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piness. Do your duty to the town, your parents, teachers, and than our smallest silver coin; and lo! the little fellow drew one another, and yourselves. Do your duty here, that is the back, and straightened up, and with a keener eye, and almon man ljest thing,—and a blessing will follow you here, and an offended tone, exclaimed.-" Do you think I would take wherever you go hereafter.
Mass. C. S. Jour.
pay for that?” I could not prevail on him to receive the
least compensation. I went on my journey rejoicing in the acTHE USEFUL MINISTER, AND THE MAGNANIMOUS cident, alihough it was to cost me the repairing of my toro and
bruised trunk. It had made known to me one magnanimous BOY.
boy. For, how many much slighter favors had I received from The town of lies upon some of the boldest, rough: doing a kindness, in the satisfaction of taking pay for that.
the young, who capered away insensible to the pleasures of est hills of New England, surrounded by scenery of the most Ay, ihought I, this boy is an honor to the common school; he imposing character. But the town possesses other advantages of an intellectual diligent reader of the juvenile library. Blessed pupil of a
is a christian learner in my friend's Sunday school ; he is a and moral character, which cannot but have some good effect, blessed pastor! thy getting is the true and the best one, that especially on the young. The schools, I believe, are in an of understanding to the wisdom is the principal thing: unusual state of forwardness, owing in some degree to a lib. How many, many times since have I thought of that boy, and eral fund left for their aid by a former wealthy clergy man of wished that I knew his name, and could trace his onward the place, now deceased. Libraries too were the subject of course. How many times in my wanderings and stoppings his benefaction, if recollection rightly serves. distinguished means of improvement, are the efforts and per- peaked crown of that proud old hill king, have I thooght of
But the most within sight, even within the most distanı glimpses, of the sonal character of one of the present clergymen. He has that grand, that royal-spirited boy. That mountain, by natural been settled somewhat over twenty years. Very early in his association, is to me a most lit monument to one magnanimity, ministry he commenced a juvenile library, which has steadily lowering above
many meannesses, ever seen. Through this a universal taste for reading has moral of my story may apply, I pray you, when you shall per
Ye boys, and indeed ye men, of our country, to whom the been generated in the young mind. All under the age of form a little favor spontaneously, or even by request, let your thirty, down to childhood, cannot but have received improve souls stand up in true nobility in the heaven ward grandeur ment from this, and manifest it in their conversation and dai- of disinterestedness, and say in the spirit, “ Do you think I ly walks. Libraries of a higher character have also been es
Ch. Register. tablished under the direction of the same individual. One of
would take pay for that."
“ He should be the presiding zenas at tbe e gestie baard, prevailing mammon-service of wbich complaint has been it can be made to do there. I de formatica : tbesarzt made. Again my clerical friend is a devotee to tbe salural of the baseb . 201 esper afise toetabes sciences, and by example and precept bas disseminated some Acd ret box chea de Bares a misere particularly Entomology, be is mibolely farmuar. Wibeatis gera and eres puoas ficas, 12 saagizer det
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be sis su stisnaa enemies
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letters must be written--customers must been
the wife and children are neglected. Had :
He knows not what he loses, till he makes a fair trial of te noise again startled my ear, and seemingly the shrill scream of a human being. Still driving on I leaned out of the vehi: his duty in this particular--how much of positive enjorm. cle to learn whence came the piercing sound. I then discov- daily, of the purest and most exquisite kind; how much of .. ered a boy pursuing me at the top of his speed, and crying of one of the most favorable of all his intercourse with them,
affectionate attachment of his wife and children ; how much ed by half a mile's run, with his bosom all open, and his face for elevating his own character in true politeness, in beneroall reddened with the heat and reeking with perspiration, and ent feeling, and in intellectual and moral culture. Mo. Mag. he pantingly exclaimed “you are losing your trunk sir. At this information I leaped out, and surely my trunk was in a deplorable condition. It had been fastened beneath the axle
PICTURE OF AN IGNORANT FAMILY. tree. But one of the straps had got broken, and it was dan Foster, in his excellent Essay on the Evils of Popular Ignogling by the other now almost wrested off, having been knocked rance, has sketched with his usual power, an appalling picture against the stones and dragged through dust and mud till it of the ferocity and misery of a family destitute of religious was a sorry sight. I requested my benevolent informer to stand and mental culture. Aiter describing such a family the at the horse's head till I should put it into safety. Of course menaces and imprecations of the parents, their want of resuch a boy, or any boy, could not but do this under such cir- sources for engaging and occupying, for amusing and instructcumstances. When ready to start again, in spontaneous grati- ing, the younger minds; and
the strife, rudeness, and insubortude I held out a piece of money, of more tempting valuedination of the children-he adds :
gs to, and
pads on Sloreply.
nguage, commoanos; n bima grounds
“Now, imagine a week, month, or year, of the intercourse scenes and histories, which might be truly described or parrated in such a domestic society, the course of talk, the mutual in the words of the preceding extracts. And just in proportion manners, and the progress of mind and character; where as the lights of knowledge and the influences of religion are there is a sense of drudgery approaching to that of slavery, wanting in families, in the same proportion will their domesin the unrelenting necessity of labor, where there is none of tic intercourse approach towards a realization of that dreadful the interest of imparting knowledge or receiving it, or of re- representation just presented, and sketched by a sagacious ciprocating knowledge that has been imparted and received ; observer of mankind, as a faithful picture of the effect of wliere there is not an acre, if we might express it so, of intel- ignorance on the family circle. lectual space around them, clear of the thick universal fog of ignorance, where, especially, the luminaries of the spiritual
OBJECTIONS TO CLASSIFICATION IN SCHOOLS. heaven, the attributes of the Almighty, the grand phenomepon of redeeming mediation, the solemn realities of a future But not only is the stock of knowledge of our common state, and another world, are totally obscured in that shade; school-masters extremely limited ; they labor under the further where the conscience and the discriminations of duty are duli disadvantage of being ignorant of the best modes of inpartand indistinct, from the youngest to the oldest ; where there ing to their pupils even the modicum they possess themselves. is no genuine respect felt or shown on the one side, nor affec-11 was recently informed by the Superintendent of Common tion unmixed with vulgar petulance and harshness, expressed Schools in Pennsylvania,* that a teacher in that state told perhaps in wicked imprecations on the other ; where a mutual him that he had heard much of the advantages of classificacoarseness of manners, and language has the effect, without tion in schools, but that, having tried it himself, he had found their being aware of it as a cause, of debasing their worth in it was all folly, and that he was now satisfied that the only one another's esteem all round ; and where notwithstanding useful method of instruction was to hear the pupils recite all, they absolutely must pass a great deal of time together, to
their exercises one by one. Would you know ihe cause of converse, and to display their dispositions towards one another
, so signal a failure of one of the simplest methods of econoand exemplify what the primary relations of life are reduced mizing the labor of a teacher, and multiplying the benefits of 10, when divested of all that is to give them dignity, endear- instruction ? Behold this gentleman's plan of operations! ment; and conduciveness to the highest advantage of exis- He divided his scholars off into classes, gave each an invari
able position in the class, always commenced the recitation at " Home has but little to please the young members of such the same end, and required as nearly as possible an equal proa family, and a great deal to make them eager to escape out portion of the lesson to be recited by each member. Now, of the house; which is also a welcome riddance to the elder sirs, I ask you whether it requires the gift of second sight to persons, when it is not in neglect or refusal to perform the perceive what this master's objection to classing his pupils ordinary allotments of labor. So little is the feeling of a was ? Each, for the most part, learned only the portion that peaceful cordiality created among them by their seeing one he supposed would come to him in the recitation. The obanother all within the habitation, that, not unfrequently, the jection, therefore, was, that classification had a bad effect on passer-by may learn the fact of their collective oumber being both the morals and the knowledge of the pupils, tempting there, from the sound of a low strife of mingled voices, some them at the same time to use deceit and to neglect their studof them betraying youth replying in anger or contempt, to ies. And this is but a specimen of the thousand and one ermaturity or age. It is wretched to see how early this liberty rors in the modes of instruction, assuming as many different is boldly taken. As the children perceive nothing in the shapes and hues, which have arisen out of the ignorance and minds of their parents that should awe them into deference, inexperience of teachers ;-errors, which have degraded the the most important difference left between them is that of profession of teaching and perverted its ends, which have torplıysical strength. The children, if of hardy disposition, to lured and dwarfed the intellects of learners, and contributed which perhaps they are trained in battles with their juvenile ference which is now the principal obstacle in the way of the
more perhaps that any other cause to that wide-spread indifrivals, soon show a certain degree of daring against this perior strength. And as the difference lessens, and by the adoption of improved systems of general education. Wines. time it has nearly ceased, what is so natural as that they should assume equality, in manners, and in following their
PATRIOTISM. own will ? But equality assumed where there should be sub Patriotism is the first of republican virtues; not the mere senti. ordination, inevitably involves contempt toward the party ment of attachment to one's native soil, but the intelligent and hearty against whose claim it is asserted.
love of country, prompting to thought and effort for the country's wel“ The relative condition of such parents as they sink in- fare. This is the virtue of a freeman. Who expects the slave to love to old age, is most deplorable. And all that has preceded into the soil
, with nothing to lose or to gain by the vicissitudes of em.
the country which will not own him for a man ? The serf trodden leads, by a natural course, to that consequence which we have pire-who expects him to care for any interest out of his own cabin? sometimes beheld, with feelings emphatically gloomy,--the Patriotism is the virtue of a citizen, a member of the commonwealth; almost perfect indifference with which the descendants, and not of a mere subject. The whole political duty of a mere subject, a few other near relatives, of a poor old man of this class, whether under a monarchy or an oligarchy, is summed up in silent could consign him to the grave. A human being was gone obedience. Where society is divided into orders, patriotism in the out of the world, a being whom they had been near all their lower orders is a dangerous affair-dangerous to themselves-dangerlives, some of them sustained in their childhood by his labors, ous to the state; -eminently dangerous to the established system, and yet not one heart, at any one moment, felt the sentimeni Hence, though Furope has had patriot kings, and patriot nobles and I have lost (a father or a friend.) They never could regard tumult and arms. Patriotism among the people, is, in the old world,
statesmen, we hear of a patriot peasantry, only in connection with him with respect, and their miserable education had not another name for revolution; the faintest 'whisper of it " with fear of taught them humanity enough to regard him in his declining ehange perplexes monarchs.” But with us, patriotism is an every days as an object of pity. Some decency of attention was day duty for every man. Every man, not dead to virtue, loves his perhaps shown him, or perhaps not, in his last hours. It is a country with a manly affection—thinks, reasons, inquires, acts for his very melancholy, spectacle to see an ignorant, thoughtless fa- country's welfare. He loves his country as the virtuous sovereign ther, surrounded by his untaught children, at the sight of loves his kingdom, because it is his own, because its destinies are in a whom our thought thus silently accosts him: The event degree entrusted to his hands. His pride of ancestry is, not that he is which will take you finally from among them, perhaps after born of better blood than his countrymen, but that he is born of the
same blood with the men of “the heroic age,” the men of Bunkerhill
, forty or fifty years of intercourse with them, will leave no of Bennington, and of Yorktown. "His hopes, too, for his posterity; more impression on their affections, than the cutting down of are all patriotic, not personal. His hopes for them are identical with a decayed old tree in the neighborhood of your habitation."
his hopes for his country. That strong impulse which leads all men This, it must be confessed is a high wrought and most lo care for their posterity in coming ages, leads him to care that these melancholy picture, hut who shall say that it is exaggerated ? equal laws, this well ordered liberty, this universal diffusion of know. Owing to the general diffusion among us of some degree of ledge, these purifying and sustaining influences of Christian truth,
Rev. L. Bacon. intellectual cultivation and religious knowledge and influence, may be perpetual. originals are not, indeed, as common in this country as in some others; but the memory of many persons will doubtless recall ular education in the country.
*Mr. Burrows, one of the most able, judicious, and useful friends of pop
tc Dil bat obo 01 ing ut en. rent and
the 101 Tei
of the proceedings having been communicated by some SCHOOLHOUSES,
one who was present, to the Congregational Observer, we One of the most encouraging aspects of common school were requested to communicate a copy of our remarks education at this time in this State, is the increasing in- for publication in that paper, which we did from time to terest manifested by parents and districts in the condition time as they were called for. As the plan of this house is and improvement of the places where this education must thought to embrace many desirable improvements, and as be carried on. 'Three years ago, after visiting every coun our remarks as written out embrace the best views we ty, we could not point to but one district schoolhouse, have been able to form on this subject, we republish them which in respect to location, construction and internal in the Journal with the introductory note to the Editors. arrangement, could be safely recommended as a model. This* was at Greenville, in Norwich, and was built in
NEW DISTRICT SCHOOLHOUSE, WINDSOR. 1838. Even the academies and private schools, although Messrs. Editors :in general properly located, and expensively built, were The accompanying cuts, executed by Mr. Clark, from drawobjectionable in the arrangement of seats and desks, and ings by Mr. Austin, represent the front and side elevation, in the mode of lighting, warming and ventilating. Since and the ground plan of the new schoolhouse at Windsor, the that time, more schoolhouses have been repaired and opening of which was the occasion of the following remarks. new ones built according to approved principles, than for into the district schoolhouses in their vicinity, to see if some
These plans will, I trust, induce some of your readers to look twenty years previous. Among the best specimens of thing need not, and cannot be done to make them more attracschoolhouse architecture which have been recently erect- live, convenient and healthy. Taste, health and personal aced, we can refer to the Academy buildings in Bethlem, commodation, have been consulted in the erection of new Norfolk, New Hartford, Warren, Haddam, Lyme, the churches, hospitals, asylums, prisons, and poor-houses, dwelGrammar school at New Haven, and to the District ling houses, barns, stables, and every other structure intended school, [Whiting st.] New Haven, Do., [North and South for man or beast. And who regrets or complains of these districts,) Hartford, Brooklyn, Sterling, Groton, [Porters agaiu to the damp, unhealthy. dungeons of the old Newgate
improvements ? Who would doom the criminals of the state ville,] New London, Norwich, [Greenville,] Waterbury, prison? Who would think of herding them together in the Southbury, Newtown, (Sandy Hook,] Winsted, [Clifton,] half lighted and unventilated rooms of the old county jail? Windsor, [in Poquonock and district No. 6.]
Who would send the atřicted and unfortunate of our race 10 We were consulted in reference to the last, and our retreats and asylums, which were repulsive without, and inviews have been carried out by the building committee, convenient and unhealthy within? Who would exchange a as far as could be done with a proper regard to the size slip in any one of the new, tasteful, and commodious churches,
which have been erected within ten years past in almost every and ability of the district. The cost of the building and town in the state, for a pew in the old, forlorn, dilapidated land to the district will be about $1000. The Library, meeting house, where a good deal of sacred fire in the heart apparatus and maps were presented by individuals, and was needed to keep the outward man comfortable, and which cost about $200.
indeed the “old miscbief maker" has been accused of having It was thought desirable to open the schoolhouse with had a band in locating, building and seating, so as to make appropriate exercises, and in company with Governor even the old standards” who loved the house of prayer, love Ellsworth and others, we were invited to be present and 20 leave it too, with, as much eagerness as was becoming in take part in the exercises of the occasion. An account good men ? And why should not the same good sense, and
good taste-the same spirit of reform and improvement charac. For a description, see Journal, vol. 1, p. 193.
terize the action of the community in reference to schoolhouses?
If humanity and a wise economy demand that better care and I am happy in being able to point to at least one disirici accommodations should be provided for the criminal and the which has acied in this spirit and erecteil a house which empauper, who are generally the victims of neglected or pervert- braces most of the latest improvements in school house archied education, why not do as much and more for the innocent tecture. All of the buildiogs which have been erected withchildren, and thus prevent them from becoming either paupers in two years past, are superior to what before existed, but with or criminals? If parents, acting as religious socielies, have many excellences, they embrace some of the radical defects turned out the “old mischief maker” in order 10 furnish desk, of the old stereotyped school house. and seats, and all other fixtures proper and comfortable for Should any person or district refer to these plans, for models, themselves and their pastor, for three hours of one day in the they should remember that they were prepared for a small week, why not turn out the same committee-man, with his district, numbering only thirty-six children, and that the diunseasoned and knoliy materials
, miserable plastering, half mensions on the floor are small even for that number. If the made window blinds, red paint pot, dilapidated slove, broken district numbers over forty children, there should be a sepatongs and shovel, badly matched floor, slab seats without rate apartment for the small scholars, and in all cases, a class backs, and both seats and desks high enough to accommodate room, useful for various school purposes, should be provided. a race of gianis; and appoini a committee who will provide The remarks which accompany ihese cuts I have written a pleasantly located, well built, neatly painted school house, o'it from recollection, at your request, and have probably omitwith seats, desks, light, heat, and apparaius and library, which ted some things that were said, and added others that were shall make it attractive, comfortable and profitable to the chil- bot said.
Yours truly, dren who are lo spend six hours a day, for five or six days in
Henry Barnard, 20. the week, for ihiriy or forty weeks in the year, and for ten or twelve of the most susceptible and important years of their The house was built by Mr. James Burnham. District Committee, Mr. L.. being ?
Smith. Building Committee, Messrs. Isaac Hayden, Samuel W. Ellsworth and
Edward B. Munsell.
Scale. 133 45
with a shelf beneath for books, and a groove on the back side,
a [Fig. 3,] to receive a slate, with which each desk is furFIGURE I represents a perspective view of the front and rished by the district. The upper surface of the desk, except 3 one side.
inches of the most distant portion, slopes 1 inch in a foot, and Figure II represents the general arrangements of the in- the edge is in the same perpendicular line with the front of the terior.
seat. The level portion of the desk has a groove running FIGURE III represents an end view of one range of seats along the line of the slope, b [Fig. 3,] so as to prevent pencils and desks.
and pens from rolling off, and an opening, c[Fig. 3,] to receive Figure IV represents sections of a seat and desk lately in- an ink-stand. These are of metal, and shaped like the section troduced into the schoolhouses of Busion. A siinilar seat is of a cone, and are covered by a metallic lid, they can be removused in all of the schools of Providence, except the pedestal ed when not in use in a tin case with a shelf perforated with is of cast iron. It would be an improvement in the modes of holes to receive the given nuniber of ink-cones, to the case seating this and other schoolhouses, if each scholar was pro- back of the teacher. vided with a similar seat, detached from the adjoining desk. The windows I, three on the north and three on the south
Figure V represents a section of a sand desk, for small side, contain each 40 panes of 8 by 10 glass, are hung (both children, a specimen of which can be seen in the South district upper and lower sash) with weighis so as to admit of being school, Hartford-a is an opening to receive a slate, b, a groove raised or lowered conveniently. The sills are three feet from like space for a thin layer of sand. The sand can be smooth-the floor. Those on the south side are to be provided with ed by a broad brush, and be swept, when not wanted, into a curtains or outside blinds. It would be better if the windows draw at one end.
in a southern or western exposure were glazed with ground Figure VI represents a section of a gallery, or platform of glass, which softens without obstructing the light. seats rising one above another, as described on page 116-the The proper ventilation of the room is provided for by the lower seat is 6 1-2 inchies and the higher 10 inches. A speci- lowering of the upper sash and by an opening 14 inches by 18, men of such a gallery can be seen in the primary departinent near the ceiling into the flue a, which leads into the open air. of the south district school, Hartford.
This opening can be enlarged, diminished, or entirely closed FIGURE VII represents a set of common school apparatus, by a slutter controlled by a cord. There should have been an as made by N. B. Chamberlain, Nos. 2 and 3 School street, opening near the floor into both the flues a a, with an arrangeBoston. Several of these articles are represented by Fig. A, ment like the register of a furnace, so as to have reached the (globe,) B, (orrery,) C, (numerical frame,) D, (Tellurium or carbonic acid gas, which being heavier than atmospheric air, season machine.)
seltles to the lowest place in the room. This however can be The building 'stands 60 feet from the highway, near the reached by opening the doors at the two extremes of the centre of a dry, elevated, triangular shaped lot which slopes room, and allowing a current of pure air to sweep through a little to the south and east. Much the larger portion of ihe like a broom, at the time of recess. lot is in front, affording a pleasant play ground, while in the The sides of the room are ceiled all round with wood as rear there is a woodshed, and other appropriate buildings, with high as the window sill, which, as well as the rest of the wood a separate yard for boys and girls. The walls are of brick, work of the interior, is painted to resemble oak. and are hollow so as to save expense in securing the antaes Along the walls on one side of front door is suspended or pilasters, and to prevent dampness. This building is 33 Mitchell's large Map of the United States, and on the other feei 6 inches long, 2 i fee! 8 inches wide, and 18 feet 9 inches his Map of the world on Mercator's projection. Between the high from the ground to the eaves, including 2 feet base or windows are maps of Connecticut, Massachusetts, Palestine underpinning The freize and cornice are of wood.
and other portions of the earth mentioned in Scripture, and The entries AA, one for boys and the other for girls, are in Catherwood's large colored plan of Jerusalem. the rear of the building, through the woodshed, which with The following articles of apparatus have been or soon will be the yard is also divided by a partition. Each entry is 7 feet purchased for ihis school. Numerical frame or abacus-set 3 inches, by 9 feet 3 inches, and is supplied with a scraper and of geometrical solids-set of blocks to illustrate cube rootmat for the feet, and shelves and hooks for outer garments., diagrams of geometrical figures-globe-orrery-tellurium or
The school room is 24 feet 5 inches long by 19 feet 4 inches season machine-tide dial-moveable blackboard and a slate wide, and 15 feet 6 inches high in the clear, allowing an area for each scholar. of 472 feet, including the recess for the teacher's platform, and The library is, or will be soon, supplied with the following an allowance of 209 cubic feet of air to a school of 36. books for the use of the teacher.
The teacher's platformu B is 5 feet 2 inches wide by 6 feet Webster's Dictionary, Worcester's edition-Calmet's Dicdeep, including 3 feet of recess, and 9 inches high. On it tionary of the Bible-Encyclopedia Americana 13 vols-Murstands a table, the legs of which set into the floor, so as to be ray's Encyclopedia of Geography-Cyclopedia of History, firin, and at the same time movable, in case the platform is Haywood's Gazetteer--Blake's Biographical Dictionary--Coe's needed for declamation or other exercises of the scholars. Lessons in Drawing-Mayo's Lessons on Objects-Abboti's Back of the teacher is a range of shelves b, already supplied Teacher-Palmer's Prize Essay-Davis' Teacher Taughtwith a library of near 400 volumes and a globe, ouiline maps, Dunn's School master's Manual--Dwight's Teacher's and other apparatus. On the top of the case is a clock. A Friend - Wines' "How shall I govern my school ?”—Alcott's black board 5 feet by 4 is suspended on weights and steadied Confessions of a schoolmaster- Alcott's two days in a primary by a groove on each end, so as to admit of being raised and school-Alcoll's account of the first district school, Hartford — lowered by the teacher, directly in front of the book case, and Wood's account of the Sessional School, Edinburgh-Stow's in full view of the whole school. At the bottom of the black Glasgow Training System-Cousin's Report on Education board is a trough to receive the chalk and the sponge, or soft in Prussia-Cousin and Cuiver's Education in Holland-Prof. cloth.
Stowe on Education in Europe-Journal and Annals of EduThe passages D D are two feet wide and extend round the cation, 8 vols.- Massachusetis Common School Journal, vol. 1
and 2-Connecticut Comaron School Journal. E E are 13 inches, and allow of easy access to the seats and The following sets comprise the reading for the scholars desks on either hand.
and their parents. F is 5 feet three inches, and in the center stands an open The SCHOOL LIBRARY, large and juvenile series as far as slove C, the pipe of which goes into one of the flues b. The published, 26 vols. Published by Marsh, Capen, Lyon & temperature is regulated by a thermometer.
Webb, 33 Washington st., Boston, and consist of books which The aisles DD and É have a special reference to the have been prepared with special reference for school libraries, doors.
and approved by each member of the Massachusetts Board of Each pupil is provided with a desk G, and seat H, the front education. of the former constituting the back or support of the latter,
THE DISTRICT School LIBRARY, 3 series, 145 vols., publishwhich slopes 2 1-2 inches in 16. The seat also inclines a lit-ed by Harper & Brothers 96 Cliff st., New York. These works tle from ihe edge. The seats vary in height, from 9 1-2 have been approved and recommended by the present and forinches to 15, the youngest children occupying those nearest mer Superintendent of common schools in New York, and by the platform. The desks are two feet long by 18 inches wide, Governors Marcy and Seward.