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HARTFORD, JUNE 1, 1942.
EXTRACTS FROM RECENT SCHOOL DOCUMENTS IN OTHER
by the commendable exertions of individuals, the ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF COMMON schools were languishing for want of a system.
SCHOOLS OF THE STATE OF New-YORK, MADE TO THE atic, constant and vigilant supervision. Their
complete isolation from each other was also Statistics.
equally obvious; and frequent instances were Number of Counties in the State,
discovered of the close proximity; for a series of of Towns,
823 years, of schools differing essentially from each of Cities,
other in their capacities for usefulness, and cach of organized School Districts,
10,886 of Towns and Cities from which School
ignorant of the condition, wants or acquisitions returns were received,
835 of the others. The arrangements of the several Number of Districts ditto,
10,396 districts, with respect to the location of their Average length of school in months,
sites, the construction of their buildings, their Number of children over 4 and nnder 16 in the districts returned, excluding New York city, 583,347
internal accommodations, and the various conNumber of all ages attending Common School, 562,198 veniences appertaining to the school room, were Amount of money expended in 1810 for the pay
found in general extremely defective, while there meiit of wages of teaches, alone,
was a want of general interest in the progress of for district libraries,
$98,903 00 Number of volumes added 'to school libraries
the sehools ; and even the officers, whose special in 1840.
200,000 duty it was by law, periodically to visit and inWhole number of volumes in libraries Jan. 1841, 630,125 spect them, had but partially and imperfectly Estimated capital of the School Fund, including
complied with this requisition.
With a view to remedy these defects, and to
voluntary tax and under special statutes,
ing feature was the institution of the office of Amoimit raised from parents, &c. by rate or
deputy superintendent for each of the counties in qnarler bills,
$483.479 54 the State. Estimated salaries of County Superintendents, $30,000 00
County or Deputy Superintendcnt. Progress of the Common School System. The functions devolved upon this officer are It is gratifying to be able to state, that during chiefly of a supervisory nature. He is required the past year, the most ample indications of the to act in conjunction with the officers of the sev, steady advancement and increasing efficiency of eral districts and towns; to advise and counsel our common schools have been manifested. with them in the discharge of their various duPublic seutiment has co-operated with the Le ties; to submit plans for the improvement and gislature and the department in demanding a discipline of the schools and to visit and exainmore vigorous and thorough organization in the ine them as often as may be practicable ; and several districts--a higher grade of qualifications the only positive powers conferred upon him are for teachers—i more strict and general supervis. those connected with the examination and licens. ion of the schools and an increased degree of ing of teachers. He will thus be enabled judi, attention to the external arrangements and inter- ciously to direct the efforts of inhabitants and nal details of the system.
officers of the districts in the organization and Appointment of County Visitors in 1839.
arrangement of their schools ; to afford thier
material assistance in all that relates to ihe disBy the 8th section of the act of 1839, relating charge of their arduous, responsible and often to common schools, the Superintendent was au complicated duties; to place at the command of thorized to " appoint such and so many persons the schools, teachers of the proper grade of as he shall, from tine to time, deem necessary, qualifications ; recommend and secure the gradto visit and examino into the condition of com val adoption of an uniform series of text books; mon schools in the county where such persons and to avail himself of all the improvements in may reside, and report to the Superintendent on modes of teaching, of government and discipline, all such matters relating to the condition of such which he may be able to discover within the schools, and me means of improving them, as bounds of his jurisdiction, or learn from a con. he shall prescribe.” Under this provision, a stant correspondence with his co-adjutors thro'. board of visitors was organized in several of the out the State, and with the head of the departcounties of the State, and individual effort, vol. ment. untarily undertaken in others, with a view to the The several deputy superintendents have en. improvement and elevation of the schools. tered upon the discharge of the arduous and
From the investigations thus instituted, it was responsible duties devolved upon them, in a spirit apparent that potwithstanding the beneficial in and with a zeal and energy from which the most fluences which were dispensed by the liberal ap- favorable results are confidently anticipated. The propriations from the public treasury, as well as efficient co-operation of the inhabitayits and offi
cers of the respective districts within their juris- rior efficacy of this arrangement to any other, diction, may doubtless be relied upon to enable with reference as well to the progress of the sluthem to carry out the enlightened views of the dents as to the aggregate experise of the course Legislature in the improvement and advance of instruction. Large play grounds are not un. ment of the common schools; and sustained by frequently found attached to the school house ; the invigorating influences of public sentimient sometimes ornamented with flowers and shrub. and a due appreciation of the dignity and use bery, and all the arrangements, external and infulness of their station, these agents of public ternal, conducted with a view to the convenience instruction can scarcely fail in the successful ac and accommodation of those for whose use they complishment of the great object with which are designed. The slight additional burthens they have been entrusted.
thus imposed upon the inhabitants of the several School Journal.
districts, are scarcely felt, while the paramount The introduction into the several school dis
interests of the schools are essentially and pertricts of a periodical devoted exclusively to edu- ceptibly advanced. cation, and containing in a official form, the laws. Departments for the Education of Teachers. relating to common schools, and the most impor There are now twenty-three of these institutant decisions and regulations of the Superin- tions, which annually send out a greater or less tendent, under those laws, forms another valua number of well educated candidates for teachers; ble feature of the act of the last session. In and although a very small proportion of the eleven addition to the facilities which it affords for a thousand school districts of the State can be supgeneral dissemination, throughout every district, plied from these sources, yet the judicious distri. of the school laws and the decisions and instruc bution of their services throughont the different tions of the Superintendent, it forms an instruc- portions of the State, exerts a powerful tendency tive and interesting medium of communication in creating a general demand for an equal standin reference to the subject of popular education ard of qualifications; while each district, in which generally-the improvements from time to time these teachers are employed for any considerable introduced into the system—the views of different period, is itself enabled, through their exertions individuals—the results of various experience, and ivstruction, annually to prepare a numerous and the progress of elementary instruction in body of competent instructors. In this way, other States and countries.
normal schools are perpetuated and extensively In pursuance of the 32d section of the act, diffused throughout our borders, partaking of all the late Superintendent subscribed for 12,000 the practical advantages, and subject to a few of copies of the “ District School Journal," a month the embarrassinents or inconveniences incidental ly periodical, published by Francis Dwight, Esq. to establishments expressly founded for and de. in the city of Albany, and exclusively devoted to voted to this object. Under their combined inthe cause of education. One copy of each num tluence, not only have the wages of teachers ber is transmitted at the commenceinent of each steadily increased, but their rank and station as month to the clerk or one of the trustees of each public benefactors are beginning to be better ap. organized school district in the State. T'he ad
preciated ; their labors are cheered and encourvantages anticipated from such a periodical have aged by the benign influences of an enlightened been thus far fully realized by the department, public sentiment; and the results are rapidly as well as by the several districts where it has developing themselves in the increased useful
. been received.
ness and efficiency of the common schools. New and Improved School IIouses,
District Libraries. In many of the districts where it has become
The institution and wide dissemination of disnecessary or expedient to erect new school
trict Jibraries, has been attended with the most houses, more enlarged and liberal views are
favorable results upon the advancement and inbeginning to prevail in this respect; and spa
provement of the district schools. It is indeed cious and commodious buildings, often of stone difficult to conceive of a measure more directly or brick, with interior arrangements more in and certainly adapted in its effects, present and accordance with the physical economy of nature,
prospective, to extend the sphere of information, have succeeded to the antiquated and inconven
to invigorate the moral influences pervading an ient structures which have so long retarded the
intelligent community, and to cement the insti. progress and discouraged the efforts of the friends
tutions of our favored land, than the introduction of education. It is earnestly to be hoped that the revolution thus commenced will speedily per- selected library, open to the perusal of all, and
into every school district of a judicious and well vade every section of the State. It is impossible constantly increasing in extent and value. to over-estimate the beneficial influences which result from an early and habitual experience of
Want of Permanent Teachers. comfort, neatness and order, or to guard with In many portions of the State it has been cilstoo great vigilance against the deleterious effects, tomary to employ teachers of ordinary qualifica. moral and physical, of indifference with respect tions, at the lowest prices for which their services to these essential requisites of the school room. could be obtained, and for a single term of three In several of the country districts, two large or four months. rooms are provided for the instruction of the pu At the end of the term, a vacation of several pils--one under the charge of a male, and the months usually intervenes, and is succeeded perother under that of a female teacher; and all haps by the employment of a female teacher experience has hitherto demonstrated the supe- / during the summer months, who is again suc
cended by another and different teacher. The promote the interests of education, and conduce to the wel.
increased interest has been manifested in the improvement to constant interruption and derangement, and a
of the public schools, and vigorous measures have been
adopted for their advancement. systematic progress becomes imposible. Another
In Buffalo, Rochester, and Hudson, the schools are under evil, of increasing magnitude, is induced by this the management of the municipal authorities, and a supermode of procedure, in the vast multiplicity and
intendent who devotes his whole time to their snpervision.
The introduction in some of the larger villages of the entire want of uniformity or system of text books.
State, of imion schools, or the combination of a variety of Those adopted by one teacher are generally dis separate district schools contiguously situated, into one of carded by the next; and at the commencement a higher order of excellence, has been attended with the of each term, parents are subjected to the ex
happiest practical effects on the improvement of the system. pense, and the pupils to the embarrassment and inconvenience of procuring a new series of school
Eighth ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OP Variety of Text Books.
Common Schools of PennsyLVANIA, Jan. 1842. An enlightened regard to the progress of the Progress of thc System of Common Schools. pupils, and a just consideration of the interests
It was not until 1835, that the foundations of a system of of parents, alike dictate the adoption of some
common school education were permanently laid. Al practicable measure by which this fertile source though other States and countries may be in advance of of embarrassment to the teacher, and inefficiency us in this great enterprize, let it be remembered that they of the school, may be removed. This object, it
have reached their present position by the labor of years.
With is the system is yet in its infancy; and we may is believed, may be accomplished, to a great ex prondly ask those who are prone to complain because all tent, at least, through the medium of the deputy is not done at once, which requires the work of years to superintendents, and the officers of the several perform, and who are disappointed because youth is not districts, without infringing in any respect upon
maturity, to point to the history of schools in any State or
nation, where so much has been done, in so short a period, the rights of publishers or authors, on the one ons in this Commonwealth. The habits of the people were hand, or the freedom of selection of parents, on formed by the custom which prevailed from the settlement the other,by the establishment at some convenient
of the province up to 1835, that provision for general edupoint in each county, of a general depository of
cation was a private, not a public duty. To change habits
thus sanctioned by ages, is not the work of a day or a year. standard and approved works, on all the various The school-master's profession was not amongst the inost branches of instruction, and by the introduction honorable. The adoption of the system increased the de into each town of a competent variety and sup
mand for the services of these invaluable public servants,
who, as has been justly remarked, are, next to mothers, the ply of such works, at some central and commo most important members of society This extraordinary dious place, from whence the officers of each dis demand, and the inadequate compensation which custom trict, in conjunction with the deputy superintendo had fixed, produced a want of a sufficient number of teach
ers for our Common Schools. The number of non-acceptent, the inspectors, and if deemed advisable, a
ing districts, the active ininorities in some of the accepting committee to be named by the district, may select distracts, and the large suns required for the erection of and recommend to the inhabitants such as they school houses, presented difficulties of no ordinary magniInay deem best adapted to the progress and im tude. They have been met, and, to a considerable extent,
overcome. That we yet have much to do is certain; but provement of the pupils. Arrangements may
all may be accomplished in a reasonable time, by acting easily be made by which the books so selected with a wise reference to our own peculiar circumstances. shall be placed at the command of every parent,
Wants of the System. at a slight advance on the original cost, and the
While schools are provided for the education of those district continue to be supplied with the same destined for every pursuit of life, we have no seminaries works, for as long a period as may be deemed for instructing ieachers; and while all the treasures of desirable. Uniformity and system would thus
knowledge and experience, relating to the varions profesbe introduced into each district; the compara
sions, trades and occupations, are embodied in books,
pamphlets, treatises and newspapers, and liberally distributive value of different works fairly tested under ted, our school directors, committee-men and teachers, the most favorable auspices; the confusion and have to execute their mwerous duties without being proembarrassment inseparable from the present sys
vided with the light of experience, which might be so read.
ily furnished, and would be so highly useful. tem, avoided; a heavy item of expense on ihe
Teachers Seminaries. part of parents removed, and the efforts of the
Seminaries for instructing teachers in the art of governteacher left unobstructed by the necessity of those
ing schools, and comigunicating instruction, are among the minute subdivisions in classification, which are most important improvements that are furnished by the now unavoidable.
example of other States and conptries, in which the greatest Superiority of Female Teachers.
advances towards perfection have been made in common
school education. The establishment of such institutions is
District School Librarics.
District school libraries are so obviousiy calculated to
School Journal. business of instruction, it cannot be doubted that the more To aid the school directors, committees and teachers, in general employment of female teachers would essetially l the performance of their various duties, I am constrained to
$25 18 $6 96
repeat the suggestion which has been frequently made, that Average wages paid per month, including board, the publication of a Common School Gazeté, under the
$33 80 direction of the Superintendeni, at the seat of Government,
$12 81 devoted entirely to the dissemination of information relating Average value of board per month, of Males, to the details of common school instruction, would be of
of Females, very great practical value.
Average wages per month, exclusive of board,
of Females, KENTUCKY.
Amount of money raised by taxes for the support ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF COMMON
of Schools, including only the wages of SCHOOLS, FOR 1842.
Teachers, boar i and fuel,
Amount of board and fuel contributed for Public Progress of the School System.
$37,743 34 No. of Incorporated Academies,
80 Another year's enlarged experience has impressed the
Aggregate of months kept,
Average number of Scholars,
3,825 Commonwealth ; of the general wisdom of its provisions ;
Aggregate paid for tnition,
No. of Unincorporated Academies, Private ind of its entire practicability, if only fostered with a rea
Schools, and Schools kept to prolong sonable share of that public patronage, of which, more than Common Schools,
1,388 any other measure of enligbiened State policy, it is every
Aggregate of months kept,
8,340 1-4 where acknowledged to be worthy. He has now visited
Average number of Scholars,
31.794 73 out of the 90 counties in the State, and the few which he
Aggregate paid for tunition,
$259.123 87 has not yet been able to visit, being scattered in every
Amount of Local Fans,
$325,852 02 quarter, he may be said to have made himself familiarly ac Income from same,
$15,306 30 quainted with the wants and wishes of every portion of our Income of Surplus Revenue appropriated to tellow citizens. Nearly every mountain county has been Schools, visited, and the conviction is confirmed that the fraction of
$9,529 48 our population which is so scattered as to be unable to
Common School Library recommended and provided for. avail itself of the benefits of the system, under some of The subject of School Library has been referred to in its various modes of adaptation, is exceeding small. former reports. It, as it is staled in the report of the Sec. Itinerant Schools Recommended.
retary, there are inore than one hundred towns in the
State, (one third part of the whole number in it,) in which The system of itinerent schools seems perfectly adapted there is not a single town, social, or district school library, it to our mountain counties, not only by bringing the school would seem that a large portioipo' the children of the Con house within a proper distance of every dwelling, but by a monwealth are growing up without adeqnate means for virtual four-fold increase of the public bounty. It can be self-improvement. In view of this fact, the Board would demonstrated, that even at the present rate of distribution, respecifully suggest the expediency of furnishing some asno neighborhood need to raise more than $10, and may sistance to the districts, to aid and enconrage them in prohave occasion to raise ouly $10, in addition to the public
curing a school library. A sufficient snm for this purpose, bounty, in order to secure the services of a teacher, at might be taken from the State school fund, either at once, $200 a year, for three months, in each of our neighbor or in two or more successive years, without perceptibly hoods.
impairing its present nisplulness. Normal School Proposcil.
[This recommendation of the Board was acied upon by In this connection he would again urge upon the consid
the Legislature, and the sum of lifieen dollars to be taken eration of the Legislature the importance of inaking a small from the school fund, appropriated to each district, which annual appropriation from the avails of the School Fund, would raise the like sum for the same purpose.] for the purpose of making a limited experiment of at least one Normal School.
The continuance of the Normal Schools recommended and
provided for. School System of the City of Louisville.
Of all the prosessions, that of a teacher is eninently The Legislature may well feel an honest pride, in helping practical. He has so deal with mind, with mind, 100, in to sustain such efficient practical, and noble efforts as Louis all its variety of character. And yet, though he has to do ville-is making for the thorongh education of ull classes of with a subject which is least understood, and the most diffiher population.
cult to be comprehended, there is less attention paid lo This system consists of three grades of schools, viz. Pri.
qualifications, ihan in any other profession or trade.
A few days, or, at at most, a few weeks, are sufficient to nary, Gramınar, and Evening, and are all under the Super
explain to a young man the principles of architecture, the intendence of a Board, with a salaried Secretary, wbo de. uses of the different tools, and the strength, durability, and yotes his whole time to his duties.
quality of materials; but, instead of sending him to a scien. tif.clectarer, we apprentice him to a practical mechanic,
that he inay acquire a kuowledge of his art by long years of MASSACHUSETTS.
patient and laborious application.
To qualify a student in the legal professiou, we indeed ABSTRACT OF THE MASSACHUSETTS SchooL RETURNS FOR
place hiin under the care of scientic instructors; but, nutil 1840-41, prepared by the Secretary of the Board of Edir
the principles which he is taught are familiarized by praccation.
tice, he will be of no advantage to his clients, and will ar-
In the healing art, practice is the very handmaid of sciAggregate of School Returns for 1840-41.
ence; and when we call in either a physician or a surgeon,
we pass by the man who has inerely a knowledge of books, No. of Towns which have inade Returns,
and seek the assistance of him who has grown wise in the Population, (U. S. Census, 1840,)
734.258 school of experience. Valuation, (State, 1840,)
Why should we not adopt the same course with those to No. of Public Schools,
3.103 whom we entrust the minds of our children! Why not No. of Scholars of all ages in the schools, iu Summer, 131,761 qualify them beforehand for the discharge of their duties, do do
do in Winter, 155,041 instead of placing them at once in a most responsible situa. Average attendance in the Schools, in Summer, 96,892
tion, to gather wisdom at the expense of the minds and do
do in Winter, 116,308 morals of their pupils ? No. of persons between 4 and 16 years of age, 184,392 These suggestions have been expressed, both before and No. of persons under 4 years of age, who attend
since the establishment of the Norinal Sohools ;-—and the School,
grants made for the establishment of those iustitntions were No. over 16 years of age who attend School, 9,032
for the purpose of remedying existing evils. The schools Average length of the Schools in months and days, 7 16 have been in operation, exclusive of vacations, two of them No. of Teachers, (including Summer and Winter
for about two years, and the third for about one year. terms,) Males,
2,491 The question arises, have they answered, or have they inFemales,
4,112 dicated that they will answer, the object ?-or, in other
words, have the nprcmitted exertions of three learned and experienced teachers, bestowed upon those who were avxious to learn the art of teaching, enabled those persons to perforin with more ability the duties to which they have devoted themselves ?
The success which has followed the labors of the Normal scholars is, perhaps, the best evidence in favor of the schools. But few of them have ever completed the course of education, conteinplated either by the Board, or by the Principals of the different institutions. It would be reasonable, therefore, to suppose that, in some cases, they would fail to win the approval of their employers. But, in most instances, they have given, as it is believed, unexpected satisfaction; and, such is the estimation in which their services have been held, that many districts, which have once employed Normal scholars, are extremely unwilling to employ any other teachers.
The committee, therefore. in view of the facts which have fallen under their own observation, and iu accordance with what they believe to be the wishes and the wanls of the community, are unanimous in the expression of an opinion, that snitable provision should be made by the Legislature, for the continued support of the three Normal Schools.
['This recommendation was also adopted and the sum of six thousand dollars, annually, for three years, was appropriated to the support of Normal Schools.]
Nero York School System commended. Although that State passed its first law for the establishment of Common Schools in 1812. yet it is now outstripping all the other States in the Union, in the comprehensiveness of its plans, and the munificence of its appropriations A Comuon School library is now commenced in all the school districts of that Stite,-between ten and eleven thousand in number,-and the volumes distributed already amount to more than six hundred and thirty thousand. The saine Slate has also provided for the appointment of one or more county superintendents of schools in each county, whose duty it is to examine all the schools, and report their coudition to the State superintendent. To carry out more fully their extensive plans of improvement, the Stale has also authorized the superintendent to subscribe for a periodical devoted exclusively to the subject of Common School education, and to send a copy gratuitously to every district in the State.
[The Report of the Secretary of the Board is characterized by the ability, research, enthusiasm, and richness of thought and illustration, which have characterized all the educational documents from this officer.]
Progress of the System since 1837. Since that time, (1837,) the amount of appropriations made by the towns for the wages and board of the teachers aud fuel for the schools, has increased more than one hun. dred thousand dollars.
During the same time, the schools have been lengthened, on an average, alınost three weeks wach, which for three - thonsand one hundred and three, (the number of public
schools kept last year in the State,) amounts in the whole to more than one hundred and seventy-five years.
The average wages of male teachers, for the same period, have advanced thirty-three per cent.; those of females, a little more than twelve and a half per cent. I am satisfied that the value of the services of both sexes bas increased in a much greater ratio than that of their compensation.
There were one hundred and eighty-five more public schools last year, than in 1837, which is rather less than the ratio of increase in the number of children between the ages of 4 and 16 yewrs. This favorable result is owing to the union of small districts. The number of inale teachers has increased one hundred and twenty-one; that of females, five hundred twenty-one, which shows the growing and most beneficial practice of employing female teachers for sınall schools and female assistants in large ones.
Many towns in the State, during the last year, completed the renovation of all the schoolhouses within their respective limits.
From a perusal of the school committees' reports for the last year, it appears that the number of schools broken up by the insubordination of the scholars, was not more than one tenth part what it was for the preceding year. This gain to the honor of the schools,-or rather this exemption from disgrace,- is to be attributed to the combined causes of better modes of government by the teachers, more faithial supervision by the committees, a more extended person
al acquaintance on the part of parents, and especially to the practice of making a report to the towns of the condition of the schools, and the conduct of the scholars. Few boys between the ages of fifteen and twenty-one years are so depraved and shameless as not to recoil at the idea of being reported for misconduct, in open town-meeting, and of having an attested record of their disgrace transmitted to the seat of government, with the chance, should they persist in their incorrigibleness for two or three years, of finding themselves bistorically known to other conntries and tiines, throngh the medium of the school abstracts. The cases of schools bronght to a violent termination, during the last year, by the insubordination of the scholars, happened almost invariably. in those towns and sections of counties in the State where I have found the least sympathy and cooperation in my labors.
The interior condition of the schools, as to order, thorongh ness, progress, manners, and so forth, not being susceptible of tabular statement or statistical exhibition, mist be inferred from these outward and palpable evidences of their advancement.
These are some of the results, at which the co-workers in the noble cause of education may congratulate themselves;-results which will furuish, at once the richest reward for the past efforts and the highest incentive to future exertions.
Subdivision of School Districts arrested. A check has been given to the self-destructive practice of dividing and subdividing territory in order to bring the school near to every mau's door. Our school districts are already so numerons, that just in the direct ratio in which the number is increased. is the valne of our school system diminished. There is but one class of persons in the whole community--and ibat claşs not only small in number, but the least entitled to favor, --who are beneficially interested in the establishinent of small and feeble districts. This class consists of the very poore i teachers in the State, or of those who iininigrate here from other states or countries, in quest of employinent us teachers,—who are willing to teach for the lowest compensation,--and for whose services even the lowest is tvo bigh These teachers may safely look upon the small and feeble districts as estiites in expectancy. Such districts, having destroyed their resonrces by dividing them, must remain stalionary from year to year, amidst surrounding improvement; and hence, being unable 10 command more valuable services, they will be conipelled to grant a small annual pension to ignorance ind imbecility, and this class of teachers stands ready to be their pensioisaries.
School-houses. The closeness of the relation which a school house. well planned, sitnated, built and furnished, bears to order, good manners, intellectual proficiency, and the culture of the social and even the moral sentiments of the pupils, as well as upon the character of the district where it is situated, has not, in any previous year, been so vividly and earnestly presented and, on the other hand, the loss, mischief, dis. ease, disgrace, of a mean school house, have never been illustrated by so cop.ous a reference to lacts, or enforced by such an array of argument and by such earnestness of expostulation and pungency of ridicule.
À strained and uncomfortable posture long enforced ; sudden transitions from one extreme of temperature lo another, or excessive heat at the head, while the feet are benumbed with cold; a strong light striking directly into the eye, while the book or paper is thrown into shade; and the breathing of poxious air, are offences against the wise and benign laws of nature, which never escape with impunity. Though committed in ignorance, nay, though enforced by parental anthority upon thoughtless and inexperienced childhood, they must be expiated by suffering ; for they belong to that extensive class of “iniquities," which, when committed by the “fathers," are “ visited upon the children unto the third and fourth generation.” It is to be earnestly hoped that the school committees will persevere in the laud able practice they have so well begun, until there shall not remain a town in the State which boasts upon paper of its temples to science, but has novght to show for them, in reality, but receptacles for penzi confinement, and houses, not for the cure, but for the propagation of disease.
Amount and Regularity of School Attendance. If the number of children under 4 years of age, who attended school during the last year, be deducted from the average of atiendance in summer, and the number of those over 16 years of age, who attended school, be also deducted