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from the aierage of attendance in winter, the average attendance of those between 4 and 16 years of age, will stand thus : For smınmer,
107,276 Now, allowing twelve thousand as the number of children in the State, who derive their whole education from academies and private schools, and who, therefore, are not dependent upon the Common Schools at all; and deducting this number froin the number of children in the State, who are between the ages of 4 and 16 years, (thus, 184,39212,000=172,392,) and the proportion of those who attended the Common Schools in summer, coinpared with the whole number depeudent upon those schools, is as 89,069 to 172,392, or a very little more than one half; and the portion of those who attended the same schools, in winter, as compared with the whole number dependent upon them, is as 107,276 to 172,392, or considerably less than eleven seventeeths.
Hence it appears that the amount of absence of those supposed to be dependent upon the Common Schools, Wus, For simmer,
65,116 Supposing this enormous privation, instead of being spread over the whole State, and being lost to the sight of men by its diffusion and by its comuonness, had fallen exclusively upon a single section ;-supposing that a single portion of the territory of the Commonwealth, had been selected and doomed to bear the entire loss,-in that case, the absence, even in winter, when it was more than eighteen thousand less than in summer, would have exceeded the number of all the children between 4 and 16 years of age, in the five western counties of Berkshire, Hampshire, Hampden, Franklin and Worcester. It would have exceeded, by more than ten thonsand, all the children between 4 and 16 years of age, in the six south-eastern counties of Norfolk, Bristol, Plymouth. Barnstable, Dukes county and Nantucket : and it would have been nearly equallo all the children, between the same ages, in the three great counties of Sutrolk, Essex and Middlesex ;—the aniount of absence in the suinmer, indeed, would have exceeded the number of children in the three last-named counties, by more than sixteen thousand. Were all the children in either of these three great sections of the Commonwealth wholly deprived of the privileges of a Common School education, would not the State, -foreseeing the inevitable calamities which, in the immutable order of events, must result from rearing 60 large a portion of its population in ignorance,-be filled with alarm, and impelled by the instinct of self-preservation, to seek for an antidote? But is the evil which this fact infallibly prophecies, any less dangerous or injininent, becarise, instead of shrouding one particular section of the Commonwealth in night, it is ditfuised over the entire surface of the State, darkening the common atinosphere and blinding the vision of the whole people ?
Sketch of a Faithful, and an Unfaithful Teacher. There is a teacher in this State, who, althongh he has labored constantly in his profession for thirty years, does not, even now, hear a recitation, without first going carefully over the lesson,-not so much to revise principtes which must already be familiar to him, aš lo pre-adapt bis qnestions and explanations to the different attainments and capacities of his pupils. When out of school, he spends many hours daily, in preparing for its exercises, and in devising the wisest means for correcting, by intellectual and moral influences, any reinissness or waywardness in individual scholars. In these hours of study and coutemplation he enkindles in his own spirit that fervency of Christian love, and digests those plans of practical wisdoun, by virtue of which, without ever resorting to corporal puuishment or emulation, or appealing to any low motive whatever, he secures the greatest extent of intellectual proficiency, and fuses and remonlds the most refractory dispositions. The zeal and progress of the pupils in this school, correspond with the assiduity and conscientiousness of its teacher. What parent worthy of the name, would not submit to any sacrifice to secure such a teacher for his children. rather than to employ one who, after spending a long summer on a tarın, or in a shop, or in trafficking in small goods, from town to town, suddenly suspends his accustomed occipation, and, laking a small bundle of books under his arm, with a feruie conspicuously displayed on its outside, enters the schoolroom, without revising a lesson he is to teach, or bestowing a thought upon the principles by which he is to govern, but rashly trusting to extemporaneous light and in
spiration for his gnidance, in all cases of doubt or difficulty ! Fertilizing and purifying influences are richly showered down, by the one, fuilling the promise of a most luxuriant growth; while the other, not only destroys the hope of a harvest
, but impoverishes the very soil on which it should have flourished.
Inequality in the means of Education. Much has been, and much still continues to be, both said and written respecting that equality in the laws, and equal. ity under the laws, which constitntes the distinctive feature of a Republican government. By abolishing the right of primogeniture, and entails, by the extension of the elective franchise, and in other ways, much has been done towards realizing the two grand conceptions of the founders of our government, viz , that political advantages should be eqnal, and then, that celebrity or obscurity, wealth or poverty, should depend on individual merit But the most influential and decisive measure for equalizing the original oppor. tunities of men, that is, equality in the means of education, has not been adopted. In this respect, therefore, the most striking and paintul disparities now exist.
Under these differeni circumstances, the most striking in equalities have grown up. According to the Graduated Tables inserted at the end of the school abstract, it appears that, in regard to the amount of money appropriated for the support of schools, the difference between the fore. most and the bindinost towns in the State, is more than seren to one !
There were five towns, (viz. Milton, Boston, Chelsea, Charlestown, and Medford,] which appropriated. for the last year, more than five dollars for the edu ation of each child within their limits, between the ages of 4 and 16 years.
11 other towns (viz. Dorchester, New Bedford, Brooks line, Worcester, Lowell, Northampton, Dedham, Holl
, Bolton, Waltham, and Duxbury.) appropriated more than $4 for each ciuild within the same years.
28 other iowns appropriated more than $3 for each child, 123 139 1
less than The average of appropriations for the whole State, wa two dollars and seveniy-one cents, for each child between the above-mentioned ages. No town, in the counties of Berkshire or Barnstable, came up to the average of the Stale, and in the county of Bristol, only one towe, (New Bedford,) eqnalled it
It is a common device of geographers, for illustrating the different degrees of civilization or barbarism existing in ditierent parts of the globe, to variegate the surface of 3 map with different colors and shades, from the white Dess which represents the furthest advances in civilization and Christianity, io the blackness denoting the lawest stages of barbarism, Asimilar map has been prepared, representing the educational differences between the different depariments in the kingdom of France. A map of the difierent towns of Massachusetts, drawn and colored afier such a inodel, would exhibit edifying, though humiliating couirasts. It would show that, during the last half century, the most efficient cause of social inequality has been left to grow ap amongst us unobserved; and it would furnish data tor the prediction, to a great extent, of the future fortunes of the rising geveration, in the respective lowns.
I have met many individuals, wbo, having failed to obtain any improvement in the means of education in their respec. tive places of residence, have removed to towns whose schools were good, believing the sacrifice of a bundred, or even several hundred dollars, to be nothing, in comparison with the value of the school privileges secured for their children by such removal. Sull more frequently, when other circumstances have rendered a change of domicil expedient, has this principle of selection governed in choosjug a residence. I doubt not there are towns, where par simonious considerations relative to the schools have ob tained the ascendancy, which have actually lost more, in dollars and cents. by a reduction of taxable property and polls, than, iu their shortsightedness, they supposed they had gained by their scanty appropriations, besides inflicting a sort of banishment upon some of their most worthy and estimable citizens.
Instance of liberality in regard to appropriations. In some towns it has been the practice for several years, for the school committee to report to the town wbai sum will be wanted for the ensuing year, -upon which the town votes the appropriation according to the estimate submitted In one town, the prudential commitiees of the districts transmit an estimate to the town's committee of the sums
deemed necessary for their respective districts,-the aggregate of these snus is made the basis of the superintending committee's report to the town, and this report, in like manner, has been unitormly accepted. In some other towns, the committee expend whatever sum they deem niecessary for the support of the schools:-at the close of the year, they report the amount expended, and this amount is at once covered by an appropriation in gross. Taese are specimens of the liberal spirit which already prevails in a considerable number of towus. Liberal expenditure for public schools reduces the expense of
of prirate schools. Here it might be demonstrated that where the appropriations for Public Schools are liberill, and the interest in them strong, the education of the whole people is improved in quality and increased in qnantity, while the aggregate of expense is dininished. Iu the adjoining counties of Middlesex and Essex, for instance, the amount expended in each, for education, in schools below the grade of academies, was last year as follows: In Middlesex,
$102,376 34 In Essex,
experiment. It has been successfully tried elsewhere, and attended with the happiest effects.
Appointment of a Secretary or Superintendent, The Trustees are of the opinion that they shonld be an. thorized to employ a conpetent individual to act as their stated secretary, who could be consulted by the Trustees of the districts and school committees, in relerence 10 many questions which arise in carrying the law into effect, who could command time to awaken and excite public attention on the subject of popnlar instruction, to preside over the interests of education generally, and make annual reports to the legislature. Such an officer is very much needed and would essentially aid in securing the success of the system. Common Education the highest duty and interest of the State.
If virtue and intelligence are of the first importance in a popular governinevi; if they constitite the only security for a continuance of free instiintions, then it follows that it is no less the highest interest than the duty of the legislalure to provide and maintain, within reach of every child. the means of such an education as will qualify him to dis. charge the duties of a citizen of this state and the republic.
$1,243 83 But the portions of these sims expended for Public, and for private schools, were as follows: In Middlesex, for education in the Public Schools,
$81,390 60 In Essex,
MICHIGAN. ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SUFERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC
INSTRUCTION, January 1842, p. 200. The greatest part of this valuable school document is inkennp with an exposition of the common school system of the State under the following heads, viz : Parents and
41.133 31 Teachers - Duties of Inspectors=Teachers – Government
$23,198 17 The grant of the city of Lowell for Public Schools, last year. was between $16,000 and $17 000, or almost a dollar for every inhabitant belonging to the city,- the consequence of which was that the whole expense of private schools was reduced to $1.500 In Northampton, the grant for the Public Schools was $4.000, or considerably more than one dollar for each juhabitant in the town, while the whole expense for private schools was but $ 100. Contrats to these cases, where small grants for Public Schools have drawn after them the consequences of great expense for private, are so nowerous, that a selection from among them would be invidious.
NEW JERSEY. ANNUAL REPORT OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE School
Fund OF THE State of New JERSEY, for 1841. The present School System of New Jersey was adopted in 1838. The following extracts are from the last repost of the School Board.
Inspection of the Schools. It is a matter of deep regret that it does not appear that the schools have been inore closely watched and more free quently visited. Upon the caretul and vigorous inspection of our schools essentially depends their advancement. A system of thorough inspection has been foumd in Europe and in this country, wherever carried into effect, to be most salutary. Without inspection the schools remain stationary or retrograde, and with it they receive what they so much need, an impelling power to elevate their character and extend their usefuluess.
Expenditure for Schools. The sum of $30.000 was appropriated out of the income of the school fund for 1840, for the support of public schools. The last year for every dollar received from the state the townships raised one dollar and twenty-five cents. This amount of money raised in the townships is purely voluntary, and exhibits the growing interest of the people at large ou the subject of common school education.
School District Library. The Trustees would again especially commend to the favorable attention of the legislature the views that were presented in their last report, and earnestly recommend the adoption of soine provisiou to insure the introduction of a library into every district in the state. It would not be an
of the School-Character of Instruction—Uniforniity of School Books-School houses-Libraries-Working of the System. We can only give a few extracts.
Parents and Teachers. While the reports show that in many districts sufficient interest is manifested by parents to keep the schools in vigor, they also demontsrate in language not to be misunderstood, the general indifference which prevails on this subject in other districts. Parents obnoxions to this charge are divisible into three classes. The first class, by far the most culpable but fortunately the least nnnerons, exhibits an iitter disregard for education in any of its forms and under all circum-tances. To the honor of our State, they are rare in Michigan.
Parents of the second class profess great regard for edus cation, contribute with some liberality to the means of upholding it, send their children to school, and perhaps betray little curiosity to know how things progress, but never visit the school.
The third class of pareuts is found in most districts. They really take an active part in advancing the cause of eslucation. They keep their children punctually at school, They even visit the school occasionally. But they do not regard the teacher's position. They do not attach to his calling that degree of importance which belongs to it. They deem it an avocation of pecessity, and therefore ove of ser. vility. lis dignity as a profession, they do not recognize. While the mere spiritual teacher is treated with the high respect drie to his holy office, and the village attorney, the physician, the merchant, the mechanic, the farmer, with all ihose nameless acis of civility which common politeness and common sense require between neighbors, the school master is looked upon, in too many instances, with disdain and contempt. He is seldom taken by the hand in the friendly grasp of equality, seldom permitted to participate in the social intercourse of his district, seldom visited in school with any other feeling than merely to see that the amount of labor exacted is accomplished, and never at his boarding house, where his heart, by unburtbening itself of its long pent up griefs, might find the sympathies so essential to jis assuagernent. In the strect, his presence only evokes ideas associated with ferrules, raw-hides and other instrnments of torture for unruly boys, his mode of govern. ment as master and not of discipline as teacher being uppermost in the mind. In short, the parents referred to, regard the school teacher as a mere servant, hired to do a job that nobody else can do, and fit for nothing else, inorally, intellectually or socially; and when the two or three months for which he was employed expires, he is at liberty to “quit" ag soon as he please
Uniformity of School Books. An elementary school, where the rudiments of an Eng. The want of uniformity in the books nsed, is the burthen lish education only are taught, such as reading, spelling, of complaint throngh all the reports. By reference to the writing and the outlines barely of geography, arithmetic list, the rariety of books can be seen. · Many of them are and grammar, requires a female of practicalcommon sense, good, many indifferent, and many positively bad. Even if with amiable and winning manners, a patient spirit, and a they were all good books, and either author could be re: tolerable knowledge of the springs of human action. A commended, the endless variety of them wonid puzzle auy female thus qualified, carrying with ber into the school room teacher. The books used in one school not only difier the gentle influences of her sex, will do more to inculcate from those used in another, but they differ throughont the right morals and prepare the youthful intellect for the se same school. verer discipline of its after years, than the most accomplish
School Houses. ed and learned male teacher. The beathen notion, that le
If we would educate healthy children and conseqneptly males have no souls, was exploded with the occasions that
make valuable citizens, the school honse, wbere much of gave it birth among the wrangling schoolmen of antiquity. It is now generally admitted that they not only have souls,
their time is spent, should be built in a pure atmospbere: but souls capable of a high order of intellectual develop
large enough to accommodate all coinfortably, capable of ment; while, in the matter of heart and all those holier eino
being well ventilated, and so arranged within and without tions which give to humanity ils crowning glory, they leave
as to make each scholar hapry and not feel like a criminal the “lords of creation” far in the rear.
School Libraries. The New York Plan of County Superintendents recommended. The vast importance of judicionsly selected libraries; as a Within the past year, the State of New York has adopted
means of perfecting or rather of advancing towards perfec
tion common school education, is too universally admitted a plan of superintendence for her thousands of cuminon schools which commends itself to our atentive considera
to render valid any excuse, but that of stero necessity, for
not introducing them into our districts. tion. It is the appointment for each county of in deputy superinteudent, whose duties o supervision shall be co-exten
School Syste;n of Massachusells, commended, sive with the schools of his circuit. To his care are com. mitted the educational interesis of the county. He exame
In Oc:ober last, the Superintendent had occasiou to visit
Massachusetts. The result of his observations, honied as ines all the teachers, visits all the schools, collects all the statistics, sees that the laws are etticieatly executed, ascertains
they were, was a renewed conviction that the Massachusetts their defects and suggests improvements, aud otherwise pro
school system, as tested by the universality and elevated
character of the schools, stands preeminently above that of motes sond education.
any other State. With only a nominal public fund, her The board of supervisors are required to appoint the
plan of education embraces every child within her limits. deputy superintendent. He holds his office two years, sub
Her direct taxes for support of schools are enormous, and jeci to removal by the board for canses stated. He receives iwo dollars for each day necess essarily spent in the discharge
yet they are paid with perfect good will. The aggrerate of his duties, but the whole amount in any one year is not
school taxes for the last year were about half a million of
dollars. These taxes are paid by the property of the peo19 exceed tive boudred dollars Que bail is paid by the
ple; and, as a general thing, ihe wealthiest individuals, county, the other half out of the school find. Such is the New York plan. It is worthy of the “ Em
those who pay the most, are the warmest advocales of the pire State.” It is for the Legislature to say whether Michi
system, even where they have no children of their own te
share its benefits. gan will do well to adopt a similar plau or rely yet longer upon the present defective ineans of supervision. It is believed that the change suggested will insure greater eticien
OHIO. cy in the execution of our school laws, better teachers, bet.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE ON THE Corditer schools, higher interest and more harinonious action agiong parents, and greater economy.
TION OF COMMON SCHOOLS IN THE STATE OF Ouro, TO
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, January 1842.
How to secure the accountability and services of School The reports show that the old fashioned mode of bcating
Officers. knowledge into the brain is yet kept up 10 an alarming ex. The remedy which has suggested itself as the mast easy, tent. The usual appliances are pruchung, cuttug, pulling
and at the same time, the most efiecinal, is so to amend the hair and voses, throwing books and rulers at the heads ut
law as, that whenever the officer or officers charged with the uuruly urchins, coupelling them to stand until fatigued into
'execution of the school law in any district, lownship, or subunission, locking np in dark places 10 scare away the evil genius that possesses them, shaming and other varieties
county, shall entirely fail to perform his or their dnty, in the of torture. Nothing so truly indicates a teacher's unfitness
mauner prescribed by law, such district, township, ou coisfor duty as a disposition to be thus tiimpering with a child's - as the case may be, shall, for the current year, be defrit. capabilities of physical sutsering; nothing so completely
ed of its proportion of the school food; and that the same unnerves the energies of his school as this invariable resort,
shall, by the proper officer, be reserved from distribution on the most tritling occasions, lo instruments ot worture as
until such delinquency shall be remedied. Shonid a pro
vision of this kind be adopted, it would at once appeal to the only means of enforcing bis rules.
the great body of the people, and, therefore, in ali eless The Nature of Coinmon School Education.
rions for such officers, both their capacity and dispositious
to regard a due execution of the school law, as a mauer of Its true office is to discipline the mind ; to call into active primary importance, would become prominent poiots in and unremitted exercise the affections of the heart; and to the discussion of fitness for office. Every man wonld ther develope and invigorate the physical powers. Of what use look upon bimself as in some measure a minister of the is the most gifted intellect, if the heart, which gives it direc law in his own defence. agajust the negligenee and incomtion, be wrong? How much good would that intellect con
petency of unworthy officers. fer upon mankind, if its bodily frame-work were inade In matters pertaining to public service, as well as in every quate to sustain the tremendous pressure from withịn? Ed. thing else, experience is always found to be of consequence, ucation, like nature, has a taste for the beautiful and con and it is no less true in regard to ofticers of an bumble sults proportion and harmony in all its operations. Its first grade, than to those of greater importance. If, then, it is great principle then is, so to proportion and harmonize the desirable to insure the services of experienced men, the intellectual, physical and moral powers as to make them co most certain means for the attainment of that object is to operate equally toward the designed und. If you educate lengthen the period of service. It is alleged that much of the mind and body; but neglect the heart, you may raise up the inefficiency of our school system may be traced to the a gigit frame and a giant intellect, but you do it at the peril want of experience in the directors of districts. As at press of all that's most holy and attractive in spiritualized human ent organized, the whole system depends upon those offnature, and run the risk of elevating to a most dangerous cers. If they can be made to discharge their duties correctposition some moral monster whose sphere of mischief shall ly, all is safe. Would it not then be well to change the pee only be limited by his aptitude for it. Then again, if you riod of their services, from one, to diree years, and by such educate only the mind and heart. you do the grossest injus a process that one will be elected every year. By adopting tice both to man and his Creawr; because, by such an act, this mode, there will always be two in office, who will bare you virtually question the necessity of physical organiza at least an opportunity of learning something of the nature
of the services to be rendered.
edition of the statutes of 1838
, is embraced in
such court, and they are hereby authorized, at their In the May session of the General Assembly discretion, either to discharge the indentures or confur 1813, cotemporaneous with the incorpora
tracts relating to such minors, and by which they
may be bound to render services in such establishtion of companies for manufacturing purposes, ments, or they may impose such fine or forfeiture on an act was passed to sccure the elementary in the proprietor or proprietors of such establishmentas struction of children employed in factories and they may consider just and reasonable: Provided the manufacturing establishments, which,
same shall not exceed the sum of $100.
See the Report of the Secretary of the Board the 7th and 8th sections of the act relating to
of Commissioners of Common Schools, on the masters, and servants, and apprentices, as fol
School Law, May, 1841.
The attention of the Legislature has been
called to the necessity of making further pro.
vision on this subject, in the annual reports of
of Governor Cleveland. The following act
was passed at the session which has just closed.
in orthography, reading, writing, English graihmar,
school visiters of the several school societies, person:
inanufacturing in any such establishment, as lessees, ployed. in laboring in any manufacturing establish
to try the same, to the use of the person prosecuting.
III. RHODE ISLAND.
An act to provide for the better instruction of childII. MASSACHUSETTS.
ren employed in manufacturing establishments. 1. An Act to provide for the better instruction of youth
Passed January 25, 1840.
Sect. 1. No child under the age of twelve years Secr. 1. From and afier the first day of April in the shall be employed to work in any manufacturing os year eighteen hundred and thirty-seven, no child tablishment in this state, unless such child shall have under the age of fifteen years shall be employed to attended, at least three months of the twelve month, labor in any manufacturing establishment, unless next preceding such employment, some public of such child shall have attended some public or private private day school, where instruction is given in day-school where instruction is given by a teacher, orthography, reading, writing, and arithmetic. qualified [i. e. qualified to instruct in “orthography, Sect. 2. I the owner or owners, agent, or superreading, writing, English graminar, geography, intendent of any inanufacturing establishment shall arithmetic, and good behavior,"] according to the employ any child in such establishment, contrary to first section of the twenty-third chapter of the Revised the provisions of this act, he, she, or they shalt forfeit Statutes, at least three months of the twelve months the sum of fifty dollars for each oflence; to be renext preceding any and every year in which such covered by indictment, to the use of the public schools child shall be so employed.
in the town or city where said establishment may be Secr. 2. The owner, agent, or superintendent of situated. any manufacturing establishment, who shall employ Sect. 3. A certificate vigned and sworn to by the any child in such establishment contrary to the pro
instructor of the school where any child may have visions of this Act, shall forfeit the sum of filiy dol-attended, that such child has received the instruction lars for each offence, to be recovered by indictment, herein intended to be secured, shall be deemed and 10 the use of common schools in the towns respect taken to be sufficient evidence of that fact, in all ively where said establishment may be situated. cases arising under this act.
(Approved by the Governor, April 16, 1836.) Sect. 4. This acı shall take effect from and after
The use of machinery in the manufactures
of England about 1709, changed the entire the Act passed the sixteenth day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, entitled
condition of the manufacturing population. An Act to provide for the better Instruction of The work people who were before scattered Youth employed in Manufacturing Establishments, through the coilages and farmhouses, were, by who shall in each year, before employing any child the new arrangement, collected into large buildunder the age of fifteen years, as in said Act men
ings, called mills or factories, which were at tioned, obtain and preserve a certificate, signed by
first erected on the borders of streams, where the instructor of the school where such child attended at least three months out of the twelve months pre
the waterfall supp ied the requisite power, and ceding, as in said Act is provided, that such child subscquently in the most densely peopled dishas received the instruction in said Act intended to tricts, where the steam engine was used for the be secured, the truth of which certificate shall be sworn to by the said instructor before some justice steam-engine dispensed with the strong arm of
The water-wheel and the of the peace for the county where such instructor rexides, and upon said certificate shall also be certified the full grown man, and created a demand for the fact of such oath or affirmation by such justice. the more nimble and cheaper labor of females
[Approved by the Governor, April 13, 1838.) and children. As this change took place withAn Act concerning the Employment of Children in out any precautionary measures to guard Manufacturing Establishments.
against the evils of crowding together so many Be it enacted, &c., as follows:
Sect. 1. It is hereby made the duty of the School people in the same work-room, and boarding Committee, in the several towns and cities of this houses, and the exacting demands of self-interCommonwealth, to prosecute all breaches of an act est on the part of employers and parents, it entitled " An act to provide for the better instruction was followed with the most disastrous results. of youth employed in manufacturing establishments,"
The earliest language of remonstrance was passed on the 16th day of April, in the year eighteen heard in 1784. In 1795, Dr. Aiken and in hundred and thirty-six.
1796, Dr. Percival. Dr. Hunter, and other emSECT. 2. The penalty imposed in the second section »f' said act, shall be given to the person prosecuting inent physicians, denounced the system of facfor the offence described in said act, any thing in said tory labor as then existing, as effecting unfavorcct to the contrary notwithstanding.
ably the health, morals, and intellectual characSecr. 3. From and after the passage of this act no child, under the age of twelve yeare, shall be em
ter of the work-people, and especially of the females and children. Their representations,