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XI. PRIVATE SCHOOLS.
duction into schools; also, the various uses to which the 11. Distribution of public monies, with or without condition, accordslate in the hands of the young children is now or can be
ing to the number of children in the society or district, or in the
schools for a certain length of time, &c. &c. put, thus affording them innocent and useful employment.
You are respectfully requested to communicate your X. GRADATION OF SCHOOLS.
views to the Board, on the present condition and the imYou are particularly requested to consider the practica- provement of our common schools, in all or any of the bility of reducing the number of classes in any one above particulars, and in any other which you may deem school, arising out of the variety of ages, studies and important. It is desirable that your views should as far books, of preventing the too common neglect of primary as practicable be presented under the above heads, both branches and the young children, and of securing a great- for convenience of reference and comparison. Even er permanency in the office of teacher, by placing the where you may not find it convenient to consider the seryounger children in the primary studies by themselves eral topics at much length, you are requested to communi under female teachers, and the older children under male cate such facts as you have, and to express some opinion, teachers qualified to teach the more advanced studies, and even though it should be brief, and unsupported with your how far this can be done, 1. by employing two teachers reasons for entertaining it. in the populous districts; 2. by a union school for the You are further requested to invite teachers, and other older children of two or more adjoining districts, leaving persons practically acquainted with the subject, or intethe younger children in the present district schools; or 3, rested in the more extensive usefulness of the common by a central school, or schools for the older children of the schools, to communicate their views to the Board, who whole society.
are anxious to gather the suggestions and plans of the
wise and experienced of their fellow citizens in every Under this head you are requested to include the num-part of the state. ber, origin, studies, expense and influence on the com
All communications in reply to this circular can be mon schools, and the community generally, of that class transmitted directly to the undersigned at Hartford, as of private schools, that occupy the same ground which early as your convenience will allow. To be of service every complete system of common schools should cover.
to the Board and the Legislature at the ensuing session,
they should reach this office early in April. XI. SCHOOL DISTRICT OR SocieTY LIBRARIES.
By order of the Board of Commissioners of Common Schools. After stating the number of books and the terms on
HENRY BARNARD, 2D., Secretary. which they are accessible to the older children, and adults Hartford, Feb. 15, 1841. generally, apart from private libraries, you are requested to state the difficulties in the way of establishing libraries BETTER TEACHERS" AND BETTER PAY. of well selected books, to be owned by each district, or by the society or town, and to pass in succession through cation lately received from an educated, experienced and
The following passages are extracted from a communithe several districts.
successful female teacher, and which was called forth by XIII. LECTURES AND OTHER MEANS OF POPULAR an article in the former number of the Journal relative to
the demand for “better teachers." Under this head you are requested to notice any means
I received two papers from your office yesterday, and have given
them a hasty perusal. You speak of the want of competent teachof instruction which have been accessible and enjoyed, in
ers, and undoubtedly it is so. But why is it thus? Is not the grand your society, which are not before included, such as lec- secret this—you require much, but pay little; you offer no induce. tures, debating societies, classes for mutual improvement, ment worthy of atiention ; you require fine talent and high qualifi, &c., and their influence, with the practicability of in- cation, yet their compensation is no more than the “ bewers of wood
and drawers of water” receive. creasing them and making them more useful.
Much has been done to raise the standard of common schools; xiv. CONTROVERSIES AND LITIGATION.
and “better teachers, better teachers," is the cry every where
raised. The inspectors, usually intelligent men, conscious of their Under this head you are requested to mention any local duty, have not failed on their part. The requisite qualifications are controversies or legal disputes, which disturb the har- now double what they were ten years ago, or even six. Then the mony of the society or the district, cause expense, and female teache: was seldom questioned beyond the ground rules of Da.
boll; now she is asked the demonstration of the cube root with as impair the advantages of the children, and to propose much gravity as if she was to receive a thousand dollar salary. some way of settling them as they may hereafter arise. Still the wages remain stationary; for those who supply with funds,
protest agains: the high prices. XV. ALTERATIONS OF THE SCHOOL LAW.
Now I would not complain of a high standard. It ought so to be; You are further requested to propose any specific altera- but while one is done, the other ought not to be left undone. While
this state of things exists, they may continue to call for good teachtions in the organization of our common school system,
ers till doomsday, without having their wants supplied. There is in the following or any other particulars :
also a wide difference made between male and female teachers in
the same situation. Many of our best females have both ability and 1. School Societies, their limits, powers and duties. 2. School Districts, their formation, alteration, limits, powers and resolution to manage our winter schools with success; yet when duties.
male and female are teaching side by side, and their schools equally 3. School Society Committee, their number, appointment, powers and good, the female receives but a shameful pittance," and were it not duties.
for the honor she receives, during the summer months, of tramping 4. Visiters or Overseers of Schools, their number, appointment, the street for her board, would prefer to “tend her father's dairy.” powers, duties and compensation.
To illustrate this, permit me to give you one example. In one 5. District Committee, their number, appointment, powers and duties. district of this town, there is a large school, composed of the large 6. Schoolhouses, their location, and mode of sustaining the expense and small scholars. A very able male teacher was employed. In for building and repairing.
another, the school was smaller in number, but of the same variety 7. Union and High School for the older children and more advanced of age; several boys were larger than yourself, together with some studies, mode of establishing and maintaining.
quite unmanageable negroes; and in this district a female teacher 8. Teachers, their qualifications as fixed by law, mode of ascertaining was employed. The sehools were visited the same week, the im.
the same, and their authority in and out of the schoolroom. provement of one was pronounced by the committee equal to the other. 9. Length of school, in summer, and in winter.
The male teacher receives 25 doilars, the female 8 dollars per 10. Attendance of children at school under 16 years of age, and espe- month, with their board. I mention this, that you may see the encially of those engaged in factories, or as apprentices.
couragement offered to good female teachers.
For the Journal.
atlases, are always small. A larger map of the world is a valuable school article. This map, which is nineteen inches in diameter, is put up in a form much more durable and convenient than if it were on rollers; and it possesses the peculiar convenience of showing, even to a child, how the parts of the world on a common map come together. It presents considerably the aspect of a large globe, and is in some respects a substitute for it; and being on a larger scale, it forms a valuable auxiliary of a small globe. This map presents a view. of each country in the world, so large as to be distinctly seen across the room, excepting the particular United States, which are not laid down, and the kingdoms of Europe, which are necessarily small.
The maps of the United States and of Europe supply the deficiency; and altogether exhibit a clear outline view of all the countries of the world, with very many particulars respecting them.
Whenever recitations or examinations in geography are had, it is important that a teacher have a map which he can hold up to the view of his scholars, that every fact may receive a proper location, and be firmly fixed in the memory. These
maps, being put up on stiff board and strongly painted, are SCHOOL APPARATUS.
peculiarly fitied for this purpose.
The map of geographical terms, being on a large scale, The following descriptive remarks on the New York School Appa- will impress the definitions on the minds of children. The ratus, are communicated by Professor Haskell, and although they have correspondent portions of land and water, as the peninsula and special reference to his own collection will indicate the use of similar the sea,—the isthmus and the strait,—the bay or gulf and the apparatus by whomsoever made.
cape,-are placed side by side for comparison.
The map to illustrate ancient history is a large and conThe round text copies, and copies for beginners, being on nected view of all the countries known to the ancients, and binders' board and varnished, will last for an indefinite length contains, in lines of different colors, the marches of those disof time; and they are not liable to be soon defaced, as dirt tinguished commanders, Alexander, Hannibal
, and Julius and ink can be easily washed off.
Cæsar. Ancient maps are not so common in schools as modThe card for holding the pen will save a teacher much ern maps, but are essentially necessary to the study of ancient trouble in preventing bad habits on this subject, which are history. It is an advantage in this map, that il presents all not corrected.
the countries with
The title page, an ornamental caption to each rule as far as Inter- presents, in different colors, those of North America, South est, a summary of each rule under the caption, and examples America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. In the margin, referred of the manner of setting down sums in each rule. Each cap- to by numbers, is the country and latitude in which they are tion differs from the others in hand-writing, flourishes, &c., situated, their height in feet, and other particulars. It is well and altogether furnish a fine sample of every variety of wri- calculated to fix a permanent impression of the relative heights ting, and of beautiful figures.
of the different parts of the world. The arithmetical card with moveable counters, is furnish The cylindrical revolving Mercator's chart is designed to ed with an explanation detailing its uses.
aid in explaining the principles of that projection. Such The five inch globe contains a distinct outline of every maps are very frequently inserted in atlases, and it is desikingdom in the world, with the name of every kingdom, and rable that scholars should understand them. By comparing the names of a considerable number of capital places, and this cylindrical chart with the common globe, the subject may other important matter. It has an hour-circle at the top for be made plain. working a few problems. With the moon attached, revolv In the card of geometrical figures, the different figures are ing in an inclined orbit, and a lamp for the sun on a pedestal painted in different colors, hy which their form is rendered containing the zodiac, which is the form in the common school more distinct and impressive; and small dotted lines are atapparatus, the whole doctrine of day and night, the seasons, tached to the figures, which are of important use in explaining eclipses, and the passage of sun and earth through the the reasons of the rules for the measurement of the figures. signs of the zodiac, can be explained. A wire hoop with a In the eclipse, a string is inserted through the foci to show the short handle is furnished, to be held over the globe as a move- manner of describing, and the nature of this figure. The Lesable horizon. It may also be made to represent the circle of sons on Geometry, accompanying this card, can be furnished light in explaining day and night. The uses of this machine as a text-book for scholars, if it is desired. are explained in the Lessons on Astronomy.
The protractor, though a slight article, will be fully suffiThe three inch globe contains nearly as much matter as the cient for explaining the manner of laying off angles by that five inch, in a very distinct form, and is used in the Tellurian. instrument. On a simple pedestal, it forms a useful family article, and is The machine to illustrate angles, chords, sines, tangents, inserted in the box of family apparatus.
secants, fc. will be found useful in explaining these things, The two and a quarter inch globe contains considerable and the nature of the line of chords, and the measurement of matter, and is used in a Tellurian, and other articles, and also angles by it. It will be seen by it that the chord of sixty deseparately, as a child's article.
grees is always equal to radius ; that a line of chords, conArrowsmith's large map of the world, which is larger by structed upon a large, and another upon a smaller circle, will several inches in the diameter of each hemisphere than any give the same measurement of an angle; and that a circle other globular map ever published in the United States, was described with the chord of sixty will always be the circle to the best, when first published, that had ever been issued in which that line of chords is constructed. England. It has been laboriously corrected to the present The most important Geometrical Solids are furnished, time. Strongly painted, and pasted on the walls of a school some of which will be found particularly useful in explaining room, it will strongly impress the great features of the world mensuration. on the minds of children, and be very useful to teachers. In. The astronomical apparatus is, in many respects, origithis form it will be very durable. How can four dollars benal in its construction, and will be found to be very complete. better expended than by putting it on the walls of every school The largest planetarium is encompassed by four signs of room ?
the zodiac on arms, a large wire hoop passing around the midThe globular revolving map of the world is an original dle of the zodiac, representing the celestial ecliptic ; another coatrivance of the proprietor.' Maps of the world in school l similar wire hoop, representing the orbit of a planet, crossing
the ecliptic; and two semicircular wires crossing each other The machine, showing the earth as an oblate spheroid, at right angles, and containing stars, representing the concave. has a globe in the centre, to make it more expressive; it is to The earth, which is covered with a neatly evgraved glube, is be whirled with the finger, and it will flatten at the poles. completely fitted up for explaining seasons, day and night, and The machine explaining the moon's nodes has a large tin eclipses. Saturn's ring has a preparation to show its differ- plane of the earth's orbit, and smaller planes of the moon's ent phases. The ball in the centre for the sun, is fitted to be orbit, inserted in it at an angle, with representations of the removed, and a lamp is furnished to supply its place for night sun, earth and moon.
The manner of using this machine, and others connect The machine for explaining umbra and penumbra in eed with it, is particularly explained in the Lessons on Astron- solar and lunar eclipses, is formed on the plan of the comomy, which accompany it. These Lessons may also be used mon diagrams, embodied. to advantage by scholars while under instruction, and can be The five inch terrestrial globe, with a moreable horizon, furnished for that purpose.
rings of stars, g-c., is an original contrivance, and will be The planets in this and the other similar machines, are to be found eminently useful. Many things can be made plain by moved by the hand. This, it is believed, will be found more it, which cannot be well explained by the common globe.-advantageous than if they went by machinery; though, doubt. The moveable horizon may be made to represent the circle of less, the prejudices of many literary men are in favor of ma- light, in explaining day and night. Its uses are pointed out chinery. Machinery is of importance but for the single pur- in the Lessons on Astronomy. pose of exhibiting ihe motions of all the planets together, A correspondent celestial globe is fitted up to accompany around a common centre, in different periodical times. This the above ; and when it is necessary to use it with a moveais a pretty sight; but this is one of the things in astronomy, ble horizon and rings of stars, the celestial can be put on the the most easily apprehended. The children of an infant axis of the terrestrial globe. In explaining seasons, day and school, marching round on a diagram on the floor, exhibit this night, and eclipses, the rings of stars should be removed from fact as well as was ever done by a planetarium. In regard to the terrestrial globe. The celestial globe is also furnished all the particular and difficult explanations, machinery is an on a simple pedestal, and contaius distinct pictures of all the incumbrance. If it is used, it will often take a long time to constellations, with all the stars of the first six magnitudes, bring two planets in a particular relative position for a partic- which are all that are visible to the naked eye. ular explanation; and, in doing this, the subject in hand will
The uses of other articles will be evident. By passing be confused by multiplied motions which do not belong to it. small moveable planets, or small buttons representing the It will be of great use to require the pupil, after the teacher planets, round on the diagram of the solar system, conjunchas given the explanation, to give it himself, and move the tion, opposition, elongation, quadrature, direci and retrogade machinery with his own hands. Planetariums which are motion, &c., can be represented; and by means of the surmoved by wheel work, cannot be moved frequently by the rounding zodiac, the motion of the sun and earth through the hand, without getting out of order. Wheel work is peculiarly signs of the zodiac can be explained. The spring, summer
, liable to get out of order, and in schools could not be easily autumnal and winter signs are painted in different colors. In repaired.
this way it can be made to some extent a cheap substitute for The planetarium without the encompassing zodiac and a planetarium. concave is a more convenient article to transport, and is the one
The frame of pulleys and levers is a neat and convenient which is attached to the astronomical set. It contains every article, and contains every variety of both. The balance has thing, excepting the large zodiac ; and has a zodiac upon the a preparation for placing the fulerum above and below, as well pedestal. A good suöstitute for the large zodiac will be found as in the centre of gravity, to show that when it is above or in other articles, as the armillary sphere and the machine below, the equilibrium would not be maintained, excepting in showing the inclinations of the orbits of the planets and their a horizontal position. A graduated scale, with cords extendnodes. The armillary sphere exhibits the circles of the ing between the sides of the machine, exhibits the relative sphere in different colors, the zodiac passing round the middle rise of the weight and the power. The weights are all ounce, of the concave, and the system revolving within the zodiac, or half ounce balls, and exhibit to the eye their relative which consists of the sun and primary planets, moved togeth- amount. er by the finger.
The wedge is fitted to the inclined plane, being of the same The machine showing the inclinations of the orbits of the length, to show the relation between them ; and the former planets contains three hoops, fastened together at two opposite opens by a hinge, to exhibit it as two inclined planes. points, and moveable. The outer hoop is of a different color The screw has a revolving wire hoop, corresponding to its from the rest, to represent the ecliptic. The inner hoop should thread, at the distance of the length of the handle from the be made to cross it at right angles, to complete the concave; budy of the screw, to show its relation to an inclined plane. and the middle hoop, representing the orbit of a planet, may If the weight were removed from the top of the screw to this be made to cross the ecliptic at different angles, to represeni hoop, the turning of the handle would exhibit an inclined plane the inclinations of the orbits of ihe several planets. The pushed under the weight, which is equivalent to rolling the points where the boops cross each other will represent the weight up an inclined plane. nodes of the planets, and the wire connecting them and pass In the blocks to show the centre of gravity, one of which is ing through the centre of the sun, the line of the nodes. upright and the other inclined, a wire is fixed, which always
The orbit and plane of an orbit will make palpable an im- keeps the line of direction ; and it is seen that when it falls portant definition, which, if it be not perfectly apprehended, within the base, the body stands, and when without the base, will perplex the youthful inquirer through his whole course. it falls. By means of the Armillary Sphere, with the earth in the In the machine for showing action and reaction, several centre, the circles and zodiac can be explained; and it can marbles are laid in close order near the middle of the horizonalso be shown, that by the daily revolution of the earth from tal wires, and one is rolled against them, when all will rewest to east, while the heavens are stationary, the apparent main stationary, excepting the last, which will fly off, &c. motion of the planets from east to west will be exhibited, as The intermittent fountain will only commence running would take place if the earth were fixed and the heavens were when nearly full, and will run until it is emptied. The syto revole around it in twenty-four hours from east to west. phon is metallic, to be more durable.
The Tellurian is constructed on the same principles as the The machine to show the resistance of the air has two earth in the planetarium, but on a larger scale. Beneath the I vanes, inserted in a hub, with holes in the axis of the hub, at earth in the larger ones, on the arm which supports it, is a right angles with each other. When the axis is so inserted diagram of the phases of the moon, as they will appear by as to bring the vanes edgewise to the air, when whirled with the use of the lamp; and opposite the earth's place a pointer the finger, it will run a long time. When the axis is so inmoves round, denoting the sun's place in the ecliptic, at the serted as to bring their flat surface to the air, it will move but same time.
a short time. A tide globe is furnished, which may be used with the Tel The prism is large and hollow, composed of plates of glass lurian or Planetarium, which will be found very complete for inclosed in a tin frame. A large prism is much more interis purpose. Its uses are shown in the Lessons on Astronomy. Testing than a small one, as it presents a much larger view.
The eye has lenses inserted in a ball or socket, so as to exhibit propriately educated in the thorough classical courses of the the inverted image of objects before it on a piece of ground gymnasia, while those intended for occupations connected glass, representing the retina. It is particularly interesting with the mechanics arts, manufactories, or commerce, pass to see how objects enlarge as they approach, and diminish as the corresponding period in the study of science and the modthey recede from it, and thus how greatly the angle of vision ern languages, in the institutions called "real schools.” This vąries.
system has found much favor, and the real schools are on the An electrical, air-pump and chemical apparatus are ex- increase in Germany, and are spreading into other countries. pensive and delicate, and probably few schools will procure It is no new experiment, having originated as early, as 1747, them. They will be furnished, however, to order, as well as and made its way slowly into favor among a people not admany minor articles not enumerated.
dicted to change.' It is remarkable that a plan, founded upon The best cheap substitute for expensive philosophical appa- the same leading idea which gave rise to the establishment of ratus is excellent philosophical plates. The plates in com “ real schools," was proposed by Dr. Franklin as the basis of mon school books, from the low price at which these books the Philadelphia Academy. Pres. Bache's Report. are furnished, are necessarily very imperfect. Connected with this apparatus, are all the plates belonging to Imison's Elements of Science and Art, an English work of reputation, National Education.-By Mrs. Austin, London, 1839. which print twenty-eight pages quarto and octavo, on all the departments of philosophy. These are put up on six large cards.
This little volume by the well known translator of Cousin's The proprietor is also the owner of the copperplates to Fer- Report on primary education in Prussia, is intended to quickguson's Lectures on Natural Philosophy, containing forty-eight en and direct the efforts of the English nation, in behalf of a pages small quarto, of very interesting matter.
comprehensive and thorough system of national education, by A box of family apparatus has been prepared, which con- a brief history and review of ihe new primary school system tains a great variety of interesting and useful articles.
of France. We made a few extracts from it, in a former volume of the Journal. We add the following admirable passage from a circular of M. Guizot, the minister of public
instruction, on the
TRUE DIGNITY OF THE SCHOOL MASTER.
But this great work would remain sterile if it were not sec. One of the principal difficulties in satisfactorily arranging onded by the animated, zealous, persevering co-operation of the true the instruction in a school, arises from the necessity of join-executors of the law-the primary schoolmasters. Called to a sort ing several pupils in a class; so that the system is addressed of priesthood, as humble in its form as it is elevated in its object, it to the mental average of a number of pupils, and not to indi- is in their hands that the fate of this important law-we may say
No. viduals ; the effects of sympathy and example, which are so thing can be accomplished unless the village teachers, as well as
the fate of the country as regards popular education, rests. powerful in youth, counteract, however, happily in a great those placed on a wider sphere of action, are profoundly impressed measure, the injurious tendency of the arrangement just re- with the importance and gravity of their mission, ferred to. The necessity for adapting education to the gradu " Yet we have but too much reason to expect nothing from them al development of the mind of ihe pupil, as he grows older, but coldness and indifference. Deprived hitherto of all common is universally admitted, but ihe propriety of extending the and general direction, neglected, lest to themselves, the school, application of the principle to minds of different constitutions, masters of the people had reason to regard themselves as isolated is by no means generally assented to; and, in the systems of laborers, whose toils no man thought of encouraging. Hence, they most schools, any consideration of the difference in destina- could but mistrust themselves and their work, and misconceive its tion in life of their pupils, is entirely neglected. The divis- importance and its dignity. Men who, feeling themselves daily ion of schools, in reference to age, distributes them severally disowned by the general apathy and recklessness, can yet find, in into infant, elementary, secondary, and superior schools, cor- the testimony of their own consciences, and in the depth of their responding in the age of the pupils, to the limits of six, twelve,
own convictions, a motive and a reward sufficient to make them per. sixteen, or eighteen and nineteen'or twenty-one years. An severe in obscure toil, and silently prepare for distant results, are elementary education may with propriety, in a republic, be common to all, since peculiarities of menial constitution are eyes, this respectable class of men, devoted to the public service ;
“It was, therefore, necessary-urgent—to raise, in their own not promineni at an early age ; such at least is the general to make them feel that, henceforward, howeyer humble their starule. As the diversities in the powers of the mind show them- tion, their country has its eyes upon them; that the government selves more definitely, by age and culture, the difficulties of does not forget them, but, on the contrary, seeks to connect them applying a common education to a number of individuals, in- with itself, by an uninterrupted chain of powers,—to direct, encrease. The difference in the intended pursuits in life, de- courage, and protect them. termined by circumstances as well as by the natural powers of “ But we should mislead and deceive them, if, in the view of ani. the individual, add to these difficulties, and it becomes more mating them, we excited their imagination and their hopes ; if we and more expedient to separate the schools designed to edu- directed-their eyes towards an impossible future. This would be cate for different active employments. While the general to substitute artificial and fragile springs of action for that steady direction of the instruction is thus determined by the neces: the people the requisite energy and perseverance. A lofty soul
and intense sense of duty, which alone can give to the teachers of sity for preparing the pupil for his pursuits in life, the details and a calm, sedate imagination; energetic action in a narrow should be arranged as far as possible to suit the varieties of sphere ; the capacity to comprehend a vast end, and a sincere remental character. Parents usually determine at a more or signation to an obscure lot,--such are the qualities required in less advanced age of their child, the general direction which primary schoolmasters. To inspire them with these sentiments, to they wish to give to his pursuits, and schools should be provi- make them understand these conditions of their noble mission, is the ded, accordingly, where the habits of mind and the knowledge aim of the circular which I have addressed to them, together with necessary for the vocation of the youth, should be acquired. a copy of the law.” When a general preparation is thus made, the special knowl The following passages are extracted from this circular. edge necessary for a particular calling is easily added to it.
“ Let the importance and utility of your mission be ever present The Prussian system of schools, which is the best known, to you amidst the unremitting labors which it imposed upon you.”. and has been most frequently the subject of commendation of
After stating what has been done to raise and improve the condi. to which I have referred above, dues so in what may be call the resources which lie at the disposal of power, can never succeed any in Europe, while it supplies all the grades of education tion of schoolmasters, the Minister adds :
• Yet, sir, I am well aware that all the foresight of the law, all ed a disjointed way, all the parts not being connected, and es- in rendering the humble profession of a village teacher as attractive pecially, the elementary schools not leading to the secondary. as it is useful. Society can never repay to him who devotes him. It is, however, far in advance of most other systems in its self to it, all that the society owes to him. There is no fortune to division of secondary instruction, according to the destination be made, there is scarcely any renown to be acquired, by the fulfil. of individuals. Boys intended for learned professions, or to ment of the weighty duties which he takes upon himself. Destined whose pursuits parents wish to give such a direction, are ap- to pass his life in a monotonous employment, sometimes even to
meet with the injustice and ingratitude of ignorance, he would often with them. Sometimes he may think them hard and dull, sink into dejection or despair, if he did not seek strength elsewhere and he may not see what use they will ever be to him ;-buí than in the prospect of immediate and purely personal advantage. no matter, -he expects to see when he is older, and he beHe must be sustained and animated by a profound sense of the lieves that they are the very best things for him to do, or else moral importance of its labors; the austere delight of having serv. they would noć be set for him by older and wiser persons
. ed his fellow men, and contributed in secret to the welfare of his He knows that some how or other, if he is diligent, he will country, must become the appropriate and worthy recompense which his conscience alone can bestow. It is his glory to seek for noget the sort of knowledge which will make him a respectable thing beyond his obscure and laborious condition; to spend his life man hereafter, in whatever trade or calling he may have a in sacrifices hardly taken note of by those who profit by them ;-in taste for. There is many a young man who is very desirous short, to work for men, and to await his reward from God. of going into a certain line of business; but he cannot; he is
" But it is to you, Sir, that we look, above all, for the moral educa- not fit for it; he could not carry it on well; people will not tion of the children committed to you. Nothing can supply the employ him in it; and a principal reason is, he would not want of the desire to do well. You are, assuredly, not ignorant that study at school, and has not got the necessary education ;this is the most important and the most difficult part of your mis. and he must suffer disappointment and mortification all his sion; you are not ignorant that every family which entrusts a child life, for the negligence and idleness of his boyhood. The to you requires you to return him to its bosom an honest man, and good scholar foresees this, and is wise in time. Or, if he to his country a good citizen; you know that virtue does not always does not think any ibing about the future, he will be diligent, accompany information, and that the lessons addressed to childhood hecause it is his duty. He has a conscience about it, and may become pernicious if addressed to his understanding alone. takes satisfaction in doing his duty and doing right. He Let not, then, the schoolmaster fear to invade the rights of parents by giving his first cares to the culture of the soul of his pupils. In knows that such a coutsè must end well for him, and will be proportion as he ought to guard himself from admitting into his a great happiness to his teachers, parents, and all who care for school the spirit of sect or of party, or from instilling into children him. religious or political doctrines, which would set them, as it were, in In the third place, the good scholar will be obedient. He & state of revolt against their parents, ought he to place himself will be careful io observe all ibe rules of the school, and orabove the passing discords which agitate society, and strive inces. ders of the teacher. He knows that the teacher of a large santly to propagate and to strengthen those imperishable principles school has Jabor and perplexily enough, wiihout obstinacy, of reason and of morality, without which the general order of soci
. disorder, and mischievous and unruly behavior in the scholety is in peril, and to plant deeply in the youthful heart those seeds He knows that his own place is to obey, to give no of virtue and honor which age and passion cannot destroy: Faith in trouble, and by his good example and influence in the school, Providence, the sanctity of duty, submission to parental authority, to be an assistance and a source of satisfaction and relief to respect for the laws, for the government, for the rights of all men, the teacher. He is young, and the teacher is older, and he are the sentiments which he must endeavor to implant. He must takes it for granted that the rules and orders are wise and nenever, by his conversation or example, run the risk of lessening the veneration due to virtue. He must never, by words of hatred or cessary ;-and that there are more fit opportunities for him, anger, inculcate those blind prejudices which create hostile nations elsewhere, to show his courage and independence. And yet in the bosom of one nation. The peace and concord which he he will not be a turbulent and disorderly' fellow, any where. maintains in his echool ought, if possible, to secure the tranquility A good-natured and prompt obedience, without sulkiness or and the harmony of future generations.".
deception, is a prime virtue in a school boy.. It is a great hap. In the connection we add a passage of Mrs. Austin.
piness to the teacher, and an excellent sign in a school, when • We venture to affirm that, as there can be no more glorious compulsion and punishment are not found necessary. and religious task, so there can be none more difficult than to in. struct the utterly ignorant; to know what to teach and how to teach recily 10 the lessons or discipline of the school, but which will
Then, again, there are some things which do not relate diit;-to cast away all irrelevant and inappropriate instruction, and efficaciously to give that which shall make the laboring man sensi. always mark the good member of it. Out of school hours, ble the dignity of human nature, and the resources which know. on holidays, every where and always, I should expect to see ledge, reason and religion afford against the temptations, the evils, him so behave as to do credit to the schoo! he belongs to, and and the cares of his station ;-10 aid the influence of the positive the instruction that is given him. He will come to school, precepts, the hopes and the fears of religion, by a distinct analysis, neat, and cleanly in his person and dress, so far as depends on made intelligible to ignorance and to infancy, of the consequences to himself. There is a bad sign in being dirty and slovenly. a man's own mind and heart of virtue and of vice; not io rest in He will be civil and respectful, in his manners and language, saying, love God and thy neighbor, be just, be pure ; but to show to those who are older than himself, and pleasant, accommofamiliarly, and step by step, how we are to form ourselves to this dating, good-natured, just, and kind, among his companions ; love, this justice, this purity; what are the arts, the habits, the cir. -not quarrelsome, nor selfish. We do not hear from him a cumstances, that nourish in us these dispositions, or that corrupt or brawling, blackguard voice, in the streets and play grounds, deaden them. We are aware that such a scheme of instruction will nor any indecent or profane language, which, above all things, be called Utopian, but we are quite content to share that reproach is a shame to any boy or man, and a disgrace and a pest, in with all who have ever desired with the strong desire of hope, to rescue man from this state of bondage to evil desires and bruce any school. When we see, as we sometimes do, and very habits, and to raise him to that“ genuine freedom," the unity of will painful it is to see it, -an idle boy, swaggering along in the with duty, which it ought to be ihe end of education to effect, and street, or hanging around public places, willi a vile segar, perwe solemnly believe is within its compass to approach.".
haps, in his mouth, or roaming over fields and through byroads, on Sundays,- disfiguring fences, breaking trees, and
trespassing on orchards and gardens-growing up in ignoTHE GOOD SCHOLAR.
rance and conceit, dealing out scurrilous slang, and filthy In the first place, he is punctual. He will never be absent jests, and horrible oaths, ihinking his conduct all maaly and from school, unless it is absolutely necessary. He will be to be admired, wher, alas! it is only beastly and disgusting, here at the hour, nay, at the precise minute; because he knows when we see such a boy, God forbid that he should prove to be that it is very important to ihe order of the school, and still a member of this school. If such or any thing like it, be a more important as a habit for himself. The boy who is be- sample of what is found in our schools, we might as well hindhand here, is almost sure to be behindhand in every thing, have thrown our bricks and mortar and money into the creek, all his life. He who is slack, tardy, and irregular in attendance as to have built this house with them. But it will not be so; here, will not only be a poor scholar, but I should consider it a -it must not be so. Perhaps I owe you an apology for sugpretty certain sign that he will always be slack and irregular. gesting the possibility that any boy here can sink so low as that. 1 should have litile hope of his ever being good for much in Shame on you, if you suffer such disgrace to come upou a the world, --so much depends on early disposition and habit. school for which we have done so much, and from which we
In the second place, the good scholar will be diligent in his hope and expect so much. studies. His lessons are his work, and like all other work, I have described to you the good scholar. Let that be your at any age, he must do it with all his heart and might, or he mark. I say to each one, be you that boy I have described ; will do it poorly; he is a lazy boy, and that makes a lazy man, do you be punctual, diligent, obedient, civil, kiod, true, decent and that makes a poor creature, whether boy or man. He and orderly and amiable in your whole deporiment. Do your will work hard at his lessons, and fill up all the school hours duty, boys; there is nothing like that for your honor and hap.