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Now the number of clfldren between five and twelve years of' age was 4,802,356; consequently, in 1837, there were only 1,719,029 children between these ages who did not attend the primary schools; and from that number is to be deducted that very considerable proportion of children who do not go to those schools, but are educated at home. This, genulemen, is ivhat has been accomplished in ten years ; let us but advance at the same rate, and in ten years more, there will not be a child in this noble land which will not have received some education.
I beg leave to move, therefore, that these two clauses be struck out, and that the third clause in the article under consideration be thus modified :In place of saying that the masters of the factories shall enter in the certificatc book the time that the child shall huve attended the primary schols, which is imperative, I propose that he shall say, may have attended them, which will operate as a sort of premium on school attendance; for the young operative who can show that entry in his certificate book will be more readily engaged by other masters. This would be a reward or encouragement, but not an indispensable condition.
M. VILLEMAIN (the immediate prelecessor of M. Cousin, as Minister of Public Instruction). The amendment proposed by the committee has no ob ject of laying down a principle, or of estabilshing a system; but it has doubtless appeared to the committee to be proper, that the power which they have been called upon to confer should, as a matter of prudence, be accompanied by certain conditions. The legislature, as the special guardian of every one in the state who is a minor, and incompetent to take care of himself, might in strictness forbid alto. gether the premature employment of children in manufactures; but it does not forbid, it only regulates their labor. Thus, among other provisions, dictated by humanity, may it not reasonably stipulate, that a moral and religious education shall be secured for the child? Do you see in that any imprudent establishment of a compulsory system in primary instruction ? By no means: it is nothing more than a condition imposed by the law upon the exercise of a power conferred by the law. And for what purpose is it imposed ? Because the power given to employ children may hold out a dangerous temptation to parents, and increase the chance of the neglect of all education, and of all moral training among
the children of the poor. When a child remains under the parental roof, however humble it may be, provided an enlightened government shall have established a sufficient number of schools, that child will naturally be sent to school; it will benefit by the gratuitous instruction which the law provides, and wrich he has time to arail himself of. But when parents have it in their power to send their children to a factory from five o'clock in the morning, and to turn their little strength to profitable account, is it not possible that the desire of gain may be a motive with them to deprive them, as so much lost time, of that leisure which would enable them to obtain some useful instruction, and cultivate their young minds in some degree? Is it not then just that the law should interpose, and say :
:-“ You may send your child to the factory, but on this condition, that he shall not be stupified, and that some portion of his time shall be reserved for his education. But it has been said that a precaution of this nature lowers education; that to be honored the school must be free. Consider, gentlemen, that while employed in the stupifying work and routine of the factory, this school, however humble, will to the child be a source of comfort, of relief, í might almost say of pleasure. Has not the poor child, after eight or ten hours' repetition of mechanical drudgery, need of some rest, when he may hear the name of God, listen to moral instruction, and have some moments of conscionsness that he is an intelligent being? In that point of view, I consider the right claimed by
the law, as proposed by the committee, to be incontestable. It is not, as has just been said, to impose a constraint upon the child in addition to his work, but to oblige the manufacturer to show consideration for the living creatures he employe.
The BARON DE GERANDO. Ought the law which is intended to afford protection to the children of the working classes, to be confined to the protection of the bodily health, or should it be extended to the moral health also ? Ought it to be a safeguard only to the physical powers of the child without regard to the more noble, moral, and intellectual powers ? Ought we to confine ourselves to the care of preparing a generation which will supply able soldiers to the government; or ought we not also to keep in view the importance of preparing good and virtuous citizens for the state, and estimable men for society? These were the questionswhich we proposed for our consideration; and I now state openly and frankly, that the ruling sentiment in the committee was, that our object should be to improve not only the physical condition, but also, and more especially, the moral condition of the children of the working classes.
There are many things to be done to improve the moral condition of the working classes, but the first in point of order, that which will be most powerfully efficacious, unquestionably, is the improvement of education in that class of society.
But we are told that we wish to introduce the principle of compulsory education into the law; now as I have said that I will fully explain all our views, I will declare in the name of the committee, that the idea of compulsion never once entered into our minds.
I will not discuss the general principle; the distinguished individual who is at the head of the Ministry of Public Instruction, entertains the same opinion with myself, at least I hope he does, that it is a salutary principle. It exists in the United States, and in Switzerland, and I never heard any complaint of despotic rule, because parents are obliged to send their children to the primary schools. I could say much in favor of that principle: I could show that Article ccclxxxv. of the Civil Code imposes upon fathers of families the very obligation that we are now contending for, inasmuch as they are required to give their children the benefit of education. Again, it is said that we are introducing into the law a principle of inequality. Our opponents are so sincere men, their objections proceed from such a right motive, that I do not at all fear to meet them on this point. There is no inequality in the law we propose; it is no more than a provision for a special object; it is not a general principle that we wish to establish, but we wish to provide for a special case; and with your leave I will point out the principal reasons why children employed in factories form an exception, to meet which separate provisions must be made.
It is right to leave things to their natural course so long as there is no obstacle to impede it: we should never think of sending an engineer to examine the course of a river, unless something was obstructing its free passage. Now, what is the obstruction in this case? Why, that their working prevents the children from receiving instruction, and is an excuse to those who will not give them any: Parents send their children to the factories, to derive profit from them: they find it more convenient to receive wages for their labor, than to pay for their schooling; and, thus, the parent and the manufacturer have a common interest. This is an obstruction that we wish to remove.
There is another class of special circumstances which I should wish to explain to you, and I shall have need of all your indulgence in order that I may be rightly understood. Human labor is composed of two elements, material power and intellectual power. Now, what is, and what must always be, the tendency of human industry ? is it not this,-to
endeavor to diminish the amount of the first element, The discussion of the other clauses of the
bill occupied two more days; and when they
whole bill, so amended, was put to the vote, it not evidently be to substitute a mechanical moving and carried by a majority of 56; 91 voting for power for a human power; consequently, to take its adoption, and 35 for ils rejection. away from a great number of individuals the neces
The bill, as passed, is substantially as folsity of using their muscular powers, but conferring
lows: upon them, instead, the opportunity of a proportion
Article 1. No child shall be employed in manuate increase of intelligence? But, see what takes
factories for the spinning, weaving, or printing of place in consequence of the progress of that manu. facturing skill, about which we boast so much.
fabrics; or in manufactories, works, or work-shops, To what does that extreme division of labor lead?
where a mechanical moving power is used, or a conIs it not that an individual, even of mature age, is
tinuous fire kept up, except in conformity with the occupied incessantly in the same operation, in the provisions contained in the present law.
Article II. No child shall be admissible into the same motions? You have read in Adam Sinith how many work-people are required to make a pin. manufactories, specified in Article I, who shall not
have completed his or her eighth year of age. How does it happen that the inaking of a pin should
No child between eight and twelve years of age, require so many hands? Because the same individual performs the same single operation every day
shall be employed in effective work for a longer time of his life, from year's end to year's end ; and is
than eight hours in any one day; and these divided thereby condemned to a mechanical and monotonous
by an interval of rest. existence. It is against that tendency that we wish
No child, between twelve and sixteen years of to interpose some obstacle.
age, shall be employed in effective work for a longer
time than twelve hours in any one day; and these In proportion as the discoveries in arts multiply, and as we make progress in improvement, in like
divided by intervals of rest.
The hours of work shall be between five o'clock proportion ought the moral and intellectual condition of the species to rise: the progress of civilization
in the morning and eight o'clock in the evening. does not depend alone on the increase of wealth; it
No child, of wha:ever age, shall be employed on
any of the sacred festivals prescribed by law.* chiefly depends upon the improved moral and intelectual condition of the population. All this has been
In cases of working in the night, from sudden and often said, and much better said than I can pretend extraordinary causes, by reason of stop ages of the to do; but with your permission I will offer some
inoving power, or urgent repairs, no child that is observations which, perhaps, may not yet have been
less than twelve years of age shall be employed, made.
and those employed shall not work more than eight It is important to draw a distinction between an
hours in the twenty-four. apprenticed child and an operative child; and I beg
In order to avoid the necessity of night-work, it
shall be lawful for the manufacturer to work one you to attend to the distinction I make. prentice is in a course of instruction; I do not say
hour longer in the day-time, provided he does not that he is taught all he has occasion to know, but
exceed the number of hours that were lost in the nevertheless his faculties are exercised in a variety preceding month, by stoppages, accidents, and other of ways; he learns the elements of a process, and
extraordinary causes. by and by he becomes more skilful: in short, he
In works in which a continuous fire must be kept learns a trade. With the operative child it is very
up, and in which working in the night is indispensadifferent. I will take a very simple instance, from
ble, children above twelve years of age may be emthe very subject in which we are now engaged. A ployed, provided their hours of work do not exceed child, that has passed ten years of his life as a
eight in the twenty-four. piercer in a spinning-mill, will have learned noth
Article III. Relates to the certificate to be given ing; he will only have acquired the power of doing by the employer to the pårent or guardian of the that which might be performed by a brute, for a tolerably docile ape might be taught to do as much.
Article IV. Authorizes the government, by ordiWe desire therefore that the operative child, con
nances, from time to time, to prescribe regulations. demned to labor at a description of work that is cal
1. For the maintenance of good morals and pubculated to reduce him to the condition of a brute,
lic decency in workshops, works, and manufactures. may have some compensation by receiving some
2. To secure the primary and religious instruction moral and religious training.
of the children. So far from our proposal being an act of tyranny,
3. To fix the hours of labour, that are indispensawe dare to say that no provision in the law is more
ble on festival days, in those works where a continuhumane, or more advantageous, either to the master
ous fire must be kept up. or his work-people. We could read to you the very
4. To prevent all ill-usage or excessive punish
ments of the children. interesting testimony which we have received from one of the partners in one of the largest manufac
5. To provide for the healthiness of the factories, turing establishments of France, one in which they
and for the preservation of the health of the children. employ from 1700 to 1300 people.
Article V. Authorizes the government to extend
He stated, that for the last 20 years he and his partners had turned
the provisions of the law to other kinds of work not their attention to the moral condition of their work
specified in the first article, to raise the minimum of people, and that they had gradually succeeded in
age, and diminish the hours of work, if found necraising it; and that in the same progression the
essary produce of their industry, improved in quality and
Article VI. Provides for the administration of the quantity. And in truth, gentlemen, there is no bet
law by the local authorities under the direction of the ter auxiliary to labor than sound morals. Those
minister of commerce and agriculture. are the best workmen who have upright and honest
Article VII and VIII. Imposes a fine of $3 to sentiments. Improve the moral condition of the
$20, for every infraction by the employer; and a working classes, and you will improve their worldly
fine of $1 to $3, on every parent who consents to the condition.
employment of a child in violation of this law, with After several other peers had spoken, the
an increase for every repetition. amendment of the Minister of Public Instruc
* " Jours feries.". The days on which work ougbt to be tion was put to the vote, and agreed to.
suspended for religious duties, such as Sundays, and the
Article IX. Charges the local authorities with the duties of visitation, and authorizes them to employ a physician to judge of the healthiness of the factories.
The bill was presented to the chamber of deputies in May, 1810, but was not discussed till the winter session of 1841. We have not seen the bill as finally passed with the concurrence of both chambers.
The following account is abridged from an article in the Westminster Review, for September 1810, on the “ Elevation of the Labor. ing Classes."
The object of the article is partly to show that there is nothing in the manufacturing system which necessarily has a tendency to exclude the working classes from a much larger share of the means of enjoyment, and intellectual cultivation, than they have hitherto obtained, and partly to stimulate others who occupy the same influential position over bodies of working men, to imitate an excellent example.
The best security for the interests of the working classes is certainly not the benevolence of employers--but after all is done that can be effected by the best laws and the wisest administration, there will still be much left that can only be accomplished through the disposition of employers to exercise their power and influence beneficially for the employed; and we hold that there are no persoos deserving of more honorable mention than the few who pause in the pursuit of wealth, to lend a helping hand to those upon whose industry the fabric of their fortune is raised.
The proprietors established themselves in the village in the summer of 1832. Their first object was to repair the old buildings and erect new, to purchase and set up machinery, and furnish the cottages for their work-people with cupboards, closets, sheds, wells, and every thing essential to cleanliness and comfort, and to collect a fixed and settled class of hands.
In doing this, we endeavored as far as possible to find such families as we knew to be respectable, or thought likely to be so, and who we hoped, if they were made comfortable, would remain and settle upon the place; thus finding and making themselves a home, and losing by degrees that restless and migratory spirit, which is one of the peculiar characieristics of the manufacturing population, and perhaps the greatest of all obstacles in the way of permanent improvement among them. Partly with this view, and partly for the sake of giving them innocent occupation for their leisure hours, we took three fields lying in front of the cottages, between them and the mill, and broke them up for gardens, which we divided with neat hedges, and gave one to every house. Each garden is about six roods, and they are separated from each other by a neat thorn hedge. Besides these, they have most of them a little flower-garden in front of their houses, or behind them; and the houses themselves have been made as comfortable as their size and situation would allow.
In the spring of 1834, a schoolhouse was erected, and a Sunday school established with two departments, one for boys and the other for girls.
We celebrate the anniversary of the establishment
of our school by a general meeting and procession of all the children, on some Sunday in the month of June. They assemble in the morning with their teachers, in my garden, and many of the parents come to share in the pleasure of the scene. It is, indeed, a beautiful sight-at least to our eyes, and when they join together in singing a hymn, and the little silver voices of the younger children are heard mingling with the manly tones of their elders and the deep bass of the accompanying instruments, we all pronounce our music to be excellent, and think no choir of a cathedral could be better.
As soon as the Sunday school was fairly established, and no longer required my immediate attention, we began to think of establishing games and gymnastic exercises among the people. With this view we set apart a portion of a field near the mill, that had originally been designed for gardens, and taking advantage of a holiday and a fine afternoon; I called some of the boys together and commenced operations. We began with quoits, trap and cricket balls, and leap-frog; and as I saw that many others soon joined us, and our play-ground continued to fill more and more every evening it was opened, we gradually introduced other games, and established a few regulations to preserve order, as. signing a particular part of the play-ground for different games, and appointing certain individuals to distribute and preside over them. The girls and boys each took their own side of the field, and generally followed their games separately. The following summer we erected a swing, and introduced the game called the graces, with bowls--a leaping-bar-a tight rope-and afterwards a see-saw. Quoits are generally the favorite game of the men, the hoops and tight-rope among the boys, and the hoops and swing with the girls. The last is in perpetual requisition. With the hoops, the boys and girls now play a good deal together, and we encour. age this companionship as being extremely favorable to the cultivation of good manners, kind feelings, and perception of their
proper place, and relation towards each other. When we first began these games, this was a thing that had yet to be learned, and instances of rudeness and improper conduct did occasionally occur; but as I made a point of being always present on the ground, and gave our young ones to understand that I wished my leaving it to be the signal for the breaking up of the party, I had the opportunity of observing any breach of good manners or good temper, and gradually suc. ceeded in breaking them into my system. We are now near the close of the third summer since the playground was opened, and during this season we have not once had to remark upon any breach of order and decorum.
In the autumn of the same year, 1834, we began our drawing and singing classes. The draw. ing class meets every Saturday evening during the winter, from six to half-past seven, and generally spends half the time in drawing, and the rest with geography or natural history. This class I teach myself; it consists of about twenty-five boys, and some of them have made considerable proficiency. They occupy themselves at home during the evenings of the week, with copying drawings that we lend them for the purpose, and this affords an interest for their leisure hours, and an attraction to their home fireeide, which it was one of my chief objects in introducing this pursuit to supply. During the summer they continue the occupation or not, as they choose; but our regular lessons are given up, as our Saturday evenings are then spent more profitably in the play-ground, and we return to our winter occupations with much more zeal and relish, after a long vacation, than if they had been continued without interruption during the whole year. Some variety and change in our pursuits, we find as necessary to keep up our own interest and attention as theirs.
As soon as the drawing class breaks up, at half- general comfort and welfare ; everything, in past seven, the singing class assembles and remains
short, which can make the place a home to till nine. This class consists of girls and young men to the number of twenty-eight.
them, and attach them to it and to their emThese parties are held in the school-room which ployer, had formed around their establishment I have fitted up hapdsomely, and furnished with a settled population. pictures, busts, &c., and a piano-forte; and as it is A frequent complaint against the manufacturing close to my house, the accommodations necessary system as at.present pursued, especially in large for refreshments and amusements are easily sup towns, is the impropriety of behavior between the plied. Before the guests assemble, books, Saturday sexes, and the general aspect ot' rudeness and unînagazines or drawings, are laid on the tables ; civilized manners among the persons employed in and with these they amuse themselves till tea is our factories. It must be confessed that the man. brought in. The tea and coffee are then handed ners of our factory operatives of both sexes, especially round to the company, and they continue to chat
the younger portion of them are rude and uncoorwith me or with each other, and keep up a very tol teous generally, and towardseach other not distinerable amount of conversation till the meal is end guished by that propriety and modesty which form ed. After tea, we fall to our games, which consist of at least the most valuable outworks of virtue, and piecing maps or pictures, spilicans, chess, draughts, are intimately connected with all that is good and building houses of cards, phantasmagoria, and sev sacred in human character. From the very first day eral others of less note; while those who do not we commenced operations I kept this evil in view, play, amuse themselves with reading, or discussing and endeavored to prevent, that I might not alterthe news of the week, or politics of the colony. wards have the trouble of correcting, the easiest as Sometimes we have a little music and singing, and well as the safest course in our warfare against evil towards the end of the evening, we rouge ourselves of every kind. It was not at first easy; but with pawith Christmas games, such as, tiercely, my lady's tience and time, they were all gradually brought to toilet, blindman's buff, &c. &c.—and soon after nine understand and acquiesce in my wishes. The sexI bid them good night and they disperse.
es are entirely separated in the mill, as far as the The parties I have just described consist of the
nature of the work renders it practicable—the girls elder girls and boys of our colony. Occasionally, sometimes occupying exclusively half a room, and however, we have a junior party. These are gen sometimes having a whole one to theinselves. erally the most pleasant ones, as the little restraint
Seeing how much the manners of men, in all that is somewhat requisite among the elders, is here ranks of life, depend on those of the women, I envoted unnecessary and out of place, and there is
deavored more particularly to civilize the latter; and much more laughing, fun, and merriment, among us. not only to require from them respectability of charThese parties take place about once in three weeks
acter, but to teach them to respect themselves and during the winter, on Saturday evening, the draw
to exact respect from others. "Now it seems to me ing and singing class being given up for that day.
there is no other way of making people what we In the autumn of last year we established some wish them to be, so effectual as always treaung them warm baths in our colony, which have been brought
as if they were so. I did not say much about the into very general use, and have contributed mate
matter, for I have little faith in the efficacy of moral rially to the health, comfort, and cleanliness of the
lectures, but I made them sensible of the kind of people. The bathing-room is a small building close
manners and character I adorired, by showing that behind the mill, about twenty-five feet by fifteen.
I noticed and appreciated wherever I found ihem. The baths, to the number of seven, are ranged along Those who possessed these saw that I perceived the walls, and a screen about six feet high, with
and approved them; and they were doubtless led to benches on each side of it, is fixed down the middle
value them more because they saw this. Their pa. of the room. The cold water is supplied from a rents saw it too, were touched with the respect they cistern above the engine-house, and the hot water found paid to their elder daughters, and turned their from a large tub, which receives the waste steam attention to the cultivation of the same qualities in from the dressing room, and is kept constantly al
their younger children, which had won regard and most at boiling temperature. A pipe from each of
esteem for their elder sisters. Others, who were not these cisterns opens inio every bath, so that they particularly distinguished by such respect found are ready for instant use. The men and women
that they must follow the tide of public opinion, and bathe on alternate days, and a bath-keeper for each become like those whom they saw I valued more, if attends for an hour and a half in the evening. This
they wished to assume the same standing in the person has the entire care of the room, and is an
colony. swerable for every thing that goes on in it. When
To be continued. any one wishes to bathe, he comes to the countinghouse for a ticket, for which he pays a penny, and without which he cannot be admitted to the bathing CONNECTICUT COMMON SCHOOL JOURNAL room. Some families, however, subscribe a shilling a month, which entitles them to five baths weekly; The Connecticut Common School Journal will and these hold a general subscriber's ticket, which always gives them admittance to the room. I think continue to be published under the editorial the number of baths taken weekly varies from about
charge of Henry Barnard 2d, until the official twenty-five to seventy or eighty.
The above extracts are made from a letter, documents submitted by the Board of Commis written by one of the proprietors, in 1835.
sioners of Common Schools to the late General In a second letter, dated March, 1838, the same writer continues the account of their ef.
Assembly are all printed, together with the Re forts, and of the principles which guided their port of the Committee of Education, which acconduct. Fair wages, comfortable houses, gar
companied the bill for abolishing the Board, and dens for their vegetables and flowers, schools and other means of improvement for their otherwise modifying the Act concerning Common children, sundry little accommodations and con Schools. veniences in the mill, attention to them when sick or in distress, and interest taken in their
Hartford July 1st, 1842.
ACCOUNT OF AN ENGLISH MANUFACTURING VILLAGE.-Concluded.
Another point which has appeared to me of great and to these may be added sundry violins, violin-