« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
them of all opportunity, capability, and power shall have been interrupted, either by natural canses of mental development, and of the full advanta or by accidents, when a making up of time lost
thereby is requisite. But this additional time shall ges of school instruction. It was in the densely peopled manufacturing ued for a longer period than four weeks at most.
not exceed one hour in any one day, nor be continparts of the Rhenish Provinces, that these strik IV. During the hours of work fixed by the foregoing ing and lamentable evils were most apparent ; regulations, the operatives shall have an interval and in the last Diet of the Provincial States held of a quarter of an hour's rest in the forenoon and there, the following resolutions, as to the neces
the afternoon; and at noon, one entire hour be
sides ; and on each of those occasions they shal} sity of a protecting law, were embodied in the
have the opportunity of taking exercise in the open form of a special petition :
air. 1. That children who have not completed
V. All employment of the said young persons before
five o'clock in the morning, or after nine o'clock their ninth year shall not be allowed to
at night, or upon Sundays, or upon sacred festival work in factories.
days, is expressly prohibited. 2. That childrer shall not be admitted into VI. Operatives belonging to any Christian sect, who factories unless they shall produce proof
shall not have yet received the Holy Sacrament, of having attended school for three years;
shall not be employed in any of the before-men
tioned works during those hours set apart by their except local circumstances should render
regular pastors for their instruction, preparatory deviation a from this condition necessary; to their confirmation. which however must be inquired into, and VII. The proprietors of the before-mentioned works, regulated by the local magistratcs.
employing young persons therein, are ordered to 3. That children shall not be allowed to
keep an exact and full register of their names,
ages, residences, parents, and of the date of their work in factories more than ten hours a admission; to have the said register always in the day, at the most.
factory; and, when required, to produce the same 4. That in the course of these ten working
to the officers of police and to the school authorhours the children shall have two hours of
VIII. Masters of the said works, or their authorized intervals of rest, one of which shal Ibe at
agents, who shall violate any of the preceding noon, when they shall have exercise in
regulations, shall be punished by a penalty of not the open air.
less than one, and not exceeding five thalers (three
to fifteen shillings) for each child so illegally emThe resolutions 1, 2, and 4, were carried ployed. unanimously, the third by a majority of 60 to In case of the register prescribed by regulation 9; this minority wishing to fix the limit of em VII. not having been made out or regularly kept, a ployment at eleven hours daily.
penalty of not less than one, and not exceed ing five These resolutions, which were strongly sup
thalers, shall be imposed for a first offence; for a
second offence, the penalty shall not be less than ported by the Government Commissary at the
five, and shall not exceed filty thalers (71. 10s.): and Diet, appeared to the Ministers of State to form the local police authorities shall have the power, at an appropriate ground-work, in all essential any time, to cause the before-mentioned register to particulars, for the wished-for law; and, accord: be made out or completed, at the expense of the ingly, they were mainly followed in framing the
party contravening the law; which expenses may be
levied without further process, by the said authorregulations for the employment of the young ities. operatives in factories, which were drawn up IX. The legal provisions respecting the duty of by the Minister of the Interior and of Police, parents to send their children to school are in no
respect changed by the preceding regulations. REGULATIONS for the employment of the young Nevertheless, the provincial governments shall - operulires in Manufactories.
take care, in the case of children employed in fac1. No child who shall not have completed his ninth tories, who are of the age that imposes the neces
year, shall be employed in daily labor in any sity of attending school, that the hours for their
manufactory, or in the works attached to mines. attending school shall interfere as little as possible II. No one, who shall not have completed his six with the internal arrangements of the factory.
teenth year, shall be employed in any of the be X. The Ministers for the regulation of Medical fore mentioned works, unless he shall previously Affairs, of Police, and of Finance, are empowerhave received, during three years, regular school ed to make such sanatory regulations, and such instruction, or shall prave, by a certificate from the other regulations respecting the morals of the school authorities, that he can read his mother factory operatives as shall be necessary for their tongue with Huency, and has made a beginning health and moral character; and the penalties in learning to write.
that may be imposed by such regulations shall No exception from this Regulation shall be allow not exceed fifty thalers, or a period of imprisoned, unless the owner of the manufactory shall secure ment corresponding to that rate of pecuniary fine. education to the young persons employed, by estab Berlin, the 9th of March, 1839. lishing and maintaining a school upon his premises. The above Regulations were approved and The judging of the fulfilment of this condition shall belong to the provincial governments, who, in this
declared to have the force of law, by the King, case, shall fix the proportion between the time for in April, 1839. school and the time for work. III. No young person who shall not have completed
VI. SWITZERLAND. his sixteenth year, shall be employed in any of the In the Canton of Argovia there are sereral before-mentioned works for a longer time than ten hours in any one day.
cotton spinning mills. The hours of work are But the local police magistrates are empowered to
from six in the morning to eleven in the foregrant an extension of these hours of labor, when the noon, and from twelve to half past seven in the regular employment in the before-mentioned võrks evening. The State docs not allow any child
ren to be admitted to work in them under excessive labor, attracted the attention of enfourteen years of age, which is, perhaps, the lightened educators and statesmen in France. most rigid law on this subject in force ; and the In 1828 and 1835, the Industrial Society of mill-owners are obliged to educate the children Mulhausen petitioned the government in referthey employ. Education is there, as elsewhere ence to it. `In 1837 the subject was taken up in Switzerland, compulsory.
by the Minister of Commerce, who collected The Canton of Zurich ranks first, for the ex information by means of circulars from every tent of its cotton spinning factories. No child part of the kingdom. The report prepared in ren under ten years of age are allowed to work his office, showed that children were employed in them, and Mr. Symons states that the clergy as early as sir and seven years of age, and genlook very sharply after the enforcement of the erally at eight and nine; and from twelve to law. The children may work twelve hours a sixteen hours a day; that they were subjected day, but they must go to school at least half a to night work ; that their intellectual education, day in the week.
as well as health and morals, were shamefully
neglected. In 1838, the Minister of Commerce VII. AUSTRIA.
pledged himself to bring forward a measure of The hours of factory labor in Austria are relief and protection, which was finally presentcruelly long, being frequently, in the factories ed to the Chamber of Peers on the 11th of in the interior, fitteen hours a day, exclusive of January, 1840. This bill was referred to a meal time, and not unfrequently, seventeen committee, consisting, among others, of Baron hours. The fate of the unhappy children has Charles Dupin, the Baron de Gerando, and M. excited some animadversion, and the question Cousin, the former Minister of Public Instrucof shortening the hours of work is occupying tion. This committee devoted themselves to the attention of the Government. The law, at the work with great earnestncss, and after present is more attentive to their minds than it much research agreed on a report. is to their bodies; for no child can be employ- Extracts from the Report to the Chamber of ed in a factory who has not been, and does not Peers, by the BARON CHARLES Dupin, in the nume produce a certificate of having been, a certain of the Commillee appointed to examine the Bill number of sessions at school.
relative to the labor of children in factories.
We beg leave to render an account of our exam
ination of the Bill presented by the Government, VIII. RUSSIA. The Emperor, so early as in 1833, directed
for the purpose of protecting the children employed
in the factories. No subject of greater importance the Council of Manufactures to require of the could be submitted to the consideration of the friends owners of factories, that they should not de- of humanity. bilitate the children by daily labor prolonged dividuals who in every country are engaged in the
The vast competition that subsits among the inbeyond just limits, and that they should do eve
same branch of industry; the competition, no lesa ry thing in their power to obtain for all the formidable, among nations producing the same dechildren, and especially for those belonging to scriptions of manulacture, and struggling to obtain the inhabitants of Moscow, an education suita some advantage, are the most general causes of that ble to their sphere of life; either by the estab- | fatal tendency in the present day to prolong, beyond
all just bounds, the duration of daily labor. lishment of schools, or courses of instruction
That disposition is excited by additional motives, in the factories themselves, or by sending the and becomes more dangerous in those establishchildren to other schools. The same depart ments where production depends on agents whose ment of the Council of Manufactures was like strength is inexhaustible, and insensible to fatigue ; wise directed to see to the enforcement of these
such as the moving powers of water and steam.
Thus, in manufactures, that progress which we admeasures.
so much on account of the ingenuity that has At a later period the Emperor, during his been displayed by the inventor, may lead to consestay at Moscow, about the end of the year 1837, quences the most fatal to health, and even to human was pleased 10 issue a farther order, that the life; the workmen becoming, in some degree, sacrinecessary steps should be taken to preserve as
fices to the great impelling powers we derive from
inanimate nature. much as possible the children employed in fac If the immoderate thirst of gain leads some mastories from the contagion of vice, and to pro- ters of manufacturing establishments to work their cure for them a religious cducation. For the people to such an extent, that nature is no longer purpose of accomplishing that salutary object, able to restore the strength lost in the labor exit is proposed to open in the seventeen parochi pended by a full-grown and robust man, judge then al schools recently establised at Moscow, Sun- young persons, and especially children, must fall, day schools for these children, where they shall when they are subjected to the same unmeasured be instructed in religion, and taught to read, to daily toil? What must be the consequence of such write, and to draw; the two sexes separately;
over-work ? rapidly declining health, diseases enand to make it obligatory upon the manufactur
gendered by the occupation, premature and serious
infirmities. Such of the younger operatives as do ers to see that the children they employ do at
not become victims to this barbarity, arrive at mantend these schools.
hood with broken constitutions and enervated pow
ers, and afflicted with complaints which prove for IX. FRANCE.
the most part incurable. In 1820, the importance of protecting child
After a scrupulous examination of the facts proved
in regard to a certain number of factories of great ren from the consequences of premature and
extent, belonging to wealthy proprietors, and em
ploying a large number of children, we affirm, on the testimony of eye-witnessess every way worthy of credit, that there are entire towns and districts in which certain descriptions of manufacture form the chief occupation of the people, where the age at which children are admitted, and the hours they are required to work, exceed those limits which ought in justice to be assigned to both.
Desirous of ascertaining the amount of difference in respect of strength and bodily vigor at the age of manhood, between individuals in those parts of France which are almost exclusively agricultural and those parts of it where manufactures chiefly prevail, the following table was drawn up: Comparison between ten of the principal Manufac
turing Departments, and len of those principally Agriculturul.
Manufac. Agricul. Results compared.
Depart. Depart. Number of inhabitants employed in trade, who are 371
130 licensed* per 10,000 hec licensed. licensed.
tarest of territory Principal sum paid for licences, for all descriptions of 9,917
1,128 trade, per 10,000 hectares francs. francs.
of territory, Infirm or deformed personsi unfit for military service,
9,930 4,029 for every 10,000 young rejected. rejected.
men fit for the service, Number of inhabitants necessary to supply an able 412
408 bodied soldier to the an inhab. inhab. nual contingent,
Thus it appears from the above table, that in the same extent of territory, the ten manufacturing departments give three times as many licensed tradesmen, and pay nine times as much for licenses, as the ten departments which are chiefly agricultural. In addition to these results, there are other facts which we have collected from the latest proceedings of the Councils of Revisions in the recruiting service.
In 10,000 young men, capable of supporting the fatigues of military service, the ten agricultural departments give only 4,029 'infirm or deformed
persons; while the ten departments which are chiefly manufacturing, give 9,930 infirm or deformed per
These numbers are the averages of the ten departments; but we find in the department of
The Marne 10,309 infirm or deformed.
14,451 Such immense disproportions ought not to be looked upon with indifference by the legislature; they are proofs of deep and grievous wounds; they show that
• Habilans industriels patentés. 'All persons following a handicraft trade, or engaged in any description of commerce, must take out a license before they can exercise their calling, and must pay the sum charged for the license, which varies according to the particular branch of industry. This impost consists of iwo parts: Ist, the principle, which is the sum originally fixed when the tax was first imposed; and, 2dly, the additions which have been made from iime to time to the principal sum, for the purpose of raising a fund to meet certain charges connected with commerce.
+ A hectare is equal to rather more than two English acres.
# When the young men of 20 years of age, linble by law to military service, are examined, those are exempted who have diseases or deformities which render them unfit, or are below a certain heiglit.
$ These councils are composed one half of the military and one half of the civil author.ties, the prefect of the department being the president. It is before inis tribunal that all the young men of 20 years of age, liable by law to serve in thearmy, are one by one examined with the greatest care; and they decide whether the person is fit or not. The proceedings of this council are very important, and are conducted with great impartiality.
there must be individual suffering of the most atflicting kind; they render the country weak in military powers, and poor in all the occupations of peace." We should blush for the state of our agriculture, if we could only rear for its operations so small a proportion of oxen and horses able to work, in comparison of so large a number of weak and mis-shapen animals.
The exercise of a pretended right of selling, without control or restraint the strength, the health, the very lives of their children, we would have the law deny, brand, and chastise, in the persons of the parents, who show themselves unworthy of the name. We do not think that this end can be accomplished by local and special regulations, transitory in their nature, and which may be revoked, and which would apply a restricted and tardy remedy to such offences - to such crimes. We must anticipate them by legislative enactments, which shall be general and permanent; which shall be at once provident and omnipotent.
We recommend that protection should be extended to all children employed, 1st, in factories, works and workshops for spinning, or for weaving or printing fabrics, whatever the raw material may be.
2dly, To all factories, works, and workshops, where the mechanical moving power is inanimate, such as water, steam, &c., because those kinds of moving power not requiring any rest to recover their strength, there is a ney to continue the labor beyond what human powers can bear.
3dly, To all factories, works, and workshops, employing a continued heat, such as glass works, potteries, &c.
On this point [the limit, below which children ought not to be employed in daily and continuous labor,] we have endeavored, by every means in our power, to profit by the experience both of France and of other countries. In England, the lowest age is nine by the law of 1833. In Prussia, the same limits of nine and sixteen have been adopted for all descriptions of manufacture. In Austria, children are admitted at eight. Wepropose that no children shall be admissible under eight years of age.
Among none of the nations who are our rivals in manufactures it is permitted for young persons under sixteen to work, in ordinary cases, more than twelve out of the twenty-four hours. Those nations, however, might have been induced to exceed just limits, from the fear of allowing other nations who do not fix any limits, to have an advantage over them. But so far from being stopped in her humane course by such sordid considerations, Prussia, which placed herself at the head of the commercial union of Germany, did not fear to establish a duration of labor even two hours a day less than the highest limit fixed by the English law. With such facts before us, we could not, we thought, under any pretext, propose a higher maximum than twelve hours, as determined on by the latter power.
Another object of the highest importance is that of night-work, which in some places they are cruel enough to make continuous, even in the case of apprentices of nine, eight, and seven years of age. The English law protects, with a most praiseworthy severity, the young operatives against this evil, a species of work most dangerous both to health and morals; for it extends the protection to young per: sons of eighteen years of age. We have contented
The fearful consequences that arise from excessive labor in childhood and youth, may be judged of from the following facts:-In Normandy, for every 100 men strong enough to be passed as recruits for the army, there were rejected 170 young men of 20 years of age at Rouen, 200 as Elbeuf, and 500 al Bolbec, all manufacturing towns.-Speech of the Baron Ch. Dupin, Moniteur of March 7, 1840
ourselves with proposing that habitual working in sentiments entertained by the principal speakthe night should not be allowed with young persons ers on the leading features of the measure :under sixteen, and that employing children under
The DUKE DE Praslin. Some years ago, in this twelve years in the night should be absolutely pro
chamber, I had the honor to be named reporter of a hibited.
committee appointed to inquire into the matter conWith regard to those works in which a fire must
tained in a petition from the factory owners of Mulnecessarily be kept up night and day, we require, in
hausen, a town essentially manufacturing; and, althe name of humanity, that they shall not employ in
though the object of the law on which we are now the night any workers under sixteen years of age.
engaged be to check or put restraints upon the cuWe propose, as a positive enactment, that children
pidity of people engaged in trade, I must
, on this and young persons shall not be allowed to work on
occasion, do them the justice to say, that many of the holydays prescribed by law.
the merchants and manufacturers of Mulhausen, the We leave to be provided by royal ordinances, is sued in the form of regulations by the executive,
proprietors of very considerable establishments, did
themselves desire to adopt some very sensible meassuch general measures as may from time to time be
ures to prevent children working more than eight deemed necessary; in the first place, to secure a re
hours a day, ineluding their meal times; and, at turn to, and a maintenance of, correct conduct and
their own expense, they set up schools in their facpublic decency in the places where the people work;
tories for the education of the children. * But these and, in the second place, to provide for the continu
worthy men and true philanthropists were obliged to ance of the secular and religious instruction of the
abandon their benevolent arrangements, for they children. We may, on this subject, bring forward
could not induce others in the same trade to adopt as an example the factories in the United States of
them; and as the generality of the manufacturers America, where large numbers of young persons of worked the children four or five hours a day more both sexes are brought together, without the occur
than they did, they obtained a great advantage, so rence of any of that deplorable immorality which
that the more humane persons would have been has called forth so many complaints relative to the
ruined by the competition. They presented a petifactories in Alsace, Picardy, French Flanders, and
tion to this chamber, praying the government to especially in Normandy. In a discourse that was drawn up for the purpose
pass a law to limit the ages and hours of work, and
especially the latter. You see, therefore, that our of showing the relations subsisting between morals,
manufacturers have been the first to ask for this law; education, and manufactures, a comparison has been
and manufacturers in other parts of France have in made between the nineteen richest and chief manu
like manner come forward in the cause of humanity facturing departments, and the sixty-nine other de
and public morals. partments; from which it appears, that in the nine
The Count Chollet.-Great exertions have ieen there are so many persons engaged in factories,
been made to put an end to the traffic in black peoworks, and trade, that they pay seventeen millions
ple, and most justly so; but ought we not to be of francs for their trading licenses; while the sirty
quite as anxious to put down the traffic in white peonine pay no more than thirteen millions. But in
ple? And can we otherwise designate that odious the nineleen departments, the public prosecutions
iraffic so often carried on between unnatural parents for crimes against the person have amounted to one
and avaricious manufacturers, who extort from unfor every 10,805 inhabitants, while in the sixty-nine
happy children a labor beyond their strength. I see they did not exceed one for every 13,137. In pros no difference in the two descriptions of slave trade ecutions for crimes against property, they have
than this-that in the one the slave is sold; in the amounted, in the nineteen departments, to one for
other, he is let out for hire. every 4792 inhabitants; while in the sixty-nine, they The BARON MOUNIER.--The most lamentable amounted to not more that one for every $608. It consequence of this overworking of children is not appears, therefore, that in those parts of the king
the direct injury done to their health, for the hudom where mechanical trades prevail, and which are
manity of manufacturers, we must hope, woulil put the principal seats of manufactures, and in which
a stop to that when such fatal consequences are aplarge numbers of children are employed, it is become
parent; but that which they can never put a stop to, a matter of vi al interest to bring back the working
is the annihilation of all moral sentiment, which inclasses, by commencing with those of the most tender
deed has no chance of ever being developed. When years, to principles of order and morality, to a respect a child, in place of enjoying the sports of youth, or for the security of persons and property, and to a
looking around on the works of creation and of hureverence for the laws and for religion.
man contrivance-in place of his senses and his
reason being thus gradually brought forth, is obliIt has been our desire to afford you the means of
ged to repeat the whole day the same mechanical giving an additional proof to France, of the deep and
motions, and after that toilsome work, must seek the unceasing interest for her prosperity which animates you, when the question before you is the passing of a *It is most gratifying on this occasion to be able to law lending to improve the condition of your fellow draw attention to the enlightened and generous efcitizens, and to renderthe lot of the working classes forts of some of the citizens of Mulhausen, a town more happy, by providing for their health, their edu self-created, almost in our own time, and which by cation, and their morals; in a word, when the object the talents and exertions of its inhabitants has risen is to add to those physical, intellectual, and religious with a wonderful rapidity; a town where the daughpossessions, which constitute the welfare, honor, and ters of the most wealthy of the manufacturers deem prosperity of a wise and powerful nation.
it a duty and a pleasure, to devote a portion of their The above Report was presented to the tiine to the education of the female children of the Chamber on the 22d of February, 1840, and working classes, and consider that, in so doing, they was taken into consideration a fortnight after
are maturing and completing their own education; a wards. A most animated and interesting dis
beautiful example of mutual instruction between
opulence and indigence. The Industrial Society cussion upon the bill took place in the Cham of Mulhausen, with the most praiseworthy perseber, which began on the 4th of March, and was verance, instituted an inquiry as to the measures continued during six successive sittings.
which it would be most advisable for the legislature The first and part of the second day's de
to adopt, in order to restrain within just limits the
daily labor of the children and young persons embates were upon the general principles of the
ployed in those very manufactures which constitute law. The following extracts will show the the wealth of that town.
rest of which he stands so much in need; there remains not an instant for him to acquire those senti. ments which properly belong to a man and a citizen.
The questions as to the lower limit of age, and the number of hours of work underwent a long discussion; no one proposed that children should be admitted into any description of manufacture under eight years of age, and a considerable proportion of the Peers who spoke were in favor of nine, but the majority adopted cight as recommended by the Committee. The recommendation that children from eight tu twelve, should not work more than eight hours a day, nor between eight at night and five in the morning, and that those between twelve and sixteen should not work more than twelve hours a day, within the same limits, except in making up lost time, were agreed to.
It will hardly be believed in this country, but it is neveriheless true, that it has been necessary to insert an article in this law absolutely prohibiting work on Sunday. The question gave rise to a long and animated debate, but to the honor of the Chamber, there was an entire unanimity as to the necessity and propriety of preventing this desecration of the Sabbath; the discussion wholly turned upon the mode in which the clause should be framed.
M. Cousin, the Minister of Public Instruction.--Yes, rest on the Sabbath is called for by the voice of humanity, of morality, and of religion ; and I say this not only as a Peer of France, but as a minister of the crown; for t'ie administration does but confer honour upon themselves in testifying respect for the religion of their country.
THE MARQUIS LAPLACE. -- Freedom! Let us, gentlemen, be on our guard against being constantly imposed upon by that sort of fasci. nation which the term is apt to produce upon the strongest minds among us. We have, for a long time in this country, been apt to make a false application of this freedom, which acts as a weight upon us, and checks the truly lib. eral advancement of our institutions; we confound liberty, and an abuse of liberty, in many things. It is not necessary for me to say that true freedom is founded upon a just respect for those rules upon which a rightly organised state of society depends, and a complete, entire observance of them: if they are encroached upon, or any thing impedes their free operation, there is no longer freedom, but an abuse of freedom. Unfortunately in these times, we see among the industrious classes of society a general disregard both of the Sabbath and of religious festivals ; and that it is a common custom to work on those days, in order to get another holiday, or to make more money. you think, that in thus allowing things to take their course, in making no exertion to direct attention to divine and social laws, so moral, so wise, so well calculated to promote the interest of all, we are advancing the cause of freedom? No, gentlemen, we are sanctioning licentiousness, In the history of all nations,
from the earliest times to the date of our Convention, we find a day of rest in their calendar, following a period of labour. It is a natural law, imposed by the God of nature: man must rest after he has toiled ; and as, in civilized society, labour necessarily brings along with it certain relations which are common, so ought there to be one common day of rest.
The important question of the education of the children occupied nearly the whole of one sitting of the Chamber : and some of the most eminent men in France, in the present day, among whom were M. Cousin, the present Minister of Public Instruction ; M. Villemain, his predecessor; the venerable and enlightened Baron de Gerando; and the Baron Charles Dupin, spoke upon the occasion.
THE DUKE DE PRASLIN.—Education is extremely neglected in the manufacturing districts, for it is impossible that children under six years of age can have had the least instruction. Undoubtedly we must not, in our desire to have them educated, go to a mischievous excess, and interfere injuriously with their means of subsistence, or the welfare of their parents; but education is a nourishment as necessary for children as their ordinary food. I think the committee have judged wisely in requiring that before children are allowed to work, they ought to give proof of having attended the primary schools for two years; or that those who propose to employ them shall engage to give them, during the day, the time necessary for their education.
M. Cousin. But, as Minister of Public Instruction, I must make some farther observations on the principle involved in these two clauses. This is neither more nor less than the principle of compulsion, -a principle celebrated in the history of popular education. I am very far from being an enemy to it. I have seen it practised in Germany with success, and also in some of the democratic cantons of Swit. zerland; but I have also seen primary education flourishing equally well in Holland, where the principle of compulsion is unknown. It is in that coun try that primary schools have produced their genuine fruit; for they have made the Dutch people the most industrious and the most moral on the face of the earth. Therefore it is, I say, that we must not take this principle of compulsion to be an acknowledged general principle.
Remember, too, that constraint is not a good instrument of civilization. The system of exhortation has this valuable advantage over that of compulsion; that it is more in accordance with the character of a school. A school ought to be a noble -asylum, to which children will come and in which they will re main with pleasure; to which their parents will send them with good will: the principle of freedom ought to reign there, for confidence and love cannot be commanded; the cultivation of the human mind, to be truly moral, must be neither servile nor forced.
Is the honorable author of the Report aware of the results which, without any system of constraint, we have obtained since 1830? Since 1830, without compulsion, for the law forbade it as it does still for bid it
, by building schools, by making manifest the utility and the honor that belong to them; and above all, by providing better teachers, we have drawn to them gradually an additional million of children, beyond what existed before the revolution of July. Yes, gentlemen, in 1829 there were attending the public and private primary schools 969.349 children only; whereas in 1937, there were 1,973,18 These numbers relate to boys only. “In the girls' schools in 1837 there were 1,110,147, making a total of 3,083,327 children of both sexes attending school.