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CO-OPERATION OF PARENTS IN IMPROVING COMMON a large pipe, with its hundreds and thousands of branches, to

all parts of the body, and particles have been taken out of ii to SCHOOLS.- CONTINUED.

form or reform all the various parts through which it passes, it The writer has it much at heart to induce parents and becomes more or less impoverished, as one might say, and guardians of youth, to make the experiment of visiting the Besides, its better particles are not only more or less taken out,

needs to be furnished with a new recruit of richer particles.public schools, and to notice the effect of doing this both on but bad particles, in the form of various sorts of impurities, the teacher and scholars. A few visits made with the right have been commingled with it. Physiologists speak of it, in spirit, and in a way to encourage the teacher, will soon con- these circumstances, as being loaded with carbon; but whatvince those who have been negligent in this respect, how ever it may contain, it is certainly very impure, and unless it

were purified in some way, would soon injure our health, if much they have failed in performing an important duty. not even poison the delicale tissues of our bodies. I s

say, thereGreat care should be taken, however, to act wisely. Do fore, that after having been sent out by the arteries through nol begin with finding faull,—with detecting errors and de- | all parts of the body, and having been rendered unfit, in this ficiences, and pointing out the reinedies. Reserve this, if it way, for the support of health and life, it comes back to the is necessary, to a somewhat later period of intercourse with little branches of the veins it comes in, all over the sides of the

lungs, and is scattered, as it were, by means of a thousand the teacher, and then let it be done in a delicate and respect- little air cells with which I have already told you the lungs ful manner, so as not to wound his feelings, or to run any abound, where it is changed from a dark brownish red color, to risk of lowering him in the estimation of the scholars. With a brighter red, and at ine same time purified. What ihe regard, indeed, to most things in which he is deficient, a pri- take to determine. Some think it consists in the blood getting

chemical nature of this change is, precisely, I will not under-
vale interview for this purpose is far preferable. In adminis- rid of its superfluous carbon, and acquiring new oxygen. But
tering counsel, every thing depends upon the time and man- whatever may be the nature of the change, I say again, it is
ner of doing it ; and no observer of human nature but must purified, and refitted to go the round of the circulation once
have noticed how differently the same individual will receive more, and to convey, every where, along with the new made

blood which accompanies it, newer and richer particles, and
admonition according as the occasion, and the mode of giving new warmth and vitality.
it may be appropriate or not, and the person who imparts it You may now see why it is the more the lungs are expand-
exercises a kind and conciliatory, or a dogmatical and over-ed, internally, the better it is for our health. You perceive
bearing spirit. Some individuals can say almost any thing that the larger the air cells, or the more they are distended

with air, the more readily this air can act upon the blood to
in the way of advice, or even reproof 10 others, without giv- produce the desired change.
ing offence, and so as to produce the most salutary impressions. But how are capacious lungs to be obtained ? This is an
lithe teacher of your school needs to have counsel with re- important question, and deserves to be answered in a serious
gal to any considerable defects in the performance of his du- manner.
ty, at the task of giving it devolve on some such individual. still wider difference of size in these organs, arises from our

Some are born with lungs much larger than others; but a
en you visit the school, not only drop a few judicious employments and habits. Those who sing much, speak much,
word»f approbation, where it can be done truly and without and exercise much, especially their arms, and who do this in
the aplırance of flattery, to encourage the teacher, but do the open air, will be likely to have lungs strong and capacious,

while persons who use no exercise, or who breathe confined the samying, also, with regard to the scholars. Some re

air, do not Females brought up in our factories, in some inmanks of

is kind will let both see that you do not come as stances, though of adult age, have lungs which will hardly mere Ctaso.

'to spy out faults, and to criticise all that is going contain two quarts of air, and those of males, in the same ciron for the sai f administering rebuke. You will be regard- cumstances

, not more than three. The lungs of farmers, and
ed as a friend, nd at the close of your first visit, or perhaps than a gallon, and some more than five quarts. The average

sawyers, and blacksmiths, and soldiers, often contain more
more favorably a our second or third, you can begin to ad- capacity of the lungs of soldiers and sawyers, may be put down
vise the scholars zely on the points in their conduct which at about a gallon.
need it, and to telhem of their faults and the remedies, su

I have said that the more ibe lungs are expanded, internal.
as to produce the Iormation that is desirable.

ly, by having free and unrestrained motion, the better for

health. There is, however, one condition necessary, which Be careful, too, iall that you say and do, to recognize the is, that the air which is inhaled he pure. Pure air contains teacher as presidir over the affairs of the school. Even about four-fifths nitrogen, or innutritious or waste air, and onemembers of school enmittees, and school visiters, should do fifth oxygen, or vital air. Now there is seldom, if ever, any this. He is placed tre, and clothed with offical authority

more than a fifth part oxygen in the air we breathe, hui ihere for this purpose. Hor his office in the view of those whom may, sometimes, be too liule of it,-indeed there often is.

Should there be more than one filth oxygen in the air we you require to sumbito his government. Let him feel, and breathe, it would not seem to hurt us at first; for in fact we his scholars distinctlyee, that if you act at all in his capacity should experience, for a short time, the most delightful sensain the way of impartin instruction or advice to those under tions... Soon, however, the excitement would pass away; or

if it did not pass away, it would wear us out. It would be his care, it is with his consent, and a due deference to his

too strong for us, and would waste, too soon, our vital strength authority. A contrary course, which is sometimes pursued and power. A mouse confined in a jar where there is nothing with as little wisdom s delicacy of feeling, is one of the but oxygen gas,- for such cruel experiments have been triedsurest methods to dinnish the respect which the teacher soon expires. It is almost like taking a considerable quantity should receive from hisscholars, and without which he will of spirits; it makes us feel nicely a little while, but like all

other things which make us feel well, pot by giving us real sadly fail in the successful management of his school. strength, but only by affecting our brain and nervous system,

T. H. G. (as not only spirits of all sorts, but wine, beer, coffee, tea, to

bacco, opium, &c.,) in time enough it will destroy us.

The exhilarating gas, as it is called, which is sometimes ad-
THE HOUSE I LIVE IN.

ministered to people by lecturers who come along through our

towns and cities, contains a much larger proportion of oxygen HOW THE HOUSE IS BUILT.

Concluded.

than one fifth. Those who exhibit it, and wish to make peoWhen the blood, (made up from our food, in the manner ple inhale it, say it is not hurtful, and perhaps they are weak formerly described, and carried from the lungs, where it is enough to think so. But do not believe them. It will hurt finished, to the heart,) has been sent out by the heart through every person who inhales it, more or less.

By Dr. Wm. A. Alcott.

1

NO 2.

In common cases, however, as I have already said, we do should press upon the chest with more than its own natural not find too much oxygen in the air; though we very often weight. Infanis, used 10 be swathed too tightly, when first find too much nitrogen, and what is still worse, a quantity of born ; and some are so still. This is particularly unfortunate; carbonic acid gas. For whether the dark, foul, impure blood for if no body else has free inotion of ihe chest, it is indispenof the veins really gives out carbon or noi, as it comes along sable to infants. through the lungs and is purified, one thing is certain, which I have only one idea more 10 present, at the present time. is, that carbonic acid gas is certainly made in the lungs, and You will remember that I told you the lungs resi on the midis continually expelled when we expel the air, at every suc- riff, or diaphragm, a thick membrane, which separates them cessive breath. As soon as it is expelled, if the air around us from the stomach, and liver, and intestines. Now all comis not confined, and is of a proper temperature, it escapes, first pression of the chest compels the lungs, when we breathe, to by rising a little way, as heated air is apt to do, and next by push down the diaphragm much more than is natural; and falling to the floor, or ground, because it is heavier, when cool, this crowds the stomach and intestines, especially if they are than coinmon air is.

full and distended. This interieres with digestion; and the Those persons, therefore, as will be obvious to all who reflect chyme and chyle, of which I said so much on a former occaupon the subject, who live much in the open air, will be able sion, are not apt to be well elaborated. So that the blood is to avoid breathing this carbonic acid gas over again, while injured in two ways by every form of compressing the chest; those who are in hot or close rooms, will be liable to inhale it, first, by not being well formed; and secondly, by not being and have it on their lungs the second time. This is very bad well changed, or reformed, after il has become impure. indeed for them; and if they inhale very much of it, may make In my next, I shall endeavor to tell you something about them sick. Indeed persons who are shut up in a tight room, the skin; a part of the human machinery which, though nowhere the air cannot circulate, may be made sick, and may body thinks much of it, is exceedingly curious, and in some of even die, in a very few hours. We make carbonic acid gas its offices or functions, exceedingly important. enough, in breathing, 10 spoil a gallon of air a minute, or about a bogshead an hour; so that the air of a small tight room NORMAL SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS' SEMINARIES. would very soon be all spoiled.

BY CALVIN E. STOWE, D. D. It is of exceeding great importance to human health and happiness, that we always inhale pure air. We should be, as

IV. Course of Instruction. much as possible, out of doors, and in motion. Our rooms, 2. The philosophy of mind, particularly in reference to its buswhen we are obliged to occupy them long, should be well ceptibility of receiving impressions from mind. aired or ventilated; not our sitting rooms only, but all our

The teacher should learn, at least, not to spoil by his awkwari rooms, especially our sleeping rooms. If they are not so, our handling what Nature has made well; he should know how to pr'. health will soon suffer. Few persons, very few indeed, al- serve the intellectual and moral powers in a healthful condition, if he ways breathe pure air.

be not capable of improving them. But, through ignorance of the When people read in books of the motion of the chest, or

nature of the mind, and its susceptibilities, how often are a teacher's hear lecturers speak of it, they are apt to think only of that most industrious efforts worse than thrown away-perverting and de. motion by which the body is bent to the right or to the left, or is gained by judicious efforts in one direction is counteracted by a

stoying rather than improving! Frequently, also, the good which backward or forward. But as I have attempted to make it ap- mistaken course in another. pear, the chest has a more imporlant motion than all this. —

Under this head there should be a complete classification of tho This consists in its hearing and swelling motion. Now any sources of influence, a close analysis of the peculiar nature and thing which disturbs this sort of motion, is as injurious, if not causes of each, and of its applicability to educational purposes.more so, than breathing bad air; only it does not always kill There should be also a classification of the errors liable to be com. people outright. For while bad air poisons us through the mitted, with a similar analysis, and directions for avoiding them.medium of the thio air cells of the lungs, any thing which It appears to me that there are some valuable discoveries yet to be compresses the chest on the outside, and prevents it from en- made in this branch of knowledge; and that, for the purposes of ed. larging so as to take in a full supply of good air, and thus per- ucation, the powers of the mind are susceptible of a classification mits the impurities of the blood in the veins to go round and much better than that which has hitherto been adopted. round through the heart to all parts of the body, every four or children, as modified by sex, parental character, wealth or poverty,

3. The peculiarities of intellectual and moral development in five minutes, poisoning wherever they go, and slowly but al-city or country, family government, indulgent or severe, fickle or most inevitably destroying us.

steady, &c. Does any one ask whai there is which thus compresses the These diversities all exist in every community, and exert a most chest? I answer, some employments do it. There are per important influence on the developments of children; and no teach. sons who sit in such a position at their tables or writing desks, er can discharge his duties diligently and thoroughly without recog. that the chest is confined or cramped, and the blood is not as nizing this extensive class of influences. The influence of sex is fully charged as it should be. Engravers and turners, and one of the most obvious, and no successful teacher, I believe, ever men who sit much a great part of the day, at almost any em- manages the boys and girls of his school precisely the same man. ployment, and even students, are very apt to experience the ner. But other sources of influences are less important. Parental evils of confining or compressing the chest. For I say again, character is a ne. Parents of high-minded and honerable feeling, will the chest ought io be entirely uncompressed, and wholly free. be likely to impart something of the same spirit to their children. No person, in writing or laboring, ought to rest his breast Such children may be easily governed by appeals to their sense of against his desk or bench; nor is there usually any need of it. If parents are mean-spirited and selfish, great allowance should be

character, and perhaps ruined by the application of the rod. I can write a great deal easier-and so can any body else- made for the failings of their children, and double diligence em. who will try it, and accustom themselves to it, for sitting up ployed to cultivate in them a sense of honor, straight. Let every one who reads this, make the experimeni. The different circumstances of wealth and poverty produce great Employments which lead us to sit in a crouching posture, as differences in childre:). The rich child generally requires restraint, shoemaking or tailoring, are also very apt to prove injurious the poor one, encouragement. When the poor are brought in conand unhealthy:

tact with the rich, it is natural that the former should feel somewhat All dress which presses upon the chest, is wrong. Young sensitive as to the distinctions which may obtain between them and men at military schools, soinetimes, as I am told, have their their fellows; and in such cases special pains should be taken to breasts, or at least their shoulders, braced. This, it done, must shield the sensibilities of the poor child against needless wounds, and seriously affect the lungs. The custom of dressing in stays, make him feel that the poverty for which he is no way blameable is was once common; and the dress of a large proportion of our not to him a degradation. Otherwise he may become envious and females, even now, is very injurious. Even the bones them- misanthropic

, or be discouraged and unmanned. But how often does selves, (the ribs and breastbone,) become distorted and injur- both of the poor and the rich ! Surely it is misfortune enough to the

the reverse of this take place, to the great injury of the character ed; and sometimes in a very great degree.

suffering child that he has to bear the ills arising from ignorance or Instead of compressing the lungs, in the least possible de negligence, vice or poverty, in his parents; and the school should gree, by our clothes, it should always hang loose from the be a refuge for him, where he can improve himself and be happy. shoulders; or at most, be loosely buttoned around us, or fas

Again, city and country produce diversities in children almost as tened in its place by a sash. Not even a vest or wrapper great as the difference of sex. City children are inclined to the ar.

dent, quick, glowing temperament of the female ; country children 6. The art of governing children, with special reference to the lean more to the cooler, steadier, slower development of the male. imparting and keeping alive of a feeling of love for children. City children are more excitable ; by the circumstances in which they Children can be properly governed only by affection, and affec. are placed, their feelings are kept in more constant and rapid motion, tion, rightly directed, is all.powerful for this purpose. A school they are more easily moved to do good, and have stronger temptation governed without love is a gloomy, mind killing place ; it is like a to evil; while country children, less excitable, less rapid in their ad. nursery of tender blossoms filled with an atmosphere of frost and vances towards either good or evil, present, in their peculiarities, a ice. Affection is the natural magnet of the mind in childhood; the broad and solid foundation for characters of stable structure and en. child's mind is fitted by its Creator to be moved by a mother's love; during usefulness. Though human nature is every where the same and cold indifference or stern lovelessness repels and freezes it. In and schools present the same general characteristics; yet the good governing children there is no substitute for affection, and God never country teacher, if he remove to the city, and would be equally suc. intended there should be any. cessful there, will find it necessasy to adopt several modifications of General rules can be given for the government of a school ; the his former arrangements.

results of experience can be treasured up, systematized, and impar. Many other circumstances give rise to diversities no less impor. ted; the candidate for the teacher's office can be exercised to close tant. It is the business of the Teachers' Seminary to arrange and observation, patience and self.control; and all these are essential classify these modifying influences, and give to the pupil the advan branches of instruction in the art of governing. Still, if there be tages of an anticipated experience in respect to his method of pro- no feeling of love for children, all this will not make a good school. ceeding in regard to them. No one will imagine that the teacher is governor. There is great natural diversity in individuals in regard to let his pupils see he recognizes such differences among them; to this, as in all other affections ; yet every one whom God has filled he should be wise enough to keep his own ccunsel, and deal with to be a parent has the elements of this affection, and these elements each individual in such manner as the peculiar circumstances of each are susceptible of development and improvement. may render most productive of good.

7. History of education, including an accurate outline of the edu. 4. The science of education in general, and full illustration of the cational systems of different ages and nations; the circumstances difference between education and mere instruction.

which gave rise to them ; the principles on which they werc foun. Science, in the modern acceptation of the term, is a philosophical ded; the ends which they aimed to accomplish; their successes classification and arrangement of all the facts which are observed in and failures, their permanency and changes; how far they influenced respect to any subject, and an investigation from these facts of the individual and national character; how far any of them might have principles which regulate their occurrence. Education affords its originated in premeditated plan on the part of their founders; facts, and they are as numerous and as deeply interesting as the facts whether they secured the intelligence, virtue, and happiness of the of any other science; these facts are as susceptable of as philosophi. people, or otherwise, with the causes, &c. cal a classification and arrangement as the facts of chemistry or as. To insure success in any pursuit, the experience of our predeces. tronomy; and the principles which regulate their occurrence are as sors is justly considered a valuable, and generally on indispensable appropriate and profitable a subject of investigation as the principles aid. What should we think of one who claimed to be a profound of botany or zoology, or of politics or morals. I know it has been politican while ignorant of the history of political science ; while said by some, that education is not a science, and cannot be reduced anacquainted with the origin of governments, the causes which to scientific principles; but they who talk thus either make use of have modified their torms and influences, the changes which have words without attaching to them any definite meaning, or they con. taken place in them, the different effects produced by various sysfound the idea of education with that of the mere art of teaching.- tems under diverse influences, and of the thousand combinat'ons Even in this sense the statement is altogether erroneous, as will be in which the past treasures wisdom for the future? What should shown under the next head.

we think of the lawyer who knew nothing of the history of law ? or 'The teacher should be acquainted with these facts, with their of the astronomer, ignorant of the history of astronomy? In every classification, their arrangment and principles, before he enters on science and every art we recognize the value of its appropriate his. the duties of his profession; or he is like the surgeon who would tory; and there is not a single circumstance that gives value to such operate on the human body before he has studied anatomy, or the history, which does not apply, in all its force, to the history of edu. attorney who would commence practice before he has made himself cation. Yet strange to say, the history of education is entirely acquainted with the first principles of law.

neglected among us; there is not a work devoted to the subject in It is a common error to confound education with mere instruction; the English language ; and very few, indeed, which contain even an error so common, indeed, that many writers on the subject use notices or hints to guide one's inquiries on this deeply-interesting the words as nearly, if not entirely, synonymous. Instruction, how. theme. I wish some of those writers who complain that education ever, comprehends but a very small part of the general idea of edu. is a hackneyed subject, a subject so often and so much discussed cation. Education includes all the extraneous influences which that nothing new remains to be said upon it, would turn their inqui. combine to the formation of intellectual and moral character; while ries in this direction, and I think they will find much, and that too of instruction is limited to that which is directly communicated from the highest utility, which will be entirely new to the greater part one mind to another. “ Education and instruction (says Hooker) even of the reading population. are the means, the one by use, the other by precept, to make our Man has been an educator erer since he became civilized. A natual faculty of reason both the better and the sooner to judge great variety of systems of public instruction have been adopted rightly between truth and error, good and evil.” A man may be. and sustained by law, which have produced powerful and enduring come well educated, though but poorly instructed as was the case influences; and are we to set sail on this bonndless ocean entirely with Pascal and Franklin, and many others equally illustrious; but ignorant of the courses, and soundings, and discoveries of our pre

his own, fail to acquire a good education. Instruction is mostly the "The Hebrew nation, in its very origin, was eubjected to a pre.

work of others; education depends mainly on the use which we meditated and thoroughly systematized course of national instruc. ourselves make of the circumstances by which we are surrounded. tion, which produced the most wonderful influence, and laid the The mischiefs of defective instruction may often be repaired by our foundation for that peculiar hardilood and determinateness of char. cwn subsequent efforts; but a gap left down in the line of our edu.acter, which have made them the astonishment of all ages, a miracle cation is not so easily put up, after ihe opportunity has once passed by. among nations. A full development of this system, and a careful 5. The art of teaching.

illustration of the particulars which gave it its peculiar strength, and The art of teaching, it is true, is not a science, and cannot be learn of the circumstances which perverted it from good 10 evil, which ed by theoretic study alone, without practice. The model-school turned strength into the force of hate, and perseverance into obsti. is appropriately, the place for the acquisition of this art by actual nacy, would be a most valuable contribution to the science of gen. practice; but, like all the rational aris, it rests on scientific princi- eral educatien. The ancient Persians and Hindoos had ingenious ples. The theoretical instruction, therefore, in this branch, will be and thoroughly.digested systems of public instruction, entirely limited mainly to a development of the principles on which it is diverse from each other, yet each wonderlully efficacious in its own founded; while the application of those principles will be illustrated peculiar way. The Greeks were a busily educating people, and and :he art of teaching acquired, by instructing in the model.school great varieties of systems sprung up in their different states and under the care of the professors, and subject to their direction and under their different masters, all of them ingenious, most of them remarks. The professor assigns to the pupil his class in the model. effective, and some of them characterized by the highest excellences. school, he observes his manner of teaching, and notices its excel. Systems which we cannot and ought not imitate, may be highly use. lences and defects; and after the class is dismissed, and the stu. ful as warnings, and to prevent our trying experiments which have dent is with him alone, or in company only with his fellow.students, been often tried before, and failed to be useful. The Chinese, for he commends what he did well, shows him how he might have example, have had for ages a system which is peculiarly and strictly made the imperfect better, and the erroneous correct, pointing out, national; its object has always been to niake them Chinese, and as he proceeds, the application of theoretic principles to practice, nothing else ? it has fully answered the purpose intended; and what that the lessons in the model.school may be really an illustration of has been the result? A nation of machines, a people of patterns, all that has been taught in the Teachers' Seminary.

made to order; a set of men and women wound up like clocks, to

go in a certain way, and for a certain time, with minds wonderfully their whole lives; that no employment can be more intimately connice and exact in certain little things; but as stiff, as unsusceptible nected with the progress and general welfare of society ; that the of expansion, as incapable of originating thought, or deviating from best hopes and tenderest wishes of parents and of nations depend the bearen track, as one of their own graven images is of naviga. on their skill and fidelity; and that an incompetent or unworthy dis. ting a ship. In short they are very much such a people as the charge of the duties of their office brings the community into the Americans might become in a few centuriees, if some amiable en condition of an embattled host when the standard bearer faileth. If thusiasts could succeed in establishing what they are pleased to de. teachers themselves generally had a clear and definite conception nominate a system exclusively American. Education, to be useful of the immensely-resposible place they occupy; if they were skilled must be expansive, must be universal; the mind must not be trained in the art of laying these conceptions vividly before the minds of to run in one narrow channel; it must understand that human beings the people among whom they labor, it would produce a great influhave thought, and felt, and acted, in other countries than its own; ence on the profession itself, by bringing it under the pressure of a that the results of preceding efforts have their value, and that all mightier motivc, and cause all classes of people more clearly to un. light is not confined to its own little Goshen.

derstand the irestimable worth of the good teacher, and make them When a science has become fixed as to its principles, when its more willing to honor and reward him. And this, too, would be the facts are ascertained and well settled, then its history is generally surest method of ridding the profession of such incumbents as are a written. Why, then, have we no history of education in our landisgrace 10 it, and an obstacle to its elevation and improvement. guage. Simply because the science of education, with us, is yet in Julius Cæsar was the first of the Romans who honored schvol.leach. its infancy ; because, so far from being a hackneyed or an exhausted ers by raising them to the rank of Roman citizens, and in no act of subject, on which nothing new remains to be said, its fundamental his life did he more clearly manifest that peculiar sagacity for which principles are not yet so ascertained as to become the basis of a he was distinguished, fixed science. It cannot be pretended that there are no materials for 10. Special religious obligations of teachers in respect to benevo. the composition of such a history. We are not destitute of infor- lent devotedness to the intellectual and moral welfare of society, mation respecting the educational systems of the most ancient habits of entire self control, purity of mind, elevation of character, nations, as the Chaldeans, Assyrians, Egyptians, and Carthaginians; &c. and in respect to the Hindoos, the Persians, the Greeks, the The duties of the teacher are scarcely less sacred or less delicate Romans, the Chinese, the modern Europeans, the materials for their than those of the minister of religion. In several important respects educational history are nearly as ample as those for their civil his. he stands in a similar relation to society; and his motives and entory; and the former is quite as important to the educator as the couragements to effort must, to a considerable extent, be of the latter is to the civilian. The brief and imperfect but highly interest. same class. It is not to be expected that teaching will ever become ing sketches given by Sharon Turner in his history of England, afford generally a lucrative profession, or that many will enter it for sufficient proof of my assertion; and they are to a full history of mere love of inoney, or that, if any should enter it from such a mo. English education, as he first streaks of dawn to the risen sun, tive, they would ever be very useful in it. All teachers ought to Should Teachers' Seminaries do nothing else than excite a taste have a comfortable support, and a competency for the time of sick. and afford the materials for the successful pursuit of this branch of ness and old age ; but what ought to be and what is, in such a world study only, they would more than repay all the cost of their establish as this, are often very differene things. Il a competency is gained ment and maintenance. Systems of education which formed and by teaching, very few will ever expect to grow rich by it. Higher trained such minds as arose in Egypt, in Judea, in Greece, systems motives than the love of wealth must actuate the teacher in the under whose influence such men as Moses and Isaiah, Solon, and choice of his profession, and animate him in the performance of its Plato, and Paul, received those first impressions which has such laborious duties. Such motives as the love of doing good, and pe. commanding power over their mighty intellecis, may afford to us culiar affection for children, do exist in many minds, notwithstanding many valuable suggestions. The several topics to which ! have the general selfishness of the world; and these emotions, by a above alluded, as particularly worthy of notice in a history of those proper kind of culture, are susceptible of increase, till they become systems, are too obviously important to require a separate illustra. the predominant and leading desires. The teacher who has little

benevolence, and liule love for children, must be a miserable being, 8. The rules of health and the laws of physical development. as well as a very poor teacher ; but one who has these propensities

The care of the body while we are in this world is not less impor. 'strongly developed, and is not ambitious of distinction in the world tant than the culture of the mind; for, as a general fact, no mind of vanity and noise, but seeks his happiness in doing good, is among can work vigorously in a feeble and comfortless body; and when the happiest of men; and some of the most remarkable instances of the forecastle of a vessel sinks, the cabin must soon follow. The healthy and cheerful old age are found among school teachers. As educating period of youth is the time most critical to health ; and examples. I would mention old Ezekiel Cheever, who taught school the peculiar excitements and temptations of a course of study, add in New England for seventy one years without interruption, and greatly to the natural dangers or the forming and develop ng season died in Boston in the year 1708, at the advanced age of ninety. of life. Teachers, therefore, especially, should understand the three; or to Dr. G. F. Dinter, now living at Konigsberg in Prussia, rules of health, and the laws of physical development; and it is im. in the eightieth year of his age. Indeed, the ingenious author of possible that they should understand thein, unless thuy devote somo Hermippus Redivivus affirma, that the breath of beloved children time to their study. What a ruinous was.e of comfort, of strength, preserves the bencvalent school master's health, as salt keeps flesh and of life, has there been in our educational establishments, in from putrefaction. In Prussia, school teachers generally enter on consequence of the ignorance and neglect of teachers on this point! their profession at the age of twenty-two or twenty-five, and the And how seldom is this important branch of study ever thought of average term of service among the forty thousand teachers there as a necessary qualifcation for the office of teacher !

employed is over thirty years, making the average duration of a As it is a most sacred duty of the teacher to preserve uninjured the teacher’s life there nearly sixty years; a greater longevity than can powers of the mind, and keep them in a healthful condition, so it is no be found in any profession in the United States. Many teachers jess his duty to take the same care of the physical powers. The body continue in the active discharge of their official duties more than should not only be kept in health, but its powers should be developed fifty years; and the fiftieth anniversary of their induction to office is and improved with as much care as is devoted to the improvement celebrated by a festival, and honored by a present from government. of the mind, that all the capabilities of the man may be brought out. The other qualities mentioned, self-control, purity of mind, eleva. and atted for active duty. But can one know how to do this if he tion of character, are so obviously essential to a teacher's useful. never learns? And will he be likely to learn, unless he has oppor. ness, that they require no comment. We need only remark, that tunity of learning? It is generaily regarded as the province of these are morai qualities, and can be cultivated only by moral means; teachers to finish out and improve on Nature's plan ; but if they can that they are religious qualities, and must be excited and kept alive all be brought to understand their profession so well as not to mar by religious motives, Will any one here raise the cry, Sectarianand spoil what nature made right, it will be a great improvement on ism, Church and State ? I pity the poor bigot, or the nariow-souled the present condition of education in the world.

unbeliever, who can form no idea of religious principle, except as a 9. Dignity and importance of the teachers office.

sectarian thing; who is himself so utterly unsusceptible of enno. Self respect, and a consciousness of doing well, are essential to bling emotions, that he cannot even conceive possible that any comfort and success in any honorable calling; especially in one sub. man should have a principle of virtue and piery superior to all external ject to so many external depressions, one so little esteemed and so forms, and untrammelled by metaphysical systems. From the aid poorly rewarded by the world at large, as that of the teacher. No of such men we have nothing to hope in the cause of sound educa. station of so great importance has probably ever been so slightly tion; and their hostility we may as well encounter in one form as estinated; and the fault has been partly in the members of the pro. another, provided we make sure of the ground on which we stand, fession itself. They have not estimated their official importance and hold up the right principles in the right shape. sufficien:ly high ; they have given a tacit assent to the superficial 11. The influence which the school should exert on civilization judginent of the world; they have hung loosely on the profession, ard thu progress of society. and too often abandoned it the first opportunity. They ought early It requires no great sagacity to perceive, that the school is one to understand that their profession demands the strongest efforts of of the most important parts of the social machine, especially in

tion.

1

modern times, when it is fast acquiring for itself the influence which
was wielded by the pulpit some iwo centuries ago, and which, at a many: but, instead of the practical and independent use of
more recent period, has been obtained by the periodical press. As these by each person for his own guide, a course of singing
the community becomes separated into sects, which bigotry and in. by ear generally commences with the early lessons, which of-
tolerance force into subdivisions still more minute, the influence of
the pulpit is gradually circumscribed ; but no such causes limit the len follows through life. The consequence is, that, of the
influence of the school. Teachers need only understand the posi- many thousands who sing, probably not as many hundreds
tion they occupy, and act in concert, to make the school the most could sing at first sight even a very simple melody. This
effective element of modern civilization, not excepting even the fundamental defect will be found pervading almost all classes
periodical press. A source of influence so immense, and which
draws so deeply on the destinies of men, ought to be thoroughly in. of singers and players in our country; and, of course, it be-
vestigated and considered, especially by those who make teaching comes an interesting question with every friend of thorough
their profession. Yet I know not, in the whole compass of Eng. instruction, how can an improvement be made ?
lish literature, a single work on the subject, notwithstanding that
education is so worn-out a theme, that nobody can say anything new The advocates of the German method say, that we teach
upon it.
12. The elements of Latin, together with the German, French and what relates to sounds, to pupils who have not been taught

names more than things: that is, terms expressing sounds, and Spanish languages.

The languages of Europe have received most of their refinement by experience the ideas which those terms represent. The
and their science through the medium of the Latin ; and so largely Germans begin with calling each note in the scale, ai concert
are they indebted to this tongue, that the elements of it are necessa-
ry as a foundation to the study of the modern languages. That the pitch, by a distinct name: that is, do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, se, do.
German should be understood by teachers, especially in Pennsyl. They then practice the pupil long on these names in connec-
vania, Ohio, and the Western States generally, is obvious from tion with their appropriate sounds, until they can recognize
the fact, that more than half the school districts contain German them with readiness. The English and French, contrary to
parents and children, who are best approached through the medium
of their own tongue; und the rich abundance and variety of educa. this plan, call the same sounds by the letters of the alphabet,
tional literature in this language, greater, I venture to say, than in while they name the key note of the major scale do, the next
all other languages together, render it an acquisition of the highest above it, re, the next mi, &c., going up in the same order. It
importance to every teacher. In the present state of the commer-
cial world one cannot be said to have acquired a business education is important to keep this difference in view, to understand dis-
without a knowledge of French; while our intimate relations with tinctly the following explanatio . f the German method.
Mexico and South America render the Spanish valuable to us, and

In the next place, the semi-tones are called by names alter-
indeed, in the Western country, almost indispensable. The mental
discipline which the study of these languages gives is of the most ed a little from the notes from which we consider them as
valuable kind, and the collateral information acquired while learn. formed by flats or sharps. Thus do sharp is called don, and
ing them is highly useful. Though a foreign tongue is a difficult do tlat dor ; re sharp ren, and re flat rer. Thus each sound
acquisition for an adult, it is very easy for a child. In the Rhine
provinces of Germany, almost every child learns, without effort, has a name of its own; and this, it is supposed, gives a pupil
both German, and French, and in the cornmercial citics, English a more proper as well as a more distinct impression of it.-
also; and the unschooled children of the Levant often learn four or Certain it is, that even young pupils, accustomed 10 this kind
five different languages merely by ihe car. I do not suppose that
the modern languages will soon become a regular branch of study of practice often display an accurate recollection of pitch,
in all our common schools; still, many, who depend on those schools while, the common methods have nothing at all in them to fix
for their education, desire to study one or more of them, and they it in the memory. They at the same time make at least an
ought to have the opportunity ; and if we would inake our common
schools our best schools, as they surely ought to be, the teachers equal proficiency in the knowledge of intervals and time; and
must be capable of giving instruction in some of these languages. and are behind pupils taught on the old methods only in the

I have thus endeavored to give a brief view of the course of study names and definitions of such signs and terms, as may have
which should be pursued in a Teachers' Seminary, and this, I sup-
pose, in itself, affords a strong and complete argument to establish been presented to the latter. We say " the names and defi-
the necessity of such an institution. A few general considerations nitions of such signs and terms:" for, although a small pro-
in favor of this object will now be adduced.

portion of pupils thus taught may be found who practically

apply them, the great majority, it is generally conceded, do not MUSIC IN SCHOOLS.

progress so far in some months or even years. Besides, it has We hope that all the teachers in this State will give this been affirmed that the practice of repeating definitions and subject some attention during the interesting season now co.n- looking upon emblems without understanding them is an inmencing, when thousands of children and youth are assem- jurious practice; and that it is more difficult to reduce to good bling for another period of instruction. We earnestly request habits pupils accustomed to bad ones, than to train novices instructors, school visiters, and parents to exert themselves to from the first elements. have singing introduced into their schools. While we refer The German principles of instruction in music, which we them to several of the former nurnbers of this journal, for sug- have attempted here in some degree to explain, have been but gestions on the utility of teaching children this agreeable little taught in the United States. Mr. Ives, an eminent inbranch, and descriptions of some of the simplest methods of structor in New York, gives them decided preference; and elementary instruction in it, we would add here a few remarks has published a Solfegge, or set of elementary lessons, for the on certain principles which are adopted by the Germans, and use of his pupils, founded upon them. He maintains, that, to some extent, introduced into our own country.

after sufficient practice on pitch and intervals, pupils become In the first place, however, we would make a few remarks familiar with various modulations, or changes of key, and on the considerations by which this plan is recommended.- readily fall in with them in performance; and are well preWhoever has attempted to teach music must be ready to con. pared to understand the meaning of definitions and rules, when sess that complete success in bringing pupils to a ready practi- ihe teacher comes to speak of the scale, its composition and cal use of the scientific principles, is very rarely attained. It transpositions. is so easy to sing by ear, and that the reading of the notes is After these prolonged remarks, on a subject perhaps ab. dispensed with, because labor and care are necessary to acquire struse to some of our readers, we will only add, that primary the ability. The “raising and falling of the eight potes” may lessons on this plan may begin with seinibreves, minims, &c., be soon acquired by most pupils, at any age; and the defini- on the G cleff, natural, beating time carefully, keeping concert tions and rulcs given by the teacher, or in books, are learnt by pitch, and gradually rising from one to two and more ioned.

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