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Published under the direction of the Board of Commissioners of Common Schools.

VOL. III.

HARTFORD, JUNE 1, 1841.

NO. 13.

161 161 161 161 161 162 163 163 164 164 165

165

165 166

168 369 169

171
172

1841.

CONTENTS OF NO. XIN,

NUMBER OF STUDENTS IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN 1840. PENNSYLVANIA, Report of Superintendent for 1841,

In the University and Colleges,

1,639 Education of Teachers,

In the Female Seminaries,

1,430 School Libraries,

In the Academies,

2,465 Co-operation of Parents, Public Schools of Philadelphia,

In the public schools of Philadelphia,

21,968 Central High School for Boys,

In the common schools in other parts of the State, 254,908 Propused High School for Giris,

Seminary for Female Teachers, Public Schools of Lancaster,

Total,

282,410 Онто, Report of Superintendent for 1841,

EDUCATION OF TEACHERS.
Education of foreign immigrants,
Improvement of teachers,

From a review of our system of common school education, since
School funds,

166 its commencement in 1834, and its progress up to the present peri. Examination of teachers,

166 od, it will be seen that we have advanced steadily and rapidly in its Public schools of Cleveland, Public schools of Cincinnati,

establishment; 167

that large expenditures of public money have been NEW JERSEY,

168 made, and large sums have been collected from the people for the Report of trustees of school fund,

108 object; the result is most gratifying to all who feel a deep interest Taxation in support of schools,

168 in the public welfare, and in the permanece of our free institutions, Teachers' seminary, School Committees,

168 but the candid observer is constrained to admit, that our labor and Private schools,

168 our money have been almost exclusively devoted to the mechanical Compensation of teachers,

part of the system, to the machinery more than the living principle Prospects of improvement, School library,

of common school education. We have provided schoolhouses, Distribution of public money,

169 and raised money for organizing schools, and employing teachers, KENTUCKY,

169 but no effective measures have been taken to procure the best teach. Beport of superintendent, Public schools of Louisville,

170 ers, and provide for the best mode of communicating physical, mor. MICHIGAN,

170 al, and intellectual instruction. The complaint comes from all quar. SOUTH CAROLINA,

171 ters that it is difficult, and often impracticable, to secure the services MISSOURI, MR. COMBE on education in the United States,

of a sufficient number of competent teachers. This deficiency de.

mands attention, and it must be supplied, before common schools can PENNSYLVANIA.

accomplish all the benevolent and patriotic purposes, for which they

are instituted. The most obvious and direct means of providing Seventh Annual Report on the Common Schools, Colleges and Acad. competent teachers, is, by the establishment of seminaries for their emies of Pennsylvania, by F. R. Shunk, Superintendent, Feb. 20, instruction ; a plan for effecting this object was suggested in the

last annual report of the Superintendent, to which I respectfully reWe are indebted to the Superintendent for a copy of his fer, for some views upon this interesting subject. It is true, as apReport, respecting the ceedings under the School law pears from the district reports, that the art of teaching in our com. for the year ending on the first Monday of June 1840. subject will convince the judicious observer, that our system requires

mon schools, is slowly improving; but a little reflection upon the We make the following abstract.

efficient aid to elevate the standard of instruction where it is low. COMMON SCHOOLS IN 1840.

A community, in order to appreciate and compensate good teachers Number of school districts, exclusive of city and county of

adequately, should be enlightened by the happy effects of their la. Philadelphia,

bors; a result which can never be produced by those who are in. 1050

efficient and incompetent. It follows that in those districts where Number of accepting districts,

867 Number of schools in accepting districts,

the standard of instruction is once elevated, it will be vigorously 5649

sustained, and that efficient aid is required in those districts where Average length of schools, five months and eight days. Number of schools yet required in same districts,

737

the standard is low. The influence of an additional number of teach. Number of teachers employed during the year, males 4489,

ers, properly educated, would soon produce a permanent and most

beneficial effect upon our system, and create in it an expanding and females 2050. Total,

6539

enduring principle of life, which would, at no distant day, adequate. Average salaries of teachers per month, males $19 40

ly supply this desideratum. females,

$12 03 Number of Schollars in schools,

254,908

ESTABLISHMENT OF SCHOOL LIBRARIES. Average number in each school,

The next subject that claims the attention of the Legislature, is Average cost of each scholar per quarter,

$1 364

the establishment of school libraries, in the several districts. A Whole amount of State appropriation for 1840, $350,061 00

small annual appropriation, to be paid to such districts as would raise Proportion belonging to city and county of Philada., 49,283 00

an equal or greater sum, the whole to be expended in the purchase Amount of State appropriation for 1840 in 887 accepting districts,

of useful books upon subjects of general interest, would, in a few $254,086 00

years, be the means of creating libraries of useful knowledge in the Amount raised by tax for school purposes in said 887 dis.

several districts, adequate to the wanis of an inquiring and intelligent tricts,

$395,918 00

people. Institutions of this kind are the legitimate result, and supWhole amount of school money in said districts, 650,004 00

port, of a well regulated system of common school education. They Whole number of schoolhouses in use in 1840,

5,494

virtually bring knowledge, in the most interesting and engagin: fum Amount paid for building and repairing schoolhouses in

home to every man's door; and are calculated, in an e ninent d gree, 1840,

$161,334 06

to improve the taste, and cultivate and strengthen the moral and in. The public schools of the city and county of Philadelphia included tellectual faculties of the people. The great improvemenis in the 21,968 pupils, for the entire year, at an expense of $5 per scholar, art of printing, and the consequent reduction of the price of books, or a total expenditure of $147,749 44.

make it an easy matter, for every school district, to accomplish this ACADEMIES AND FEMALE SEMINARIES.

inestimable purpose. This class of seminaries are entitled to receive annual aid from

CO-OPERATION OF PARENTS AND CITIZENS GENERALLY. the State Treasury, in proportion to the number of pupils taught. Number of Female Seminaries, Nov. 1840,

It is to be regretted, that the practice, which prevails to a great Amount received from the State Treasury,

$9,977 08 extent among the people, with respect to other departments of the Number of Academies, Nov. 1840,

57 government, of only supervising the conduct of public officers when Amount received from State Treasury,

$21,237 33 they are presented for re-election, obtains generally in the relation

which subsisis between the inhabitan's of school districts and their COLLEGES, &C.

directors. Whatever plausible reason, arising from the distance to Number of Universities (1) and Colleges (7),

8

which the officer is removed, may be assigned in favor of the form Amount received from State Treasury,

$6,208 33

mer, none can be advanced to justify the practice in the latter chee

413

33

162

The inhabitants of a school district are associated together, and grades, at the aggregate expense of $75,017, of which $23,bound by the tenderest ties, to secure to all their children those ad. 000 was for land and buildings. Thirteen schoolhouses had vantages of education, which every parent is so solicitous to provide been erected up to this date. for his own children. The election of directors, and the powers In 1837 sixty primary schools were in operation with nearly conferred upon them, do not lessen the responsibility of the citizens, six thousand scholars. These schools were eminently sucand should not diminish that anxious, superintending personal care cessful in gathering up the young children who would otherwhich springs from the love of offspring, and the desire to promote wise be in no school, and in relieving the higher schools of a their happiness and welfare. If this care abounded more in the several districts, the duties of directors would be made pleasant, and class of pupils, who had embarrassed the teachers and retardtheir power to do good by advancing the cause of education, would ed the more advanced learners. During this year the corner be greatly multiplied.

stone of the high school building was laid, with an astronomi

cal observalory attached. The monitorial system was suill The Superintendent has appended extracts from the furiher dispensed with or modified. At this date 17,000 chilannual district reports. These reports recommend, among dren were in all schools, and the expenditure amounted 10 other things, the publication of a school journal—the es- $191,630, of which $112,000 was for land, building and furtablishment of schools for the education of teachers-niture. Of this last amount $89,000 was received from an compensation to a small number of school committees. appropriation by the state of $500,000 for schoolhouses.

in 1839 the central high school was opened with professors SYSTEM OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN PHILADELPHIA. in various branches of Classical, English Belles Letters,

Mathematical, Astronomical, and Physical science; more Annual Reports of the Board of Controllers of the pub- than 18,000 children were in regular attendance at school, and lic schools, of the city and county of Philadelphia, compo- the expenditures for the year amounted to $188,741, of which sing the first school district of Pennsylvania, from 1818 to $82,000 was for land, buildings and furniture. The ordinary 1840.

expenses average about $6 for each pupil. Reports on the Central High School

for boys, of Philadel-submitted ty president Bache of the Girard College. We

İn 1839 the central high school was reorganized on a plan phia, by A. D. Bache, LL. D., 1840, pp. 54.

have been made acquainted with the miputest detail of the Report on the organization of a High School for girls, discipline and course of study of this institution, pursued unand Seminary for female teachers, by A. D. Bache, LL. D. der the enlightened superintendence of President Bache, aod Oct. 1840. pp. 38.

have no hesitation in pronouncing it superior in these respects

to any institution of this grade with which we are acquainted. Prior to 1818, there appears to have been no systematic or As the superior advantages of this school cannot be attained efficient plan for educating the entire population of the city. except on the most rigid examination, and is accessible only The best schools, partaking at all of the character of common to candidates from the public schools, its establishment has alschools, were avowedly charity schools, or schools for the ready had, and will have still more a decided happy influence poor, and then, inefficient as they were, cost more per scholar on the whole system of public instruction. It will draw more than the very excellent public schools of which we shall pror children, and those of the best educated parents into the pubceed to speak, and which are common in the highest sense of lic schools, otherwise their children cannot enjoy the advantathe term, because they are good enough for the richest, and ges of this school, which are superior to those of any private cheap enough for the poorest. In 1818 an act was passed" to provide for the education of nation which is open to all pupils of the public schools, over

school of the city. As admission is gained only by an examichildren at the public expense, in the city and county of

Phila- twelve years of age, whose parents wish ihem to enter, it will delphia,” which were constituted thereby the “First School give a powerful, but healthy stimulus to the teachers and pur District” of Pennsylvania. This act was the basis of the pils of each school. The number of applicants admitted and present school system, which has however been modified for rejected on due examination, will be an index of the comparathe better hy subsequent legislation. The first school district is divided into eleven sections.

tive scholarship of the several schools. Each section has its board of directors, elected by the several

Condition of the public schools of Philadelphia in 1839. local authorities, or by the people. The effective management Whole number in regular attendance in all of the public of the schools, in all. What relates to studies, books and teachers,

schools, is in the hands of the central board of Controllers elected by Number in high school,

199 the directors.

Number in 56 primary schools, .

7,008

651 A rapid glance at the various stages of progress in the his- Number in 2 schools for colored children, tory of these schools may prove interesting and profitable.

Whole number in city and incorporated Districts, 16,923 In 1817, and for several years previous, there were only Whole number in outer sections,

5,035 2,600 poor children educated at the public expense, at the cost Whole number of teachers in city and incorporated of $11 per scholar.

districts, .

150 In 1818 against stupid, violent, and interested opposition Number of teachers-Male principals,

24 from various quarters, the present system was commenced,

23 and the first school opened in a hired room.

Female'assistants, 103 In 1819 there were six schools established, one schoolhouse Aggregate expenditures,

$147,749,44 bilt, ten teachers employed, and 2,845 children instructed in Amount expended on real estate,

$18,485.98 i-ading, writing and arithmetic, at an aggregate expense of

School furniture,

3,966.05 303,049.45, of which near $19,000 was invested in land and

School expense,

and salaries of ilding and furniture.

teachers,

72,382.70 In 1923 the first school for colored children was established. Amount received from state treasury,

$49,283.00 In 1826 there were 4,144 children in nine schools, at an Amount raised by tax for school purposes, $149,748.38 gregate expense of $22,444.

Average expense to each pupil per annum,

$5,00 În 1833 an Infant Model School was organized. There But the enterprising and intelligent gentlemen entrusted ere a: this date 5,768 children in thirteen schools, under with the management of the system are pot content to rest verty-three teachers, instructed at an aggregate expense of here. At their request president Bache has submitted a plan : 13,042, of which $23,000 was for school buildings and fix- for the organization of a high school for girls, and seminary

for female teachers, in a very valuable report. If carried out In 1836 twenty-six primary schools were established. A with the thoroughness indicated by the auihor, under the same mmittee of the board of Controllers, visited the public intelligent superintendence as the high school for boys has hools of Boston and New York, and at their suggestion been favored with, it will give a conipleteness to the system e system of instruction was modified, and additional teach-of public instruction of Philadelphia which does not exist 3, at a higher compensation were employed, and the servi- elsewhere. It will raise female education to its proper level, S of juvenile monitors dispensed with. At this date 11,127 from which it is now universally degraded in public schools, *ldren were instructed in forty-eight schools of different and furnish an adequate supply of well qualified teachers for

21,968

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the primary schools and the girls' department, of the second years of age, have passed at least six months in one of the public grade of schools. We anticipate the happiest results from schools of the first school district of Pennsylvania, and show, on ex. this proposed improvement.

amination, that he is able to read, write, and spell correctly, has a From a personal inspection of several schools of each grade competent knowledge of Grammar and Geography, and understands and a careful study of the various official documents of the the rules of Arithmetic to Proportions, inclusive.

The officers of the school shall consist of a principal, professors or board of Controllers, we regard the rapid progress of the masters, a janitor, whose duties shall be fixed by the Committee on the school system of Philadelphia, as a proud monument of the High-school. disinterested zeal, intelligence and fidelity of the men who The principal is charged with the inspection of the school, and it is have been entrusted with its administration, and of the liber- his duty to make to the professors or masters, or to the committee, such ality of the citizens generally. In common with Boston, suggestions in regard to the studies, discipline, and general welfare of Philadelphia has shown within the last few years, especially, the establishment, as may seem to him to be necessary or expedient. that any expenditure whose object is the enlightenment of the The principal shall make a report to the committee twice every year, public mind, is the best economy. Instead of clinging to her at the close of each term, relative to the condition of the High-school, old systems and methods she has from time to time looked and embodying such suggestions for its improvement as may appear

advisable, abroad into other cities and other countries, and incorporated into her own practices such modifications and improvements PLAN OF ENGLISH HIGH SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. as experience had elsewhere proved advantageous. Without

ADMISSION. her primary schools and high schools, her system could not The pupils of the high school for girls, should be admitted on exhave attained to its present useful and exalted position. amination, from the other public schools. When the high school for girls, and the seminary for female To be adınitted, the candidates should be twelve years of age ; teachers is once in successful operation,

will add the Corin- have passed at least six months in regular attendance upon one of thian capital to her otherwise beautiful and solid fabric of the public schools, and show satisfactory attainments in reading, public instruction.

writing, (including orthography,) arithmetic, to the rule of three

inclusive, grammar and geography. One examination should be CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL.

held each half year at the close of the term.

COURSE OF STUDY. There shall be three courses of instruction in the Central High The course of study might very properly be completed in four School, one principal and two subsidiary; the principal course shall years, so that a pupil who entered at twelve, the lowest possible age embrace the following subjects:

for admission, and passed through the classes, regularly, would A. Language. 1. English language, etc., as at present taught, re- leave the school, or enter the seminary for teachers, at sixteen.

taining for this department the title now in use of English The following list comprises the studies proposed. Belles Lettres.

1. English Grammar, Reading, Composition, Etymological Exer. 2. French and Spanish; the former to be obligatory upon all the cises, Course of Reading,

pupils attending the principal course; the two languages to be 2. Geography, to be taught chiefly from maps and globes, and by Laught by the same professor.

oral lessons. B. Geography and history. To be united for the present with the de The manners and customs, the natural and artificial productions, parıment of English Belles Lettres.

etc., of various countries should be described, and the course should C. Mathematics. 1.°Lower Mathematics, including Arithmetic, Al- be made an extension, and not a repetition of that of the secondary

gebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry, with their applications. schools. 2. Higher Mathematics, including higher Algebra, Analytical and 3. History and Bingraphy.

Descriptive Geometry, and their applications. D. Mechanical and Natural Philosophy; their elementary, principles Pennsylvania, of England, France, and Germany. The general

This course should comprise the History of the United States, of and applications. To be taught by the Professor of the Higher history of Europe, by periods. The, history of the world. The Mathematics, to whom, also, the direction of the Observatory is, Biographies of eminent Men, of ancient and modern times.

for the present to be confided. E. Natural History; to include Natural Theology, and the precepts

4. Rhetoric and Logic. of Health (Hygiene.)

These four courses would require, ultimately, the services of a F. Moral Lessons. The evidences of Christianity, Mental and professor, with an assistant; but in the beginning of the school,

Political Science; to be taught, for the present, by the Professor might be under the charge of the Principal, with an assistant. The of Classics.

siudies of Rhetoric and Logic, might be eventually retained in this G. Writing . . } To be, at least for the present, united in one departo connection, or transferred to the next department to be mentioned.

In general, I would observe, that where several kindred branches The two subsidiary courses to be entitled, respectively, the Elemen-are to be taught, the distribution of them may be advantageously tary, and the Classical course, shall consist of the iwo following made to depend upon the particular talent at the service of the branches :

school. The amount of time and attention required for the disci. First, the elementary course, of :-

pline of this school will be much less than in a boys' school of the A. English Language:

same number of pupils; and hence the Principal may, very well, B. Geography and History.

until his services are required in the seminary for teachers, be ac. C. Lower Mathematics.

tively employed as an instructor. His duties should, however, be D. Elements of Mechanics and Natural Philosophy.

carefully limited to an amourt consistent with a regular superinE. Elements of Natural History.

tendence of the whole of the branches of instruction, and an accuF. Moral Lessons.

rate knowledge of the character and progress of the individual G. Writing

pupils. H. Drawing.

5. Elementary Lessons upon morals. Moral and Mental Philos. Second, the Classical course, of :

ophy. A. Language. 1. Latin and Greek.

6. Constitution of the United States, and of Pennsylvania. Gen. 2. English Belles Letters.

eral Principles of Political Economy. 3. French, as far as may prove consistent with due progress in the

These studies might be conveniently united, and taught either by Classical and English studies.

an instructor from one of the other departments, or by one who B. Geography and History. C. Mathematics. To include the lower mathematics, and as much of It is important to mingle oral instruction with that from books; and

should merely give the number of lessons required for this course. the higher as may be practicable. D. Elements of Mechanics and Natural Philosophy.

this department affords facilities for cultivating the habit of collect. E. Natural History.

ing and expressing the ideas given in a lecture or discourse. These F. Moral Lessons.

moral lessons, are a good basis for the private advice and admoni. G. Writing

tion of the Principal; they serve to establish, theoretically, the H. Drawing

proper relations between the pupil and teacher, which it is imporThe duration of the principal course shall be four years, of the clas- tant to have acted upon in a school, and to imbue the youthful mind sical course, four years, and of the elementary course, two years; and with good principles. parents are expected to make the selection of one or other course for

7. Arithmetic. Review of the Ground Rules, Higher Arith. iheir sons, on adinission to the school.

metic. The school year shall be divided into a winter and a summer term. 8. Algebra, First Lessons, and a complete Course. At the close of each term, there shall be an examination of the pupils 9. Elements of Geometry and Trigonometry. of the High-school, of which due public notice shall be given. 10. Perspective Shades and Shadows.

To be admitted to the High-school, a candidate must be twelve) 11. Lessons on common Objects of Nature and Art.

ment,

The inhabitants of a school district are associated together, and grades, at the aggregate expense of $75,017, of which $23,bound by the tenderest ties, to secure to all their children those ad. 000 was for land and buildings. Thirteen schoolhouses had vantages of education, which every parent is so solicitous to provide been erected up to this date. for his own children.

The election of directors, and the powers In 1837 sixty primary schools were in operation with nearly conferred upon them, do not lessen the responsibility of the citizens, six thousand scholars. These schools were eminently sucand should not diminish that anxious, superintending personal care cessful in gathering up the young children who would otherwhich springs from the love of offspring,

and the desire to promote wise be in no school, and in relieving the higher schools of several districts, the duties of directors would be made pleasant, and class of pupils, who had embarrassed the teachers and retardtheir power to do good by advancing the cause of education, would ed the more advanced learners. During this year the corner be greatly multiplied.

stone of the high school building was laid, with an astronomi

cal observatory attached. The monitorial system was still The Superintendent has appended extracts from the further dispensed with or modified. At this date 17,000 chilannual district reports. These reports recommend, among dren were in all schools, and the expenditure amounted to other things, the publication of a school journal—the es- $191,630, of which $112,000 was for land, building and furtablishment of schools for the education of teachers-niture. Of this last amount $89,000 was received from an compensation to a small number of school committees.

appropriation by the state of $500,000 for schoolhouses.

In 1839 the central high school was opened with professors SYSTEM OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN PHILADELPHIA. Mathematical, Astronomical, and Physical science ; more

in various branches of Classical, English Belles Letters, Annual Reports of the Board of Controllers of the pub- than 18,000 children were in regular attendance at school, and lic schools, of the city and county of Philadelphia, compo- the expenditures for the year amounted to $188,741, of which sing the first school district of Pennsylvania, from 1818 to $82,000 was for land, buildings and furniture. The ordinary 1840.

expenses average about $6 for each pupil.

In 1839 the central high school was reorganized on a plan Reports on the

Central High School for boys, of Philadel-submitted ty president Bache of the Girard College. We phia, by A. D. Bache, LL. D., 1840, pp. 54.

have been made acquainted with the minutest detail of the Report on the organization of a High School for girls, discipline and course of study of this institution, pursued unand Seminary for female teachers, by A. D. Bache, LL. D. der the enlightened superintendence of President Bache, and Oct. 1840. pp. 38.

have no hesitation in pronouncing it superior in these respects

to any institution of this grade with which we are acquainted. Prior to 1818, there appears to have been no systematic or As the superior advantages of this school cannot be attained efficient plan for educating the entire population of the city. except on the most rigid examination, and is accessible only The best schools, partaking at all of the character of common to candidates from the public schools, its establishment has alschools, were avowedly charity schools, or schools for the ready had, and will have still more a decided happy, influence poor, and then, inefficient as they were, cost more per scholar on the whole system of public instruction. It will draw more than the very excellent public schools of which we shall pror children, and those of the best educated parents into the pubceed to speak, and which are common in the highest sense of lic schools, otherwise their children cannot enjoy the advantathe term, because they are good enough for the richest, and ges of this school, which are superior to those of any private cheap enough for the poorest. In 1818 an act was passed " to provide for the education of nation which is open to all pupils of the public schools, over

school of the city. As admission is gained only by an examichildren at the public expense, in the city and county of Phila- twelve years of age, whose parents wish them to enter, it will delphia,” which were constituted thereby the “First School give a powerful

, but healthy stimulus to the teachers and pu: District of Pennsylvania. This act was the basis of the pils of each school. The number of applicants admitted and present school system, which has however been modified for rejected on due examination, will be an index of the comparathe better hy subsequent legislation. The first school district is divided into eleven sections.

tive scholarship of the several schools. Each section has its board of directors, elected by the several Condition of the public schools of Philadelphia in 1839. local authorities, or by the people. The effective management Whole number in regular attendance in all of the public of the schools, in allihat relates to studies, books and teachers,

schools, .

21,968 is in the hands of the central board of Controllers elected by Number in high school,

199 the directors.

Number in 56 primary schools,

7,008 A rapid glance at the various stages of progress in the his- Number in 2 schools for colored children,

651 tory of these schools may prove interesting and profitable.

Whole number in city and incorporated Districts, 16,923 In 1817, and for several years previous, there were only Whole number in outer sections,

5,035 2,600 poor children educated at the public expense

, at the cosi Whole number of teachers in city and incorporated of $11 per scholar.

150 In 1818 against stupid, violent, and interested opposition Number of teachers—Male principals

,

24 from various quarters, the present system was commenced,

Female,

23 and the first school opened in a hired room.

Female'assistants,

103 In 1819 there were six schools established, one schoolhouse. Aggregate expenditures,

$147,749.44 bilt, ten teachers employed, and 2,845 children instructed in Amount expended on real estate,

818,485.98 ading, writing and arithmetic, at an aggregate expense of

School furniture,

3,966.05 53,049.45, of which near $19,000 was invested in land and

School expense, and salaries of cuilding and furniture.

teachers,

72,382.70 In 1923 the first school for colored children was established. Amount received from state treasury,

$49,283.00 In 1826 there were 4,144 children in nine schools, at an Amount raised by tax for school purposes, $148,748.38 gregate expense of $22,444.

Average expense to each pupil per annum,

$5,00 În 1833 an Infant Model School was organized. There But the enterprising and intelligent gentlemen entrusted ere a: this date 5,768 children in thirteen schools, under with the management of the system are not content to rest perty-three teachers, instructed at an aggregate expense of here. At their request president Bache has submitted a plan 13,042, of which $23,000 was for school buildings and fix- for the organization of a high school for girls, and seminary

for female teachers, in a very valuable report. If carried out In 1836 twenty-six primary schools were established. A with the thoroughness indicated by the author, under the same mmittee of the board of Controllers, visited the public intelligent superintendence as the high school for boys bas hools of Boston and New York, and at their suggestion been favored with, it will give a conipleteness to the system e system of instruction was modified, and additional teach- of public instruction of Philadelphia which does not exist 3, at a higher compensation were employed, and the servi- elsewhere. It will raise female education to its proper level,

of juvenile monitors dispensed with. At this date 11,127 from which it is now universally degraded in public schools, ldren were instructed in forty-eight schools of different and furnish an adequate supply of well qualified teachers for

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the primary schools and the girls' department, of the second years of age, have passed at least six months in one of the public grade of schools. We anticipate the happiest results from schools of the first school district of Pennsylvania, and show, on ex. this proposed improvement.

amination, that he is able to read, write, and spell correctly, has a From a persooal inspection of several schools of each grade competent knowledge of Grammar and Geography, and understands and a careful study of the various official documents of the che rules of Arithmetic to Proportions, inclusive.

The officers of the school shall consist of a principal, professors or board of Controllers, we regard the rapid progress of the school system of Philadelphia, as a proud monument of the masters, a janitor, whose duties shall be fixed by the Committee on the disinterested zeal, intelligence and fidelity of the men who The principal is charged with the inspection of the school, and it is have been entrusted with its administration, and of the liber- his duty to make to the professors or masters, or to the committee, such ality of the citizens generally. In common with Boston, suggestions in regard to the studies, discipline, and general welfare of Philadelphia has shown within the last few years, especially, the establishment, as may seem to him to be necessary or expedient. that anyexpenditure whose object is the enlightenment of the The principal shall make a report to the committee twice every year, public mind, is the best economy. Instead of clinging to her at the close of each term, relative to the condition of the High-school, old systems and methods she has from time to time looked and embodying such suggestions for its improvement as may appear

advisable. abroad into other cities and other countries, and incorporated into her own practices such modifications and improvements PLAN OF ENGLISH HIGH SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. as experience had elsewhere proved advantageous. Without

ADMISSION. her primary schools and high schools, her system could not The pupils of the high school for girls, should be admitted on exhave attained to its present useful and exalted position. amination, from the other public schools. When the high school for girls, and the seminary for female To be adınitted, the candidates should be twelve years of age ; teachers is once in successful operation, it will add the Corin- have passed at least six months in regular attendance upon one of thian capital to her otherwise beautiful and solid- fabric of the public schools, and show satisfactory attainments in reading, public instruction.

writing, (including orthography,) arithmetic, to the rule of three

inclusive, grammar and geography. One examination should be CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL.

held each half year at the close of the term.

COURSE OF STUDY. There shall be three courses of instruction in the Central High The course of study might very properly be completed in four School, one principal and two subsidiary ; the principal course shall years, so that a pupil who entered at twelve, the lowest possible age embrace the following subjects:

for admission, and passed through the classes, regularly, would A. Language. 1. English language, etc., as at present taught, re- leave the school, or enter the seminary for teachers, at sixteen.

taining for this department the title now in use of English The following list comprises the studies proposed. Belles Lettres.

1. English Grammar, Reading, Composition, Etymological Exer. 2. French and Spanish; the former to be obligatory upon all the cises, Course of Reading.

pupils attending the principal course; the two languages to be 2. Geography, to be taught chiefly from maps and globes, and by taught by the same professor.

oral lessons. B. Geography and history. To be united for the present with the de The manners and customs, the natural and artificial productions, partment of English Belles Lettres.

etc., of various countries should be described, and the course should C. Mathematics. 1. Lower Mathematics, including Arithmetic, Al- be made an extension, and not a repetition of that of the secondary

gebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry, with their applications. schools. 2. Higher Mathematics, including higher Algebra, Analytical and

3. History and Biography, Descriptive Geometry, and their applications. D. Mechanical and Natural Philosophy; their elementary, principles Pennsylvania, of England, France, and Germany. The general

This course should comprise the History of the l'nited States, of and applications. To be taught by the Professor of the Higher history of Europe, by periods. The, hiatory of the world. Th Mathematics, to whom, also, the direction of the Observatory is, Biographies

of eminent Men, of ancient and modern times. for the present to be confided.. E. Natural History; to include Natural Theology, and the precepts

4. Rhetoric and Logic. of Health (Hygiene.)

These four courses would require, ultimately, the services of a F. Moral Lessons.' "The evidences of Christianity. Mental and professor, with an assistant; but in the beginning of the school,

Political Science; to be taught, for the present, by the Professor might be under the charge of the Principal, with an assistant. The of Classics.

siudies of Rhetoric and Logic, might be eventually retained in this G. Writing.

To be, at least for the present, united in one depart. connection, or transferred to the next department to be mentioned. H. Drawing.

In general, I would observe, that where several kindred branches The two subsidiary courses to be entitled, respectively, the Elemen- are to be taught, the distribution of them may be advantageously tary, and the Classical course, shall consist of the iwo following made to depend upon the particular talent at the service of the :

school. The amount of time and attention required for the disci. First, the elementary course, of :

pline of this school will be much less than in a boys' school of the A. English Language.

same number of pupils; and hence the Principal may, very well, B. Geography and History.

until his services are required in the seminary for teachers, be acC. Lower Mathematics.

tively employed as an instructor. His duties should, however, be D. Elements of Mechanics and Natural Philosophy.

carefully limited to an amourt consistent with a regular superinE. Elements of Natural History.

tendence of the whole of the branches of instruction, and an accuF. Moral Lessons.

rate knowledge of the character and progress of the individual G. Writing

pupils. H. Drawing

5. Elementary Lessons upon morals. Moral and Mental Philos. Second, the Classical course, of :

ophy. A. Language. 1. Latin and Greek.

6. Constitution of the United States, and of Pennsylvania. Gen. 2. English Belles Letters.

eral Principles of Political Economy. 3. French, as far as may prove consistent with due progress in the These sludins might be conveniently united, and laught either by Classical and English studies.

an instructor from one of the other departments, or by one who B. Geography and History.

should merely give the number of lessons required for this course. C. Mathematics. To include the lower mathematics, and as much of It is important to mingle oral instruction with that from books; and

the higher as may be practicable. D. Elements of Mechanics and Natural Philosophy.

this department affords facilities for cultivating the habit of collect. E. Natural History.

ing and expressing the ideas given in a lecture or discourse. These F. Moral Lessons.

moral lessons, are a good basis for the private advice and admoni. G. Writing

tion of the Principal; they serve to establish, theoretically, the H. Drawing

proper relations between the pupil and teacher, which it is imporThe duration of the principal course shall be four years, of the clas- tant to have acted upon in a school, and to imbue the youthful mind sical course, four years, and of the elementary course, two years; and with good principles. parents are expected to make the selection of one or other course for 7. Arithmetic. Review of the Ground Rules, Higher Ariththeir sons, on adinission to the school.

metic. The school year shall be divided into a winter and a summer term. 8. Algebra, First Lessons, and a complete Course. At the close of each term, there shall be an examination of the pupils 9. Elements of Geometry and Trigonometry. of the High-school, of which due public notice shall be given. 10. Perspective Shades and Shadows.

To be admitted to the High-school, a candidate must be twelve 11. Lessons on common Objects of Nature and Art.

ment.

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