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No. 12.

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by the commendable exertions of individuals, the ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF COMMON schools were languishing for want of a system.

SCHOOLS OF THE STATE OF New-YORK, MADE TO TIE atic, constant and vigilant supervision. Their
LEGISLATURE, January 5th, 1842. p. 178.

complete isolation from each other was also

equally obvious; and frequent instances were

59 Number of Connties in the State,

discovered of the close proximity; for a series of of Towns,

823 years, of schools differing essentially from each of Cities,

9 other in their capacities for usefulness, and cach of organized School Districts,


ignorant of the condition, wants or acquisitions of Towns and Cities from wbich School


of the others. The arrangements of the several returns were received, Number of Districts ditto,

10,396 districts, with respect to the location of their Average length of school in months,

8 sites, the construction of their buildings, their Number of children over 4 and under 16 in the

internal accommodations, and the various condistricts returned, excluding New York city, 583,347 Number of all ages attending Common School, 562,198

veniences appertaining to the school room, were Amount of money expended in 1810 for the pay

found in general extremely defective, while there meli of wages of teaches, alone,

$1,043,531 24

was a want of general interest in the progress of for district libraries,

$98,903 00

the sehools; and even the officers, whose special Number of volumes added to school libraries in 1840,

200,000 duty it was by law, periodically to visit and inWhole mmber of volumes in libraries Jan. 1841, 630,125 spect them, had but partially and imperfectly Estimated capital of the School Fund, including

complied with this requisition. that portion of the United States Deposite Fund ippropriated to school purposes, $5,219,947 98

With a view to remedy these defects, and to Amount appropriated froin School Ennd, $185.000 00 invigorate the system in all its parts, the act of Amouut raised by tax by county supervisors, $305,252 95 the last session was passed. Its most distinguish, voluntary tax and under

ing feature was the institution of the office of special statutes,

$80,000 00 Ainont raised from parents, &c. by rate or

deputy superintendent for each of the counties in qnarter bills,

$183.479 54 the State. Estimated salaries of County Superintendents, $30,000 00

County or Deputy Superintendent. Progress of the Common School System. The functions devolved upon this officer are

It is gratifying to be able to state, that during chiefly of a supervisory nature. He is required the past year, the most ample indications of the to act in conjunction with the officers of the sev, steaily advancement and increasing efficiency of eral districts and towns ; to advise and counsel our common schools have been manifested. with them in the discharge of their various duPublic sentiment has co-operated with the Le ties; to submit plans for the improvement and gislature and the department in demanding a discipline of the schools and to visit and exainmore vigorous and thorough organization in the ine ihem as often as may be praciicable; and several districts--a higher grade of qualifications the only positive powers conferred upon him are for teachers-a more strict and general supervis- those connected with the examination and licens. ion of the schools—and an increased degree of ing of teachers. He will thus be enabled judi, attention to the external arrangements and inter- ciously to direct the efforts of inhabitants and nal details of the system.

officers of the districts in the organization and Appointment of County Visitors in 1839. arrangement of their schools ; to afford thern

material assistance in all that relates to ihe disBy the 8th section of the act of 1839, relating charge of their arduous, responsible and ofteri to common schools, the Superintendent was au complicated duties; to place at the command of thorized to appoint such and so inany persons

the schools, teachers of the proper grade of as he shall, from tiine to time, deem necessary, qualifications ; recommend and secure the gradto visit anıl examino into the condition of com val adoption of an uniform series of text books; mon schools iu the county where such persons and to avail himself of all the improvements in may reside, and report to the Superintendent on modes of teaching, of government and discipline, all such matters relating to the condition of such which he may be able to discover within the schools, and the means of iniproving them, as bounds of his jurisdiction, or learn from a con. he shall prescribe.” Under this provision, a stant correspondence with his co-adjutors thro'. board of visitors was organized in several of the out the State, and with the head of the departcounties of the State, and individual effort, vol ment. untarily undertaken in others, with a view to the The several deputy superintendents have enimprovement and elevation of the schools. tered upon the discharge of the arduous and

From the investigations thus instituted, it was responsible duties devolved upon them, in a spirit apparent that notwithstanding the beneficial in

and with a zeal and energy from which the most fluences which were dispensed by the liberal ap- favorable results are confidently anticipated. The propriations from the public treasury, as well as

efficient co-operation of the inhabitayits and offi

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cess of de respective districts within their jaris. rior efficacy of this arrangement to any other, diction, may doubtirss be relied upon to enable with reference as well to the progress of the seethem to carry out the enlightened views of the dents as to the aggregate expense of the course Legislabire in the improvement and advance of instruction. Large plas grounds are coi unment of the common schools; and sustained by frequently fouod attached to the school busse; the insigoraung influences of public sentipent someumes ornamested suh ijzers and shruband a due appreciation of the dignity and use. bery, and all the arrangements, external and infulaess of three station, these syents of public ternal, conducted with a view to the convenience instruction can scarcely fisil in the suecessful ac. and aceetprodation of those for wbose use they complishment of the great object with which are designed. The slight additional burbens they have been entrusted.

thus imposed upon the inhabitants of the several School Journal.

districts, are scarcely felt, while the paramount The introduction into the sereral school dis- interests of the schools are essentials and pertricts of a periodical devoted exclusively to edu- ceptibly advanced. cation, and containing in a oficial forin, the laws' Departments for the Education of Teachers. relating to common schools, and the most impor There are now twenty-three of these insi:a. tant decisions and regulations of the Superin- tions, which annually send out a greater or less tendeut, under those luss, foris another valua number of well educated candidates for teachers; ble feature of the act of the last session. In and al:hough a very small proportion of the elevea addition to the facilities which it affords for a thousand school districis of the State can be supgeneral dissemination, throughout every district, i plied from these sources, yet the judicious disin. of the school laws and the decisions and instruc bution of their services throughout the different tions of ile Superintendent, it forms an instruc- portions of the State, exeris a powerful tenderley tive and interesiing medium of communication in creating a general demand for an equal standin reference to the subject of popular education ard of qualifications; while each districi, in which generally—the improvements from time to time these teachers are employed for any considerable introduced into the systein—ihe views of different period, is itself enabled, through their exertions individuals--the results of various experience, and instruciion, annually to prepare a numerous and the progress of elementary instruction in body of competent instructors. In this way, other States and countries.

i normal schools are perpetuated and extensively In pursuance of the 32d section of the act, diffissed throughout our borders, partaking of all the late Superintendent subscribed for 12,000 the practical advantages, and subject to a few of copies of the District School Journal," a month. | the embarrassments or inconveniences incidental ly periodical, published by Francis Dwight, Esq. to establishments expressly founded for and dein the city of Albany, and exclusively devoted to voted to this object. Under their combined inthe cause of education. One copy of each num. tluence, not only have the wages of teachers ber is transmitted at the commencernent of each steadily increased, but their rank and station as month to the clerk or one of the trustees of each public benefactors are beginning to be better aporganized school district in the State. The ad- preciated ; their labors are cheered and encourvantages anticipated from such a periodical have aged by the benign influences of an enlightened been thus far fully realized by the department, public sentiment; and the results are rapidly as well as by the several districts where it has developing themselves in the increased useful. been received.

ness and efficiency of the common schools. New and Improved School IIouses.

District Libraries. In many of the districts where it has become

The institution and wide dissemination of dis necessary or expedient to erect new school

trict libraries, has been attended with the most houses, more enlarged and liberal views are

favorable results upon the advancement and imbeginning to prevail in this respect; and spa

provement of the district schools. It is indeed cious and commodious buildings, ofien of stone

difficult to conceive of a measure more directly or brick, with interior arrangements more in and certainly adapted in its effects, present and accordance with the physical economy of nature, prospective, to exiend the sphere of information, have succeeded to the antiquated and inconvento invigorate the moral influences pervading an ient structures which ave so long retarded the intelligent community, and to cement the insti. progress and discouraged the efforts of the friends

tutious of our favored land, than the introduction of education. It is earnestly to be hoped that

into every school district of a judicious and well the revolution thus commenced will speedily per selected library, open to the perusal of all, and vade every section of the State. It is impossible constantly increasing in extent and value. to over-estimate the beneficial influences which result from an early and habitual experience of

Want of Permanent Teachers. comfort, neatness and order, or to guard with In many portions of the State it has been custoo great vigilance against the deleterious effects, tomary to employ teachers of ordinary qualificainoral and physical, of indifference with respect tions, at the lowest prices for which their services to these essential requisites of the school room. could be obtained, and for a single term of three In several of the country districts, two, large or four months. rooms are provided for the instruction of the pu At the end of the term, a vacation of several pils--one under the charge of a male, and the months usually intervenes, and is succeeded perother under that of a female teacher; and all haps by the employment of a female teacher experience has hitherto demonstrated the supe. during the summer months, who is again suc

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promote the interests of education, and conduce to the welfare and prosperity of the common schools.

Common Schools in Cities and Villages-Union Schools.

In several of the cities and larger villages of the State, an increased interest has been manifested in the improvement of the public schools, and vigorous micasures have been adopted for their advancement.

In Buffalo, Rochester, and Hudson, the schools are under the management of the municipal authorities, and a superintendent who devotes bis whole time to their snpervision.

The introduction in some of the larger villages of the State, of mion schools, or the combination of a variety of separate district schools contiguously situated, into one of a higher order of excellence, has been attended with the happiest practical effects on the improvement of the system.

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ceeded by another and different teacher. The modes of instruction and discipline of each of threse individuals are generally peculiar to themselves, and essentially different from each other. The studies of the pupils are conseqnently liable to constant interruption and derangement, and a systematic progress becomes imposible. Another evil, of increasing magnitude, is induced by this mode of procedure, in the vast multiplicity and entire want of uniformity or system of text books. Those adopted by one teacher are generally discarded by the next; and at the commencement of each term, parents are subjected to the expense, and the pupils to the embarrassment and inconvenience of procuring a new series of school books.

Variety of Tert Books. An enlightened regard to the progress of the pupils, and it just consideration of the interests of parents, alike dictate the adoption of some practicable measure by which this fertile source of embarrassment to the teacher, and inefficiency of the school, may be removed. This object, it is believed, may be accomplished, to a great extent, at least, througłı the medium of the deputy superintendents, and the officers of the several districts, without infringing in any respect upon the rights of publishers or anthors, on the one hand, or the freedom of selection of parents, on the other, by the establishment at some convenient point in each county, of a general depository of standard and approved works, on all the various branches of instruction, and by the introduction into each town of a competent variety and supply of such works, at some central and commodious place, from whence the officers of each district, in conjunction with the deputy superintendent, the inspectors, and if deemed advisable, a committee to be named by the district, may select and recommend to the inhabitants such as they Inay deem best adapted to the progress and improvement of the pupils. Arrangements may easily be made by which the books so selected shall be placed at the command of every parent, at a sliglit advance on the original cost, and the district continue to be supplied with the same works, for as long a period as may be deemed desirable. Uniformity and system would thus be introduced into each district; the comparative value of different works fairly tested under the most favorable auspices; the confusion and embarrassment inseparable from the present system, avoided ; a heavy item of expense on ihe part of parents removed, and the efforts of the teacher left unobstructed by the necessity of those minute subdivisions in classification, which are now unavoidable.

Superiority of Female Teachers. The result of a careful investigation of the reports of the visitors of common schools in our own State, as well as of the reports of the several committees and boards of educil. tion in Massachusetts and Connecticut, concur in demon. strating the superior efficacy and ntility, especially in the elementary branches, of schools taught by competent and well qualified female instructors. From the greater confidence which children naturally repose iu them—the familiar acquaintance with the habits, dispositions and character of the young, which their situation and purftits necessarily involve-and the peculiar adaptation of their minds to the business of instruction, it cannot be doubted that the more general employment of female teachers would ersetially


Progress of the System of Common Schools. It was not until 1835, that the foundations of a system of common school education were permanently laid. Alihongh other States and countries may be in advance of us in this great enterprize, let it be remembered that they have reached their present position by the labor of years. With 19 the system is yet in its infancy; and we may proudly ask those who are prone to complain because all is not done at once, which requires the work of years to perform, and who are disappointed because youth is not maturity, 10 point to the history of schools in any State or nation, where so much has been done, in so short a period, as in this Commonwealth. The habits of the people were formed hy the custom which prevailed froin the settlement of the province up to 1835, that provision for general education was a private, not a public duty. To change habits thus sanctioned by ages, is not ihe work of a day or a year. The school-master's profession was not amongst the inost honorable. The adoption of the system increased the de mand for the services of these invaluable public servants, who, as has been justly remarked, are, next to mothers, the most important members of society This extraordinary demand, and the inadequate compensation which custom had fixed, produced a want of a sufficient number of teachers for our Common Schools. The number of non-accepting districts, the active minorities in some of the accepting districts, and the large sus required for the erection of school houses, presented difficulties of no ordinary magnitude. They have been met, and, to a considerable extent, overcome. That we yet have much to do is certain; but all may be accomplished in a reasonable time, by acting with a wise reference to our own peculiar circumstances.

Wants of the System. While schools are provided for the education of those destined for every pursuit of life, we have no seminaries for instructing teachers; and while all the treasures of knowledge and experience, relating to the varions professions, trades and occupations, are embodied in books, pamphlets, treatises and newspapers, and liberally distributed, our school directors, cominittee men and teachers, have to execute their numerous duties without being provided with the light of experience, which might be so read. ily furnished, and would be so highly useful.

Teachers Seminaries. Seminaries for instructing teachers in the art of goverijing schools, and communicating instruction, are among the most important improvements that are furnished by the example of other States and conntries, in which the greatest axlvances towards perfection have been made in common school education. The establishment of such institutions is respectfully recommended to the Legislature; for their direct tendency is to elevate the standard of education, to improve our schools, and add to their usefuluess.

District School Librarics. District school libraries are so obviousiy calculated to improve the public mind, and advance the cause of general education, that no expenditure can be made in the districts more beneficial than that which is applied to their establishment.

School Journal. To aid the school directors, committees and teachers, in the performance of their various duties, I am constrained to

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$25 18 $6 96


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repeat the suggestion which has been frequently made, that Average wages paid per month, including board, the publication of a Common School Gazette, under the

To Males.

$33 80 direction of the Superintendeni, at the seat of Government,

To Females,

$12 81 devoted entirely to the dissemination of information relating, Average value of board per month, of Males, to the details of common school instruction, would be of

of females, $5 85 very great practical value.

Average wages per month, exclusive of board,

of Males,

of Females, KENTUCKY.

Amount of money raised by taxes for the snpport ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF COMMON

of Schools, including only the wages of

Teachers, boari and fuel,

$491,015 23

Amount of board and fuel contributed for Public Progress of the School System.


$37,743 34 No. of Incorporated Academies,

80 Another year's enlarged experience has impressed the

Aggregate of months kept,

775 14 Superintendent of Public Instruction more deeply than

Average number of Scholars,

3,825 ever, with the need of the Common School System in this

Aggregate paid for tuition,

$56,533 89 Commonwealth ; of the general wisdom of its provisions ;

No. of Unincorporated Academies, Private aud of its entire practicability, if only fostered with a rea

Schools, and Schools kept to prolong sonable share of that public patronage, of which, more than

Common Schools, any other measure of enligbiened State policy, it is every

Aggregate of mouths kept,

8,540 1.4 where acknowledged to be worthy. He has now visited

Average number of Scholars,

31,794 73 out of the 90 counties in the State, and the few which he

Aggregate paid for inition,

$259.123 87 has not yet been able to visit, being scattered in every Amount of Local Funds,

$325.852 02 quarter, he may be said to have made himself familiarly ac

Income from same,

$15,306 30
quainted with the wants and wishes of every portion of our
tellow citizens. Nearly every inountain county has been

Income of Surplus Revenue appropriated to

$9,529 48
visited, and the conviction is confirmed that the fraction of
our population which is so scattered as to be unable to

Common School Librar y recommended and provided for. avail itself of the benefits of the system, under some of The subject of School Library has been referred to in įts various modes of adaptation, is exceeding small. former reports. If, as it is stated in the report of the Sec

retary, there are more than one bundred towns in the Itinerant Schools Recommended.

State, (one third part of the whole number in it,) in which The system of itinerent schools seems perlectly adapted there is not a single town, social, or district school library, it to our mountain counties, not only by bringing the school would seem that a large portioipo' the children of the Com. house within a proper distance of every dwelling, but by a monwealth are growing up without adequate means for virtual four-fold increase of the public bounty. It can be self-improvement. In view of this fact, the Board would demonstrated, that even at the present rate of distribution. respectfully suggest the expediency of furnishing some asno neighborhood need to raise more than $ 40, and may

sistance to the districts, to aid and enconrage them in prohave occasion to raise ouly $10, in addition to the public curing a school library. A sufficient sum for this purpose, bounty, in order to secure the services of a teacher, at might be taken from the State school fund, either at once, $200 a year, for three inonths, in each of !our neighbor or in two or more successive years, without perceptibly hoods.

impairing its present isetulness. Normal School Proposed.

[This recommendation of the Board wils acted upon by In this connection he would again urge upon the consid

the Legislature, and the suin of lifieen dollars to be taken eration of the Legislature the importance of making a small from the school fund, appropriated to each district, which annual appropriation from the avails of she School Fund, would raise the like sum for the same purpose.] for the purpose of making a limited experiment of at least one Normal School.

The continuance of the Normal Schools recommended and

provided for. School Eystem of the City of Louisville.

Of all the professions, that of a teacher is emiliently The Legislature may well feel an honest pride, in helping practical. He has to deal with mind,-with mind, too, in to sustain such efficient practical, and noble efforts as Louis all its variety of character. And yet, though he has to do ville-is making for the thorongh education of all classes of with a subject which is least understood, and the most diffiher population.

cult to be comprehended, there is less attention paid to 'This system consists of three grades of schools, viz. Pri.

qualifications, than in any other profession or trade.

A few days, or, at at most, a few weeks, are sufficient to mary, Grammar, and Evening, and are all under the Super

explain to a young man the principles of architecture, the intendence of a Board, with a salaried Secretary, who de uses of the different tools, and the strength, durability, and

quality of materials; but, instead of sending him to a scien. Fotes his whole time to his duties.

lif.clécturer, we apprentice him 10 a practical mechanic,

that he inay acquire a knowledge of his art by long years of MASSACHUSETTS.

patient and laborious application.

To qualify a student in the legal profession, we indeed ABSTRACT OF THE MASSACHUSETTS SchooL RETURNS FOR

place bin under the care of scientic instructors; but, until 1840-41, prepared by the Secretary of the Board of Edin

the principles which he is taught are failiarized by praccation. p. 328.

tice, he will be of vo advantage to his clients, and will ar-
Fifth Annual Report of the Board of Education, together with a rive at no eminence in the ranks of his profession,
the Fifth Annual of the Secretary of the Board.

135. In the healing art, practice is the very handouaid of sci-

ence; and when we call in either a physician or a snrgeon, Aggregate of School Returns for 1840-41.

we pass by the man who has inerely a knowledge of books, No. of Towns which have made Returns,

304 and seek the assistance of him who has grown wise in the Population, (U. S. Census, 1840,)

734,258 school of experience. Valuation, (State, 1840,)

$299,057,534 31 Why should we not adopt the same course with those to No. of Public Schools,

3,103 whom we entrust the winds of our children! Why not No. of Scholars of all ages in the schools, in Summer,131,761 qualify them beforehand for the discharge of their dnties

, do do do

do in Winter, 155,041 instead of placing them at once in a most responsible situa. Average attendance in the Schools, in Summer, 96,892 tion, to gather wisdom at the expense of the minds and do do

do in Winter, 116,308 morals of their pupils ? No. of persons between 4 and 16 years of age, 184,392 These suggestions have been expressed, both before and No. of persons under 4 years of age, who attend

since the establishment of the Norinal Schools ;-and the School,


grants made for the establishment of those instiintions were No. over 16 years of age who attend School, 9,032

for the purpose of remedying existing erils. The schools Average length of the Schools in months and days, 7 16 have been in operation, exclusive of vacations, two of them No. of Teachers, (including Summer and Winter

for about two years, and the third for about one year. terms,) Males,

2,491 The question arises, have they answered, or have they inFemalea,

4,112 dicated that they will answer, the object ?-or, in other

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words, have the norcmitted exertions of three learned and experienced teachers, bestowed upon those who were anxious to learn the art of teaching, enabled those persons to perforo with more ability the duties to which they have devoted themselves ?

The success which has followed the labors of the Normal scholars is, perhaps, the best evidence in favor of the schools. But few of them have ever completed the course of education, conteinplated either by the Board, or by the Principals of the different institutions. It would be reasonable, therefore, to suppose that, in some cases, they would fail to win the approval of their employers. But, in most instances, they have given, as it is believed, unexpected satisfaction; and, snch is the estimation in which their services have been held, that many districts, which have once employed Normal scholars, are extremely unwilling to employ any other teachers.

The committee, therefore, in view of the facts which have fallen under their own observation, and in accordance with what they believe to be the wishes and the wants of the community, are unanimous in the expression of an opinion, that suitable provision should be made by the Legislature, for the continued support of the three Normal Schools.

{'This recommendation was also adopted and the sum of six thousand dollars, annually, for three years, was appropriated to the support of Normal Schools.]

Nero York School System commended. Although that State passed its first law for the establishment of Common Schools in 1812. yet it is now outstripping all the other States in the Union, in the comprehensiveness of its plans, and the munificence of its appropriations A Common School library is now commenced in all the school districts of that Stiile,-between ten and eleven thousand in number,-and the volumes distributed already amount to more than six hundred and thirty thousand. The same State has also provided for the appointment of one or more county superintendents of schools in each county, whose duty it is to examine all the schools, and report their condition to the State superintendent. To carry out more fully their extensive plans of improvement, the Stale has also authorized the superintendent to subscribe for a periodical devoted exclusively to the subject of Common School education, and to send a copy gratuitously to every district in the State.

[The Report of the Secretary of the Board is characterized by the ability, research, enthusiasm, and richness of thought and illustration, which have characterized all the educational documents from this officer.]

Progress of the System since 1837. Since that time, (1837,) the amount of appropriations made by the towns for the wages and board of the teachers and fuel for the schools, has increased more than one hun. dred thousand dollars.

During the same time, the schools have been lengthened, on an average, almost three weeks ach, which for three thousand one hupdred and three, (the number of public schools kept last year in the State,) amounts in the whole to more than one hundred and seventy-five years.

The average wages of male teachers, for the same period, have advanced thirty-three per cent. ; those of females, a little more than twelve and a half per cent. I am satisfied that the value of the services of both sexes has increased in a much greater ratio than that of their compensation.

There were one hundred and eighty-five more public schools last year, than in 1837, which is rather less than the ratio of increase in the number of children between the ages of 4 and 16 years. This favorable result is owing to the union of small districts. The number of inale teachers has increased one hundred and twenty-one ; that of females, five hundred twenty-one, which shows the growing and most beneficial practice of employing female teachers for sınall schools and female assistants in large ones.

Many towns in the State, during the last year, completed the renovation of all the schoolhouses within their respective limits.

From a perusal of the school committees' reports for the last year, it appears that the number of schools broken up by the insubordination of the scholars, was not more than one tenth part what it was for the preceding year. This gain to the honor of the schools,-or rather this exemption from disgrace,-is to be attributed to the combined causes of better modes of government by the teachers, more faithfra! supervision by the committees, a more extended person

al acquaintance on the part of parents, and especially to the practice of making a report to the towns of the condition of the schools, and the conduct of the scholars. Few boys between the ages of fifteen and twenty-one years are so depraved and shameless as not to recoil at the idea of being reported for misconduct, iu open town-meeting, and of having an attested record of their disgrace transmitted to the seat of government, with the chance, should they persist in their incorrigibleness for two or three years, of finding themselves bistorically known to other conntries and tiines, through the medium of the school abstracts. The cases of schools brought to a violent termination, during the last year, by the insubordination of the scholars, happened almost invariably. in those towns and sections of counties in the State where I have found the least sympathy and co. operation in my labors.

The interior condition of the schools, as to order, thorongh ness, progress, manners, and so forth, not being snsceptible of tabular statement or statistical exhibition, m'ist be inferred from these outward and palpable evidences of their advancement.

These are some of the resiilis, at which the co-workers in the noble cause of education may congratulate themselves ;-results which will furnish, at once the richest reward for the past efforts and the highest incentive to future exertions.

Subdivision of School Districts arrested. A check has been given to the self-destructive' practice of dividing and subdividing territory in order to bring the school near to every mau's door. Our school districts are already so numerons, that just in the direct ratio which the number is increased, is the value of our school system diminished. There is but one class of persons in the whole community,--and that class not only small in number, but the least entitled ic favor,--who are beneficially interested in the establishinent of small and feeble districts. This class consists of the very poore i teachers in the State, or of those who ininigrale here from other States or countries, in quest of employinent as teachers,--who are willing to teach for the lowest compensation,-aud for whose services eveu the lowest is too high These teachers may safely look upon the small and feeble districts as estates in expeetancy. Such districts, having destroyed their resources by dividing them, must remain staliopary from year 10 year, amidst surrounding improvement; and hence, being unable to command more valuable services, they will be compelled to grant a small annual pension to ignorance and imbecility, and this class of teachers stands ready to be their pensionaries.

School-houses. The closeness of the relation which a school house. well planned, sitnated, built and furnished, bears to order, good manners, intellectual proficiency. and the culture of the social and even the moral sentiments of the pupils, as well as upon the character of the district where it is situated, has not, in any previous year, been so vividly and earnestly presented and, on the other hand, the loss, mischief, dis. ease, disgrace, of a mean school house, have never been illustrated by so copious a reference to lacts, or enforced by such an array of argument and by such earnestness of expostulation and pungency of ridicule.

A strained and uncomfortable posture long enforced ; sudden transitions from one extreme of temperature to another, or excessive heat at the head, while the feet are benumbed with cold ; a strong light striking directly into the eye, wbile the book or paper is thrown into shade; and the breathing of voxious air, are offences against the wise and benigu laws of nature, which never escape with impupity. Though committed in ignorance, nay, though enforced by parental anthority upon thoughtless and inexperienced childhood, they must be expiated by suffering; for they belong to that extensive class of " iniquities," which, when committed by the “fathers," are “ visited upon the children unto the third and fourth generation.” It is to be earnestly hoped that the school committees will persevere in the laud able practice they have so well begun, until there shall not remain a town in the State which boasts upon paper of its temples to science, but has novght to show for them, in reality, but receptacles for pevzi confinement, and houses, not for the cure, but for the propagation, of disease.

Amount and Regularity of School Attendance. If the number of children under 4 years of age, who attended school during the last year, be deducted from the average of attendance in summer, and the number of those over 16 years of age, who attended school, be also deducted

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