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OF SCHOOL HOUSES.

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LOCATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND INTERNAL ARRANGEMENT | the floor, and thence through the south wall; the one at B.

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School lots should always be in a pleasant and healthful
situation, and never less than half an acre in extent. The
public road is, surely, a very improper, in fact, dangerous
place, for large groups of children at play; and yet, if there
be no ground attached to the schoolhouse, they must either
use that, or trespass on the neighboring property,-a tempta-
tion to which we should be careful not to expose our youth,
especially at school, where every evil influence should be
sedulously avoided. By all means, then, let them have lib-
eral space for exercise and amusement.

The lot should be enclosed by a neat and substantial fence, with two or three openings, sufficiently large to admit a man, yet narrow enough to exclude catile. There should be a gale,

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4 or a part of the fence should be so constructed as to admit of being taken down in winter, to admit teams with wood, and a communicating with the schoolroom. From the above figure, horse and snow-plough,* to clear a passage from the highway it will be perceived, that the outward air entering at A, will to the schoolhouse door. The lot may be ornamented with a pass six times, lengthwise, across the hearth of the stove, row of trees inside the fence, and two or three small, irregular before it passes into the room at B. It will thus be sufficiengroups of the handsomest native forest trees, scattered, with ly warmed, and yet, being protected, by the ashes, from the out order, in the grounds.

great heat to which the sides of the stove are exposed, it will On the south side of the schoolhouse there should be a not be burned, i. e. deprived of its oxygen, and thus rendered border of flowers; and the east and west sides of the building unfit for respiration, as air heated in furnaces commonly is, in should be decorated with roses and honeysuckles. It would a greater or less degree. By coming out at the back part, it be well, to have this little spot of cultivated ground covered will not be liable to be drawn in at the door of the stove. with straw and boards, in Winter, and every Spring, dug up There will thus be a continual interchange of fresh, warm air, and well manured by the committee, leaving the after-culture for the fouler air passing into the stove to supply the draft. to be managed by the scholars, under the direction of the The heat of this air should not be greater than is pleasant to teacher. In the lot there should be a circular swing, and a the hand, being regulated, reciprocally, by the quantity of few poles and ladders for gymnastic exercises.

ashes in the stove, and directly, by the iniensity of the fire. It would be impracticable to describe a schoolhouse, which Such a stove-plate as has been described, might be procured would serve as a model for every situation, and every kind of at any furnace. Where it cannot be had, its place might be school. But some general principles may be laid down, supplied, in some degree, by removing the legs of the stove, which will easily admit of sufficient modification to suit every and placing it on a small chamber of brick, furnished with case. In the first place, the building should be substantial, and better than receiving cold air through every crack and crevice,

openings and tube, as described above. But this, although constructed of the best materials. A good schoolhouse adds

as at present, would be vastly inferior to the double-bottomed to the value of every house and farm in the district, and that stove. A room, supplied with either of these contrivances, in a much greater ratio ihan the mere difference of expense however, would be so full of air, as to cause it to press outbetween a good and a poor one. Brick or stone would be wards, besides furnishing a supply for the draft of the stove, preferable, where easily to be procured; but, whatever be instead of having cold air continually pressing in. As the the material, let the building be thoroughly constructed. The

stove dries, as well as heats the air, there should always be form should be oblong, and, if possible, one of the longer an iron basin of water standing on it, as a counteraction. sides should front the south, this exposure being both warmer The floor of the room should be horizontal, there being in Winter, and cooler in Summer, and affording better means some disadvantages, and no advantages, in the amphitheatrical for a steady light in the schoolroom, as will be presently form, if the teacher's seat be raised, so as to command a view shown. As the east or west side, should be the woodshed, at of the whole room. least as large as the schoolhouse, so as to afford room for the children to exercise in, in bad weather. It should be closely should be as follows: Across each end of the schoolroom

The arrangement of the seats, for pupils and teachers, boarded, with a window on the east or west, and a door on there should be an open space of eight or ten feet

, and along the south, to serve, also, as outer door to the schoolhouse. the north and south walls, a space of three feet.' Inside of On three sides of the

woodhouse, the boards near the ground these spaces, the desks and seats for the scholars should be should be fixed with hinges, to be raised up in Summer, for a placed, in parallel lines, lengthwise of the room, with aisles free circulation, to season the wood, of which a full supply of between, never having more than two children at a desk. the best to be had, (which is always the cheapest) should be One would be better. The aisles should be eighteen inches laid in, towards the close of Winter.

wide, if there be only one child for each desk; three feet, if The underpinning of the schoolhouse should be stone and there be two. The allowance of desk-room, for each pupil

, lime, to prevent the cold air affecting the floor, so as to chill should not be less than eighteen inches; two feet would be the children's feet. The walls of the schoolroom should not better. The front of the desks may form the backs of the be less than ten feet high, to prevent injury to the health in seats. These backs should slope a little backwards. The cold weather, when the room is shut up, from re-breathing seats should be a foot in width, not perfectly level, but a little the same air. With the same view, there should be a con- lower behind. The edge of the desk should be at such a dis. stant supply of warm air flowing into the room, which may tance from the seat, as to allow those who write, to lean a easily be thus obtained: Let there be a double bottom to the little over their slate or paper, without bending the neck or stove, the lower filling closely to the upper by the four edges, body. The desks should not be less than eighteen inches and by the Aanges, marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Let there be two wide. That part of the top, furthest from the scholar, should openings in the back part of the plate; the one at A, commu: be level, for three or four inches; the residue, with a slight nicating with the outward air, hy' a pipe, which passes through inclination, say an inch and a half in a foot

. There should

be a shelf under the desk, for books and slates; or the desk * A snow-plough may be made of two pieces of plank, eight or ten feet long, joined at an acute angle, with one or two round sticks passing through, to strength: may, be a box, with a cover hung on hinges for a lid. Into en them. A horse, attached to the apex, will clear off the snow in a few minutes. the horizontal part of the desk, the inkstands may be let; so

• The circular swing is made, by placing two horizontal beams or yards, at right loosely, however, as to allow of their being taken out to be angles to each other, on the top of an upright shaft, so fitted that the beams will filled ; and so deep, that their tops will be on a level with the pended, the lower ends of which reach to within four, five, or six feet of the desks. They may be covered with a metallic lid, resembling hanging by the rope. The shaft may be twenty feet high; the longer the beams mon slide, or with a flat, circular piece of pewter, having a ground. Four children seize on these ends, and run round and round, leaping and a butt-hinge, to rise or fall; or, which is better, with a comor arms are, the better, as that increases the circumference of the circle.

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stem projecting on one side, like the stem of a watch, through number amount to eighty or more, two assistants would be which a nail or screw may be driven, not tightly, but so that found more profitable than dividing the district; and, as two the cover may be made to slide over or off the orifice of the recitation rooms would be required, they might easily be filled inkstand, on the nail or screw, as a hinge.

up in the upper part of the woodhouse. The height of the seats should be ascertained, by the If the highway should pass the school in a portherly dibuilder calling in children of different ages, lo try them, before rection, the gable or portico would form the front of the they are finally fixed, placing the younger' in front. But, as schoolhouse. If it ran westwardly, the north or south side there is a continual change in the proportion of different of the building would be the front. But the road might pass ages attending any one school, there should be a number of in neither direction, but between the two. In this case, the planed pieces of plank and blocks- put away in the corner of advantages of the most favorable mode of lighting the schoolThe woodhouse, in order that the teacher may always be able room, and the most pleasant exposure, both for Summer and su to arrange the seats, that every child may sit ai his ease, Winter, must be sacrificed to appearance, or the building put an object as important, in respect to his mental improvement, far enough back into the lot, to obviate the awkward appearas to his bodily healtb.

ance it would present, standing neither perpendicular por Across that end of the room furthest from the door, there parallel to the road. In such a case, the advantages and should be a platform four feel wide, about sixteen inches disadvantages should be maturely considered, and care taken above the floor, in the middle of which should be placed the not to sacrifice too much to mere appearance. teacher's desk, with a moveable chair. Along the whole wall behind the teacher, should be cases for the library and

[The following plan of a school house by Mr. Mand embodies apparatus, and also for the proper arrangement of the botani- most of the particulars specified by Mr. Palmer, and with Mr. Mann's cal and mineralogical specimens, to be collected by the whole Report on Schoolhouses, was probably before him when he penned

the above valuable chapter.] school. Behind the teacher's chair, the work of the cases, for about six feet, should be plain, to serve as a large blackboard; the rest may be of pannelled work. The stove should stand in the middle of the space, at the opposite end of the room. The backs of the seats next the stove, should be high enough

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А to protect the heads of their occupants from the heat. The stove-pipe should pass, horizontally, into the chimney built in the woodhouse, without the use of perpendicular pipe, to roast the children's brains. If the room be properly finished, it will

HI be sufficiently warmed by the stove itself, and the supply of healed air. Near the stove should be a pail and tin cup; and, if there be no house or spring near, a pump should be placed near the door. As the children, while at play, frequently soil their face and hands, economy, as it regards their books, and a decent regard for cleanly habits, point out the propriety of a basin and towel. At this end of the room, there should be a moveable blackboard, about three feet square.

A clock would be a desirable article, in a conspicuous part of the schooiroom, within view of the teacher's desk. If it struck the quarters, so much the belter.

It will have been observed, that, one end of the building being occupied by cases, and the other covered by the woodhouse, the room can be lighted only from the two sides. This arrangement was intentional, being considered superior to that of lighting the room from all sides. Cross-lights are extremely prejudicial to che eye; and a window behind the teacher would only prevent the pupils from seeing his countenance distinctly, without being of material use to him. If the house has been placed in the best position, namely, with one of its sides facing the south, the light will only be from the north and south, the former being the steadiesi possible, and the latter can be made nearly so, by white cotton curtains, or Venitian blinds. Should curtains be preferred, care should be taken completely to exclude the sunshine, as a narrow streak of light is more prejudicial than a broad beam. The teacher should always have an eye to this difficulty. If the sunshine be permanently excluded from the room, it is believed, that it will never be found necessary to raise the south windows for air, at all; but should this not be the case, some plan of fixing the curtains may easily be adopted, that

A represents the teacher's desk. will prevent their being blown aside, and to keep the glare

BB Teacher's platform, from 1 to 2 feet in height. from the scholars' desks. Pegs should be fixed to the iwo

C Step for ascending the platform.

LL Cases for Books, Apparatus, Cabinet, &c. sides and to the slove-end of the room, for hanging the hats

H Pupils' single Desks, 2 feet by 18 inches. and cloaks. These should be numbered, and every scholar

M Pupils' Seats, 1 foot by 20 inches. should know his number, which should be fixed at ihe open

I Aisles, 1 foot 6 inches in width. ing of the school.

D Place for stove, if one be used, As a blank wall at the end of the building would be rather

E Room for recitation, for retiring in case of sudden in. unsightly, it will be proper to have false windows outside,

disposition, for interviews with parents, when ne. unless the district be sufficiently liberal to allow a Doric por

cessary, &c. It may also be used for the Library, tico, which would render them unnecessary. At all events,

&c. there should be a small cupola, and a bell, which should be FF FF F Doors into the boys and girls entries—from the en. rung by a monitor, appointed weekly, by the teacher. There

tries into the school room, and from the school room should be a mat inside, and a scraper outside, of the inner

into the recitation room. door, that is, the door from the wood house. Should the nun

GGGG Windows. The windows on the sides are not lettered. ber of pupils be fifty or more, an assistant teacher would be movable, and placed as the general arrangement of the school

The seats for small scholars, without desks, if needed to be found useful; and a recitation room might be fitted up in the shall render convenient. corcer of the woodhouse next the schoolroom. Should the

Where there is but one teacher, the space between the desko

EXPLANATIONS.

and the entries are to be used for recitation. Here also is the place J represents the pupils' seats, and K the shape of the board or for black b ards, whether movable or attached to the wall. This plank which forms the side and support of the desks. space should be 8, 10, or 12 feet wide, according to the size of the (The front of the seat J is a little the highest and the back is made school.

to slope, so as to conform to the patural position of the body when The height of the room should never be less than 10 or 12 feet. the scholar is sitting upright. The height varies for children of dif. The following is designed 10 represent an end view of the pupils' ferent size. As a scholar sits upright in his seat, the knee joint dsks and seats. [The slope of the back is not here represented.] forming a right angle, and the foot being planted horizontally on the

floor, no pressure whatever should come upon the thigh bone, where

it cti sses the edge of the seat.)
K к
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A light green is perhaps the best color for the scholars' desks and seats, as it is more grateful than any other to the eye. For the outside of the house, white is the color most universally pleasing.

PLAN OF A SCHOOL HOUSE AT MONTPELIER, VERMONT. THaving seen a very favorable notice of a new school house at Montpelier, Vi. by professor Taylor, in the Common School Assistant, we addressed a note to D. P. Thompson, Esq., for some particulars respecting it, and received the following plan and description, which we now lay before our readers.]

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Mr. BARNARD-Dear Sir:

They must enumerate in August, all persons between tho The foregoing sketches, with which the architect, Mr. John T. ages of 4 and 16, residing and belonging within such district Miller of this place, has kindly favored me, exhibiting an elevation or and certify as to its correctness. [Act for the regulation, &e. front view, ground plan, ventilator, and end view of seats, marked in the same order, A BCD, will present the main outlines and most of

§ 13.] the minor peculiarities of the School House in this village, of which

They must employ, unless otherwise directed by the disProf. Taylor, in the Common School Assistant of February, 1840, so trict, one or more qualified teachers. [Act concerning schools, Aatteringly speaks, and of which you ask a description. The build- $7.). If the district has neglected to give express instructions ing, standing, end to the street, on an elevation near the centre of an in this respect, it is the duty of this committee to act early; enclosed, oblong lot, 4 rods wide by 20 deep, is 34 feet long, 24 wide, and before they authorize or allow the teacher to commence 12 high from sill to plate, with roof and beltiy, all painted white, and the school, they must see to it that he has a certificate of of the architectural construction represented in sketch A. The shed, qualification, signed by the proper authority—otherwise the &c. is a detached building, standing directly in the rear of the house, teacher bas no right to receive, or the committee to appropriate, as regards length, is thus thrown back about 10 rods from the street, any portion of the public money towards his wages. Should affording in this way an ample play ground in front, and another of the circumstances of the school require, they can employ one almost equal dimensions in the rear.

teacher for the younger, and another for the older children. The ground plan, marked B, gives a view, first of the entry, marked The advantages of doing so will be set forth in an article on 1, with shelves or presses at each end, and next of the school room, the gradation of schools. with its arrangement of seats, aisles, &c. The two outer rows of

They must provide suitable school rooms. [$7.] seats, marked i i, for the larger scholars, are 4 feet long, 15 inches high, with back, or desk part for the next rear seat, 2 feet 5 inches it is made the duty of the committee to see that the school

They need not wait for any special instructions to do so; feet long, 11 inches high, back, formed" as in the other, 2 feet high room is suitable, which, of course, involves all the fixtures, The outer or wall aisles, m m, are 18 inches wide; those between ihe appendages, and accommodations necessary for the health, greater and smaller seals, o 0, 22 inches; and the centre aisle, n, 2 feet comfort and progress of all the parties concerned. wide. The teacher's desk, k, with bell-rope descending within reach, Should there be two or more teachers employed, a number is near the wall against the centre aisle, having a small tier of large of rooms must be provided. long seats on each side, and leaving an ample clear space between seats and desk, in which stands the stove, whose pipe rises nearly to iwice, at least, during each season of schooling. [§ 7.]

They must visit the school, by one or more of their number, the ceiling, turns and runs over the middle aisle nearly to the end, when it is turned up into a brick flue resting on the beams above, and pass of committees and parents cannoi be too often dwelt upon.

The importance of securing frequent visitation on the part ing out the roof like an ordinary chimney. The floor, which is double, heavy and very tight, is an entire level. The seats are of birch, or It gives impulse and vigor to the exertions both of scholar and other hard seasoned wood, smoothly planed and varnished.

teacher, and secures the faithfulness of the one, and the proThe Ventilator, C, placed in a hole 2 feet in diameter, cut through gress of the other. the ceiling into the attic story, and taking the place of common centre They must see that all the scholars are supplied with books, pieces, is formed of two circular zinc plates fastened together by a rivet and in case they are not, and their parents or guardiaps have in the centre. From both of these plates are cut triangular gores, bc, been notified thereof by the teacher, they must provide the whose truncated apexes rest on the inner circle, a, enclosing the pivot, same at the expense of the district in the first instance, and and their bases on a periphery, or outer, unbroken circle,

8, 14 inch then cause the same to be added to the

next school tax or rate of wide. One of these, the upper plate, is made fast in the cased aperture in the ceiling; the other and lower plate turns on the pivot before such parents. [$7.] This provision faithfully complied with, named, being confined or held up at the edge by a narrow circular rim, will do away with one of the most serious evils in the schools; riveted on to the circumference of the immovable plate, and thus form for how can teacher ur scholar do any thing, unless the latter ing an intermediate groove for the movable one to turn or play back is supplied with proper books? and forth in. In this way, all the gores or spaces cut out of the upper They must suspend, during pleasure, or expel during the plate are covered by the spaces between the gores or spaces not cut out current season, from school, all pupils

found guilty, op full hearof the lower or movable plate, and by turning the latter the width of jing, of incorrigibly bad conduci. [$ 7.] This provision is neone of these gores, all the open spaces in both plates are brought to correspond; leaving these gores or triangular holes, equalling in sur- cessary to sustain the proper authority of the teacher, and to fuce nearly half the ventilator, open from the room below to the large save the morals aud manners of the school from the contamiattic vacuum above, into which the foul, light air, instantly rushes. nation of bad example. In this connection, it is the duty of dd are pullies fastened to the ceiling; ee weights descending low the committee in every way to promote a proper respect for enough to be reached by the hand; f a brass knob, to which the cord the office and character of the teacher. is fastened; and h a slot or circular mortice cut in the periphery, with They must give all proper information and assistance to a rivet at one end to prevent the lower plate from turning more than the school committee and visiters of the society, which they the width of one gore. Thus, by pulling on one weight, you open the ventilator, and on the other you shut it. The ventilator may be opened

may require. [$ 7.) and shut more simply, of course, by a knob fixed into the turning plate district for the year previous, has been

faithfully applied and

They must certify that the public money received by the This ventilator was one of my own contriving, in regard at least to expended in paying the wages of teacher or teachers, and for the principle. Having seen and experienced dangers and inconvenien- no other purpose whatever. (Ş 8.] ces from the usual method of ventilation, by lowering the upper sashes Besides these express provisions of the law, it is the duty of of the windows-which, while it lets off the foul, sends down a column this committee to perform all other lawful acts as may from of cold damp air on to the heads of the scholars, whose pores are often time to time be required of them by the district, or which may in a state to contract thereby instant colds—I opposed any contrivance be necessary to carry into full effect the powers and duties of for ventilating by the windows; but having no notion of dispensing school districts. [$ 7.) with thorough and frequent ventilation, I hit upon the principle of the above, and by the aid of the ingenious architect, Mr. Miller, the details were arranged as already described. And I have no hesitation in TEACHERS-THEIR QUALIFICATIONS AND EXAMIrecommending it for all school houses, whether building or already built. It will clear a school room of all foul air in ten or fifteen minutes,

NATION. without letting down any perceptible quantity of cold air-the air above No person can be employed to teach in any common school being partially warmed and the pressure weak, while the foul air, esca- of this State, and receive any portion of the public money apping through the crevices of the roof, can never descend again into the propriated to the support of schools, unless he possesses a school room. Indeed, it works as well in practice as it looks in theory; certificate of qualification, given previous to the opening of and I am unable to think of any preferable mode of school house ven- the school, by the school visiters or committee by them aptilation.

Yours respectfully,
D. THOMPSON. pointed, which committee must be satisfied, by examination,

as to the moral character and literary attainment of the person

presented or applying for the office. The lowest degree of DISTRICT COMMITTEES.

literary qualification are recited in the law in terms clear and These committees, consisting of not more than three, are ap- i positive

:-No certificate shall be given to any person not pointed by the district at the annual meeting in August; or, found qualified to teach reading, writing, and arithmelic, omission to do so, or of vacancy, they are appointed thoroughly, and the

rudiments, at least, of grammar, history, by the committee of the society on proper application.

[Act

and geography. The attainments here required are as small boncerning schools, $ 7. 28.1

as could, with any regard to the proper education of any child

in case

for usefulness and respectability in life, be required of the af their simple efforts to please, by presenting a flower, an teacher in any public school. To be "qualified to teach” apple, a cake, or any other token of regard ; be willing to these branches, supposes something more than to know them. comply with every request, and to grani every indulgence, To know any thing, in the sense in which it is usually under- not incompatible with duty, or their own good; but firm in stood, is noi to know how to teach it. Soine of ihe best refusal, when compliance would be wrong, scholars, or at least some who were reputed to be such, whom 6. The moral character of the teacher should be unimpeachwe have known, have been signally deficient in the art of able, in every respect. He should be a pattern of neatness, communicating. This art requires a familiar acquaintance and order ; and, to crowo all, and which, in fact, embraces the with the young mind, with the difficulties under which it whole matter, he should be a lover and steadfast follower of labors, of ihe order in which its various powers should be Truth. developed and the several studies presented, of the best means for awakening and securing attention, and of the motives and incitements to study which are to be applied. Especially if DUTIES OF OVERSEERS OR VISITERS OF SCHOOLS. this art is to be exercised in such manner as to learn a child to observe, reflect and judge; to impart a love and desire for [It is impossible to over estimate the importance of the office knowledge which shali last beyond the hour or the school of overseers or visiters of schools in our school system. On season, and to give the means and the instruments of future the faithful and intelligent discharge of its duties, does the self-culture-does it require something more than mere efficiency of the whole systein rest. Let us see what these knowledge, no matter how extensive, of the studies above duties are. recited. Again, to teach these studies in a school composed

Overseers or visiters of schools must examine the qualificaas our district schools all are, requires a practical acquaint- tions of such persons as are presented, or apply for i he office ance with the art of governing the young. . Before giving a of teacher; and without their written approbation no person certificate of qualification, therefore, the examination should can enter a common school legally to teach, or receive any be such as shall test not only the actual attainments of the portion of the public money appropriated to schools. candidate in the studies required to be known and taught, but

They must * superinted and direct the general instruction also his ability to communicate a knowledge of those studies of the scholars,” determine the class books to be used, the to the young, and of governing his school. The tact and studies to be pursued, and the character of the discipline to be power of government cannot generally be ascertained by ex resorted to by the teacher. amination. Previous success in the school room is the best They may displace any teacher who shall prove himself evidence ; and this evidence must be sought in the district disqualified, or refuse to conform to the rules and regulations where the candidate has previously been engaged in teaching. which they may prescribe for the management, studies, books The district committee should ascertain this point to his own and discipline of the schools. satisfaction before he makes any engagement with a candidate, They must visit each school iwice during each season of or presents him for examination to the proper committee. As schooling, . (both in summer and winter,) the first visit to be this subject is treated of very fully in a subsequent article, made within two weeks from the opening, and the last, within we will not enlarge upon it here, except to remark, that the two weeks of its close, and require such exercises as will show committee of examination should make up their minds firmly the proficiency of the scholars, and the discipline and mode of not to give a certificate of qualification to any person, whom teaching pursued. they do not think qualified in a moral, as well as literary point

They must make out such returns of the condition of the of view to teach their own children in the studies which he schools, as the Board of Commissioners may require to be will be called upon to teach the children of their neighbors laid before the Legislature in their Annual Report. and townsmen.

They must submit to their several school societies annually The following summary of the intellectual and moral quali- a written report of their own doings, and of the condition fications of any common school teacher is from Palmer's of the several schools wishin their limits, with plans and sugTeacher's Manual.

gestions for improving the same: 1. “ The teacher should understand the object of education. They may appoint a sub committee of one or two to act He should no longer contract its usefulness in the ignoble ob- under their advice and direction, in the above particulars, ject of enabling men to conduct the mere business of life. and thus secure the special attention of persons best qualified He should have a strong and clear perception of the truth, for this office, who shall receive a small compensation for that the object of school education is not even principally to

their services. acquire knowledge, but to form hahits of mental industry, to We proposed to enter at length into each of these requiretrain the mind to find pleasure in intellectuul effort, and lo mepts of the law, and 10 throw out such suggestions as seeminspire a love of knowledge for its own sake.

ed calculated to aid the faithful and intelligent compliance on 2. The teacher should be a good reader, able to make_the the part of the 1900 persons who have been or will be elected hearer feel and perceive all that the author intended. This to this office. The following communication covers much of however, is so rare a talent, that, until teachers' seminaries the ground which we should have gone over, and we comhave been some time in operation, it will be nearly in vain to mend it to the serious consideration of all who would act in look for it.

the spirit, as well as the letter of the law. The author is well 3. He should be able to illustrate and simplify every thing acquainted, from long acd varied experience, with the subject he teaches, and, therefore, should have the power of commu- on which he writes. He has been an active member of the nicating his ideas with clearness and precision. He should board of school visiters for several years, and taught in almost know how to make children think, by means of appropriate every variety of the district schools, and for longer and shorter questions. He should also be apt ai finding means of rousiog periods of time. He has taught in the winter school, and in sluggishness, and correcting waywardness; of inciting the the summer school, and for the whole year, and for years in idle to diligence; of strengthening, good principles where succession, in the same district. He has taught in the centhey exist; implanting them where they are deficient, and, in tral and populous, in the remote and sparsely populated disall, forming habits of order, industry, patience, and obedience. rict, and in various towns in three counties, Hartford, 4. He should possess decision and firmness; patience and Litchfield, and New Haven, and has

been practically acquaintperseverance; uniformity of temper, and complete self-com- ed with the schools in the remaining five. In short, he does mand.

not write as a theorist, but as a plain, practical, common sense 5. He should be pleasant and affectionate, and well qualifi- man, a school master and a school visiter, and as such, his ed to sympathize with children. Empty professions of inter- suggestions should receive the candid attention of all to whom est and attachment will not succeed; children, in this respect, this article is addressed.]-Ed. C. C. S. Jour. cannot be deceived. There is nothing that so invariably begets its like, as love. If the teacher desires his pupils to love bim,-and this is what every teacher should desire,-it I am not about to say any thing which should lessen the is only necessary for him to love them. He should also show, sense of responsibility in parents or teachers. Parents and that he takes an interest in their sports, and sometimes unbend, teachers have much to do, and if it is all done, it does not reso far as to take a share in them. He should appear gratified I lease school visiters from their obligations; and if it is not

EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS.

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