals, vegetables and earths, of food, of buildings, and of their children, moveable cards, having letters printed upon them. The
more advanced are called upon to come to the frame and form a The method employed for the communication of this and all other given word. They then pick out, one by one, from the case in which knowledge, is the demonstrative, that is, by the ac'ual exhibition of the cards are contained, each letter of the word, and then divide it the objects themselves, or of faithful representations of them. To into syllables, pronouncing each separately. Notions of the natural this department of education belongs also the study of the alpha- history of the domestic animals are taught by stories relating to bet, of reading, writing, and the first rules of arithmetic as well as them, and illustrated by pictures about which they are questioned as of religion, regarded as a principal object, and treated historically, to their uses, their food, their paces, their cries, &c. with injunctions as is most adapted to this tender age, when we are almost incapable to treat them always with kindness. The girls learn to sew, &c., of abstraction.
both sexes to knit, and other easy work, whilst the youngest occupy To moral education and instruction belong the daily prayers in Ital. their hands in picking to pieces silk rags. ian for morning, noon, and evening, and for returning thanks, contain: We may bere remark, that in the garden attached to the infant ing short but fervent liftings up of the mind to God, taken from the school at Geneva, we remarked beds of shrubs and flowers, pro. Scriptures and the catholic liturgy, and which are always accompanied tected only by a low slight fence, by which means the children are with the Lord's Prayer, the Salutation of the Angels, &c. Add to this, accustomed to abstain from exercising that destructive disposition the explanations of the principles of sacred history, from which we
in which they are naturally inclined to indulge. This would be an do not fail to deduce moral principles for the regulation of the con. 'excellent idea, wherever it could be contrived in England, where it duct. The very discipline of the school, too, is all a moral educa. is a universal complaint, that the working classes, young and old, tion, since it is indispensable to exact obedience and subordination are more mischievous than those of any other nation. from all, by which they are habituated to order. Whenever, too, It is found in Italı, that a distribution of prizes in the infant slight differences arise between the children, they are taken advan. schools is rather injurious than otherwise, those who obtain them tage of to establish principles of conduct and of mutual kindness not understanding their value; while the rest, who receive nothing, which are not slow to strike root in their tender minds, nor easily are hurt and disappoin'ed. Corporeal punishments are entirely lose their influence in alter life.
unnecessary, and are completely excluded from these schools, the Their moral education is also promoted by the Psalms, which mistress being orly allowed to make the offender stand apart from they learn as they sing them. It is true, that they may not compre. his companions; and to induce him, by kind remonstrance, to feel hend all contained in these hymns, but the time will come when they sorrow for his fault and a desire for pardon. will understand their meaning; then, instead of the indecencies and
A great deal of the benefit of these schools arises from the proper nonsense contained in the songs of the people, they will find them- selection of the mistress, who keeps a register of any observations selves instructed and strengthened with sentiments of a divine mo.
or incidents which she may think interesting. Ladies are also aprality.
pointed by the societies to inspect the schools in turn, and they also We now come to the physical education. The organs of the voice and of hearing, are educated by the exercise of singing, and keep a register of any interesting facts or reflections which may
occur to them, which are read at the meetings of the committee. by the inspection of prints (in the choice of which the best and From this accurate study of a number of children, at an age when most regular should be selected) the sight is educated to appreciate previously formed habits have less power to counteract the efforts what is beautiful and well-proportioned. The games and gyınnas. of the teacher, the most valuable hints for the science of education tic exercises adapted to their age and strength, contribute greatly
may be obtained. to give them force and agility. As a part of physical education,
In the spring of the present year, 1837, there were in existence we must besides consider the regular life which they lead at the school, their frequent recreations, even the studies being conducted in the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, besides the infant schools at in the manner of a diversion, their eating at fixed hours, and of Cremona above mentioned, another in that province, one in each of wkolesome food, the marching round the school-room, and the the provinces of Mantau and Bergamo, two at Venice, one at Vicen.
za, and one at Verona, while others were in preparation. walking to and from the school.
Such are the principles upon which the Italian infant schools are founded. The furniture of one of these institutions is composed of
In the Venetian states, including a population of 1,957,600, there are few and simple articles. Besides the building and play.ground, with 1348 elementary schools. Of these 28 are called upper schools, and a few implements for gymnastic exercises, there are benches and consist, each of them, of four classes; and 1320 are called lower desks with slates let into the wood, for the highest class. The mig. schools, in which there are but iwo classes. The age of the children tress has a desk with drawers for the registers, prints, &c.
attending them is from six to twelve years; the instruction is gratui
tous, and the whole number attending them in 1836, was about 78,000. Everything being taught by means of the sight or of imitation, The subjects of instruction for each class in the elementary schools books are not necessary. The subjects of instruction, besides the
are thus limited; in the first class, religion, the alphabet, vocabulary, prayers and psalms, are moral stories, or parts of the Scriptures, rudiments of the Italian grammar, instructive tales, first principles of related to the children in pure and simple language, and afterwards arithmetic, and writing copies; in the second class, religion, compenmore fully illustrated by pictures painted for the purpose by ladies of dious history of the Old Testament, duties of subjects, second part of the societies, representing the scenes described, which particularly grammar, elements of composition, second pari of the principles of interest the children, and make them very attentive to the story, in arithmetic und writing; in the third class, elements of Italian gramorder that, when the picture is exhibited, ihey may be able to under. mar, Martini's lessons from the Gospels and Epistles, third part of the stand it. This leads to questions on the scene represented in the principles of arithmetic, selections from the history of the Old Testapicture, the persons, their attitudes, the color of their clothes, and ment, &c. and writing; and in the fourth class, elements of geometry, innumerable others, all calculated to give a habit of observation and natural philosophy, and mechanics, natural history, architecture, an idea of art. Pictures also of instruments employed in different grammar of a superior class, elements of geography, composition, trades, and men at work with them, are very interesting to the chil. fourth part of the principles of arithmetic, moral iales, moral reflecdren, and afford a vehicle for much useful information. The young. tions, and writing. est learn to repeat distincıly their own names, the parts of their per. Besides these national schools, there are several private ones for the sons, of their clothing, the furniture of the room and so on. They instruction of destilute children, at the expense and under the sole care are taught to count, first single numbers, then two at a time, three of the benevolent.
No. 15. 4.
The knowledge of man's nature, in his duties as a member of society, EDUCATION IN TUSCANY.
is communicated, (in addition to direct religious instruction,) by means In the year 1835, the population of the grand duchy of Tuscany duced to writing. On the day on which we had the pleasure of visit
of a succession of moral tales-read, discussed, and afterwards reamounted to 1,421,000. Omitting the academical instruction afforded in Tuscany by the ing the establishment, the lecture on morals commenced, by the profes
sor of that branch reading aloud, to the whole class assembled round universities of Pısa and Siena, (founded in 1160 and 1275, and con. his desk, the essay of each boy on the subject which had been treated taining, the first about 600, the second about 300 students) and the of in the last lecture. On thai occasion, a tale had been read aloud to Studj Accademici at Florence, comprising medicine and the fine them by the professor, and then again by the class; after which they aris, we will confine ourselves to Secondary and elementary instruc. had been questioned on the facts related, i.nd appropriate reflections tion.
and developments were suggested. Upon their return home, after Secondary instruction is afforded to males in five colleges, con. school, each boy had writen his account of the story in his own taining about 1200 scholars-seven superior Latin schools, under the words, incorporating with it the reflections of the professor. It was Padri Scolopj, with about 1800—and twenty.one in the episcopal these essays which the professor was now reading to the class, and seminaries, with about 1000 boarders, besides some hundreds of upon which he remarked or put questions to the boys as he proceeded. day.scholars. Secondary instruction for females is given in estab. This appears an excellent method of teaching composition and lishments called Conservatorj
, all under the direction of nuns, of orthography, and answers that end much betterthan the plan of forcing which Tuscany possesses forty-three.
upon a boy the irksome task of stringing together some common-place We come now to Elementary instruction, which is more properly sentiments, on a trite subject, under the name of a theme. the subject of our present inquiry. In the 247 communi into which It will have been remarked, that a peculiarity in this establishment the Grand Duchy is divided, there are 230 government boy's
chools is the method of teaching foreign languages, in a practical way, by where the children are received gratis, besides others in the princi. making them the vehicle of instruction in other subjects. pal towns, but those in the country are often little frequented, the
While the exercise above described was going on in Italian, the methods of instruction very defective, and their efficiency very second class in an adjoining room, was occupied with a lesson in hissmall, from want of proper fuperintendence and direction. For the tory, given by a native of France, in his own language. He first read education of the females of the lower orders, the government sup each boy had written in French, after his dictation at the previous les
over and corrected, in the hearing of all, the portion of history which ports seven elementary schools in some of the principal towns, con. taining about 1700 girls. Besides these, there are fourleen schools
This done, he proceeded to put questions in French to each boy, at the expense of the communi, and others for both sexes, attached in turn, upon the last two lessons, which questions they were called to charitable institutions, or for which the scholars pay. The delec. upon to answer in French; and in so doing, gave proof in general of tiveness, however, of all these different means of instruction, is but ciations. The professor, keeping in view the general object of his in
considerable proficiency, by the correctness of their idiom and pronuntoo plain, when it appears that the number of children who actually structions, was not sparing of illustrations and digressions; thus renfrequent school at any one time, is to the whole population as one dering the subject more interesting to his youthful hearers, while they to sixty.
unconsciously caught the true Parisian idiom and accent. Geography It is to compensate this great want, and to introduce improved is taught in the same manner, by a native of England, in his own methods of teaching, that many of the most estimable inhabitants language. These three exercises are confined to boys in the two highof the Grand Duchy, of both sexes and of all conditions, nobles, est classes, after they have already acquired, while in the lowest class, churchmen, lawyers, physicians, merchanis, &c., have lately turned the rudiments of these two forcign languages. Taking a look into the their united energies and acquirements, regarding the diminution of third school-room, we found the youngest class receiving their intropopular ignorance, and the improvement of the habits and morals duction to the French language, and to the elements of natural history of the people, as the first step towards any real social progress. (one of the most amusing subjects for children,) at the same time.
The means which have been as yet employed for diffusing the This was done by the professor writing, in chalk, on a large slate, a blessings of education by private exertion in Tuscany, have been few lines of French, on the important mineral coal. As he slowly ine establishment of infan schools, and of schools of mutual in. pronounced each word, the children copied it into their writing books, struction. Of the former there are twelve, numbering 354 boys and then the meaning of each word and of the whole sentence was and 576 girls; of the latter 16, numbering about 1500 children. explained to them. Thus, the first notions of the grammar and
orthography of the language are learned practically and iherefore with COMMERCIAL SCHOOL AT LEGHORN.
ease and pleasunily; and ihe same with English, so as to fit them, on
entering ihe second class, to pursue their study of these languages by This establishment, which was opened in 1833, under the direction the exercise above mentioned. of Professor Doveri, resembles in some respects, our proprietary Besides the instruction in sacred history, a priest attends to teach the schools, the parents of the boys received into it forming a society by children the catechism and the doctrines of their church. They are whom the professors are appointed, their salaries and all expenses of forming also a small museum of natural history, with materials colthe school' defrayed, and ihe course of study arranged. Hence it is lected in excursions into the country during the summer. called the school of the padri di famiglia, (fathers of families,) and at The present course of instruction lasts about four years, and costs the time of our visit, it contained forty boys, who attend school from 9 about 321. per annum, with 21. entrance money. It is, however, in A. M. 10 4 P. M. daily. The affairs of the school are under the imme- contemplation shortly to extend the range of instruction, by the addidiate superintendence of a committee chosen annually out of the whole tion of 'a further four years' course, which will include Latin, logic, body of parents, consisting of four inspectors and a treasurer. Each and metaphysics, commercial jurisprudence, the theory and practice of of the inspectors undertakes in turn the particular personal surveil-i commerce, (by the medium of the German language) algebra, chemlance of the establishment for three consecutive months.
istry applied to the arts, mechanics, and anatomy, On entering the school, we found all the children having just finished Children taught by methods so well adapted to their ages, tastes and a slight luncheon, engaged in their amusements. It being a rainy pursuits, can be easily managed without the necessity of violent pun. day, last winter, a waliz was playing on a violin in one room, and all ishments, which are requisite where irksome employments are the con. the company there whirling gaily round. The rest were in another stant cause of disgust and lassitude. The discipline is chiefly mainroom, receiving instructions in drawing, both these accomplishments tained by means of the parents, whose attention is constanıly called to being here considered as recreations. The boys are divided into three their child's conduct and progress, by means of a daily report made to classes, and there being three separate school-rooms, three professors each in writing. can be engaged in instruction at the same time, the different classes proceeding from one room to another at the conclusion of each hour.
Leghorn is also remarkable for an infant school for children of the The course of instruction, as at present arranged, comprises the fol- higher classes, the only one of the kind of which we have yet heard, lowing subjects:
but which we feel sure will shortly be established among ourselves, “Sacred history and geography, to all, every Saturday; natural his- when ladies perceive with what ease and pleasure children acquire, in tory: to all, three tiir.es a week; Arithmetic and Geometry to the these institutions, an amount of information which it would be the first class ihree times a week. The principles of morals, tanght most dreadful drudgery to mother and child, to teach them singly: So through the medium of the Italian language, to the first and second true is it that man is a social animal, that all his faculties, moral, inclasses, three times a week; history, (ancient and modern,) taught by tellectual and physical, seem to be capable of their greatest and most means of the French language, to the first and second classes, three easy development, by intercourse with his fellow creatures, and this times a week, geography, to the first and second classes, by means of especially amongst the young. Imitation and example will lead chilthe English language, three times a week; writing, drawing, dan- dren to consider as an ainusement, and to acquire insensibly from one cing, to all; grammar to the first class,"
another, habits and knowledge which would only cause disgust and This school, having a special object in view, to afford a good com- weariness were it attempted to instil them by solitary teaching. mercial education, the course of study has been directed to the objects which are most important to those who are wo engage in commerce. These appear to be, the knowledge of mankind in relation to their Maker and to one another, the knowledge of languages, of the most important productions of nature, and that of the elements of mathematics.