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mass of individuals on whom we are operating, vir Most of the females board at the boarding tuous, sensible, well-informed, and well-bred men.
houses, erected by the mill owncrs, and rented My object therefore is not to raise the manufactu
at reduced rates to the families who keep them. ring operatives above their condition, but to make them ornaments to it-and thus to elevate the con- In seasons of depression, their rents are often dition itself. I wish to make them feel that they remitted to enable the keepers to reduce the have within their reach all the elements of earthly price of board. The food, though generally happiness, as abundantly as those to whose station plain, is of good quality and ample in quantity. their ambition sometimes leads them to aspire. That domestic happiness-real wealth-social pleas
The working population are as well, if not ures - means of intellectual improvement-endless better dressed, than in any of our large towns sources of rational amusement-all the freedom and or cities. An Englishman, on observing a long independence possessed by any class of men, are line of them retiring at the close of labor, and all before them. To show to my people and to oth thinking of the same class at home, could not ers, that there is nothing in the nature of their em
but express his surprise that every one of them ployment, or in the condition of their humble lot, that condemns them to be rough, vulgar, ignorant,
had on shoes. He was still more surprised miserable, or poor: that there is nothing in either to learn that in one mill alone, there were 150 that forbids them to be well-bred, well-informed, females who had at some time been engaged in well-mannered, and surrounded by every comfort and enjoyment that can make life happy; in short,
The health of the manufacturing population, to ascertain and to prove what the condition of this class of people might be made-what it ought to be
and especially of the female portion is remarkmade—what is the interest of all parties that it ably good. According to the testimony of Dr. should be made. This is all my aim-my alpha and Bartlett “ the general and comparative good omega. And I cannot help hoping that, if after a
health of the girls employed in the mills here, few years, when the habits of our population shall be more fixed, and their general character matured
and their freedom from serious disease have by time, death or necessity skould take me from them, long been subjects of common remark among I cannot help hoping that the seed I have endeav. our most intelligent and experienced physicians. ored to sow in this little spot, will not perish, that The manufacturing population of this city is the lessone I have taught will not be forgotten that
the healthiest portion of the population, and the minds I have tried to open will not relapse into insensibility—that those who have been awakened
there is no reason why this should not be the to a perception of what is beautiful and good, wheth case. They are but little exposed to many of er in nature, in art, in taste, or in human character, the strongest and most prolific causes of diswill not forget to feel, to admire, and to love it; that
ease, and very many of the circumstances which those who for many years have lived together, like the members of a happy and united family, will not
surround and act upon them are of the most cease that, union, because the friend is no longer
favorable hygienic character. They are regthqne who so earnestly promoted it; whose frequent
ular in all their habits. They are early up in prayer among them was for unity, peace, and con the morning, and early to bed at night. Their cord- and whose yearly wish publicly expressed in
fare is plain, substantial and good, and their lathe presence of them all, was that every year as it
bor is sufficientlyactive and sufficiently light rolled away, would find them more and more worthy of each other's respect and love.
to avoid the evils arising from the two extremes
of indolence and over-exertion. They are but LOWELL, MASS,
little exposed to the sudden vicissitudes and to The city of Lowell exhibits probably as fa
the excessive heats or colds of the seasons, vorable an example of the actual working of and they are very generally free from anxious the factory system on a large scale, as can be
and depressing cares.' found in any part of the world.
The agents or directors of the several corThe city has grown up within twenty years. porations have converted the most spacious and It was incorporated as a town in 1826, and as a
elegant mansion in the city into a boarding city in 1836. In 1826, the population on the
house or hospital for the sick. This is a noble territory (2 miles square) was less than 200,
and christian institution. Spacious and beautiand the value of the property did not exceed
ful rooms, well warmed and ventilated, with the $100,000: in 1840, there was a population of best medical attendance and nursing make up a 20,981, and property to the amount of $:2,400,- combination of comforts for the sick which are 000, according to the last valuation. There not often met with even in the best regulated aggregate capital of $10,500,000; 32 cotton
modations, the charge is only three dollars a mills, running 166,044 spindles and 5,183
week for females, and no one in the employ of looms; consuming 19,256,600 pounds of cot
the corporation is shut out on account of her ton, and manufacturing 58,263,400 yards of inability to pay: cloth per annum; and employing 6,430 female There are sixteen organized religious sociand 2,077 male operatives. The average wa
eties in Lowell, in which there are enrolled ges of females, exclusive of board,is 82 per
more than six thousand sunday school pupils week, and many earn double that amount. The
and teachers, being one third part of the entire is
$, tions for Savings, 978 arc factory girls, and body of clergymen, more zealous, laborious and out of $305,796 deposited on interest, $100,000
devoted to their great duties than our own. belongs to them.
are eleven manufacturing corporations, with an homes of the inmates, for all these accom
and of 1,976 depositors in the Lowell InstituThere is not to be found in New England a
,By their own personal efforts, in the pulpit and The school houses are all of them substan-
in the common stops and abbreviations, and in Various associations for intellectual im easy reading and spelling. These schools are provement by means of lectures, debates &c, divided into two departments-one for boys, have from time to time been formed.
and the other for girls, and are taught by a The most remarkable institution is thc Me male principal and assistant, two female as. chanic Association. Some intelligent mechan-sistants and a writing master. The number ics formed a Society, and obtained an act of of scholars is about 200 in each department. incorporation as early as 1825, before the town The studies are the common branches of an was incorporated. Their object was to fur- English education. nish means of improvement. Eight or ten The High School prepares young men for years afterward the proprietors of Locks and college, and carries forward the education of Canals gave them a lot of land in the heart of the young of both sexes in the studies previthe city, whereon the Association erected a ously pursued in the grammar schools, as well costly brick edifice; to the completion of which as in Algebra, Geometry, Rhetoric, Astrono. all the manufacturing companies contributed my, Practical Mathematics, Natural History, with liberal hand. The Mechanics Hall occu Moral Philosophy, Book-keeping, Composipies a central position, opposite the railroad tion, and the evidences of Christianity. "Pu. depot; has a spacious hall for lectures, in which pils are admitted, on examination, twice a the association procures one or more courses year, in the studies of the grammar schools. annually. The association has a library, ex There are two departments, one under a male ceeding 2,000 volumes, an extensive News and and the other a female principal, assisted by Reading Room, supplied with the best news. two assistants, and a teacher of plain and ora papers from all parts of the country, and the namental penmanship. most approved periodical publications. This The care and superintendence of the public room is always open, and subscription to it so schools are entrusted to a committee, not excheap, that every one can afford to be a sub- ceeding twelve, elected annually. The comscriber. In the same building, rooms are pro- | mittee must choose a chairman, secretary, and vided for chemical and other philosophical pur. a subcommittee for each school, with appro. poses, and a collection of 4,000 mintralogical priate duties. The general committee elect specimens is placed in them.”
teachers, determine their salaries, remove The public schools of Lowell are sustained those who are incompetent, and make all necon a broad and liberal scale, and will compare essary regulations respecting the studies, books, favorably with those of any large town or city and disipline of the schools. They
must meet in the country:
at least once a month. The sub-committee The following statistics are taken from the must visit and examine into the progress of annual Report of the School Committee for each of his particular school or schools once the year ending April 4th, 1842.
a month, and report at the regular meeting of Population in 1840
20,981 the board.
in any school, and the richest and best educa.
ted parents are glad to avail themselves of
these public institutions. Owing to the num-
ber of Catholic families, Catholic teachers are
provided in five primary and one grammar Fuel
1,686 school, in parts of the city where that populaRent, repairs, &c.
2,553 tion predominates. This arrangement has Aggregate amount of current expenses secured the attendance of that class of child. for 1841
$23,557 ren, and the hearty co-operation of their Estimated expense for 1842
OR THE INFLUENCE OF EDUCATION ON TIIE QUALITY AND VALUE OF LABOR.
EXTRACTS' From the Fifth Annual Report of the Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, January
During the past year I have opened a correspondence, and availed myself of all opportunities to hold personal interviews with many of the most practical, sagacious, and intelligent business men amongst us, who for many years have had large numbers of persons in their employment. My object has been to ascertain the difference in the productive ability, --where natural capacities have been equal, between the educated and the uneducated, between a man or woman whose mind has been awakened to thought and supplied with the rudiments of knowledge. by a good Common School education, and one whose faculties have never been developed, or aided in emerging from their original darkness and torpor by such a privilege. For this purpose I have conferred and corresponded with manufacturers of all kinds, with machinists, engineers, rail-road contractors, officers in the army, &c. These various classes of persons have means of determining the effects of education on individuals, equal in their natural abilities, which other classes do not possess.
Now many of the most intelligent and valuable men in our community, in compliance with my request,- for which I tender them my public and grateful acknowledgments,-have examined their books for a series of years, and have ascertained both the quality and the amount of work performed by persons in their employment; and the result of the investigation is a most astonishing superiority in productive power, on the part of the educated over the uneducated laborer. The hand is found to be another hand, when guided by an intelligent mind. Processes are performed not only more rapidly, but better, when facultics which have been exercised in early lise, furnish their assistance. Individuals who, with out the aid of knowledge, would have been condemned to perpetual inferiority of condition, and subjected to all the evils of want and poverty, rise to competence and independence, by the uplifting power of education. In great establishments, and among large bodies of la. boring men, where all services are rated ac
, are no exstrinsic circumstances to bind a man down to a fixod position, after he has shown a capacity to rise above it ;--where, indeed, men pass by each other, ascending or descending in their grades of labor, just as easily and certainly as particles of water of different de. grees of temperature glide by each other,ihere it is found as almost an invariable fact,
-other things being equal,—that those who have been blessed with a good Common School education, rise to a higher and higher point, in the kinds of labor performed, and also in the rate of wages paid, while the ignorant sink, like dregs, and are always found at the bottom.
[The conclusions above expressed, are founded on the following evidence, furnished in reply to Mr. Mann's Circular Letter, from which we extract the interrogatories.]
First, --Have you had large numbers of persons in your employment or under your superintendence ? if so, will you please to state how many ? Within what period of time? In what department of business ? Whether at different places? Whether natives or foreigners ?
Second, - Ilave you observed differences among the persons you have employed, growing out of dif ferences in their edqcation, and independent of their natural abilities; that is, whether as a class, those who from early life, have been accustomed to exercise their minds by reading and studying, have greater docility and quickness in applying themselves to work; and, after the simplest details are måstered, have they greater aptitude, dexterity or ingenuity in comprehending ordinary processes, or in originating new ones? Do they more readily or frequently devise new modes by which the same amount of work can be better done, or by which more work can be done in the same time, or by which raw material or motive power can be economized? In short, do you obtain more work and better work with less waste, from those who have received what, in Massachusetts, we call a good Common School education, or from those who have grown up in neglect and ignorance? Is there any
difference in the earnings of these two classes, and consequently in their wages ?
Third, -What, within your knowledge, has been the effect of higher degrees of mental application and culture upon the domestic and social habits of persons in your employment? Is this class more cleanly in their persons, their dress and their households; and do they enjoy a greater immunity from those discases which originate in a want of personal neatness and purity? Are they more exemplary in their deportment and conversation, devoting more time to intellectual pursuits or to the refining art of music, and spending their evenings and leisure hours more with their families, and less at places of resort for idle and dissipated men ? Is a smaller portion of hem addicted to imtemperance? Are their houses kept in a superior condition? Does a more economical and judicious mode of living purchase greater comforts at ihe same expense, or equal comforts with less means? Are their families better brought up, more respectably dressed, more regularly attendant upon the school and the church ; and do their children when arrived at years of maturity, enter upon the active scenes of life with better prospects of success?
Fourth, ---In regard to standing and respectability among co-laborers, neighbors, and fellow citizens generally, how do those who have enjoyed and improved the privilege of goo 1 Common Schools, compare with the neglected and the illiterate? Do the former exercise greater influence among their associates ? Are they more often applied to for advice and counsel in cases of difficulty ; or selected as umpires or arbitrators for the decision of minor controversies ? Are higher and more intelligent circles for acquaintance open to them, from conversation
and intercourse with which, their own minds can quire a high degree of skill in particular branch-
tion of those they have left behind, than that their own account?
derived from a better education.
A statement made from the books of one of there will of course.be individual exceptions,) in re the manufacturing companies under our direcgard to punctuality and fidelity in the performance tion, will show the relative number of the two of duties? Which class is most regardful of the classes, and the earnings of each. This mill rights of others, and most intelligent and successful in securing their own? You will of course perceive may be taken as a fair index of all the others. that this question involves a more general one, viz.,
The average number of operatives annually from which of the above described classes, have employed for the last three years, is 1200. Of those who possess property, and who hope to trans this number, there are 45 unable to write their mit it to their children, most to fear from secret ag.
names, or about 34' per cent.
The average of women's wages, in the de. of witnesses, violate the sanctity of the juror's oath partments requiring the most skill, is $2,50 per and substiture as a rule of right, the power of a nu
week, exclusive of board. merical majority, for the unvarying principles of The average of wages in the lowest departjustice ?
ments, is $1,25 per week. Sixth,-Finally, in regard to those who possess
Of the 45 who are unable to write, 29, or the largest shares in the stock of worldly goods, could there, in your opinion, be any police so vigil about two thirds, are employed in the lowest ant and effective, for the protection of all the rights department. The difference between the waof
person, property and character, as such a sound ges earned by the 45, and the average wayes and comprehensive education and training, as our of an equal number of the better educated system of Common Schools could be made to impart; and would not the payment of a sufficient tax
class, is about 27 per cent. in favor of the latter. to make such education and training universal, be
The difference between the wages earned by the cheapest means of self-protection and insurance ? 29 of the lowest class, and the same number in And in regard to that class which, from the acci the higher. dent of birth and parentage, are subjected to the Of 17 persons filling the most responsible privations and the temptations of poverty, would situations in the mills, 10 have grown up in not such an education open to them new resources in habits of irdustry and economy, in increased skill,
the establishment from common laborers or and the awakening of inventive power, which would apprentices. yield returns a thousand fold greater than can ever This statement does not include an importabe hoped for, from the most successful clandestine tion of 63 persons from Manchester, in Enge depredations, or open invasion of the properly of land, in 1839. Among these persons, there others ?
was scarcely one who could read or write, and Letter from J. K. Mills, Esq., Bostou.
although a part of them had been accustomed The house with which I am connected in to work in cotton mills, yet, cither from incabusiness, has had for the last ten years, the pacity or idleness, they were unable to earn principal direction of cotton mills, machine sufficient to pay for their subsistence, and at shops and calico printing works, in which are the expiration of a few weeks, not more than constantly employed about three thousand per half a dozen remained in our employment. sons. The opinions I have formed of the effects In some of the print works, a large proporof a Common School education upon our man tion of the operatives are foreigners. Those ufacturing population, are the result of personal who are employed in the branches which reobservation and inquiries, and are confirmed by quire a considerable degree of skill, are as well the testimony of the overseers and agents, who educated as our people, in similar situations. are brought into iinmediate contact with the But the common laborers, as a class, are withoperatives. They are as follows:
out any education, and their average earnings 1.-That the rudiments of a Common School are about two-thirds only of those of our lowest cducation are essential to the attainment of skill classes, although the prices paid to each are the and expertness as laborers, or to consideration same, for the same amount of work. and respect in the civil and social relations of Among the men and boys employed in our life.
machine shops, the want of education is quite 2.-That very few, who have not enjoyed rare ; indeed, I do not know an instance of a the advantages of a Common School education, person who is unable to read and write, and ever rise above the lowest class of operatives; many have had a good Common School eduand that the labor of this class, when it is em- cation. To this may be attributed the fact that ployed in manufacturing operations, which a large proportion of persons who fill the higher require even a very moderate degree of man and more responsible situations, came from this ual or mental dexterity, is unproductive. class of workmen.
3.-—That a large majority of the overseers, From these statements, you will be able to and others employed in situations which re
form some estimate, in dollars and cents, at least,
of the advantages of a little education to the operative; and there is not the least doubt that the employer is equally benefited. He has the security for his property. that intelligence, good morals, and a just appreciation of the regulations of his establishment, always afford. His machinery and mills, which constitute a large part of his capital, are in the hands of persons, who, by their skill, are enabled to use them to their utmost capacity, and to prevent any unnecessary depreciation.
Each operative in a cotton mill may be supposed to represent from one thousand to twelve hundred dollars of the capital invested in the mill and its machinery. It is only from the most diligent and economical use of this capital that the proprietor can expect a profit. A fraction less than one half of the cost of manufacturing common cotton goods, when a mill is in full operation, is made up of charges which are perinanent. If the product is reduced in the ratio of the capacity of the two classes of operatives mentioned in this statement, it will be seen that the cost will be increased in a compound ratio.
My belief is, that the best cotton mill in New England, with such operatives only as the 45 mentioned above, who are unable to write their names, would never yield the proprietor a profit; that the machinery would soon be worn out, and he would be left, in a short time, with a population no better than that which is represented, as I suppose, very fairly, by the importation from England.
I cannot imagine any situation in life, where the want of a Common School education would be more severely felt, or be attended with worse consequences, than in our manufacturing villages; nor, on the other hand, is there any, where such advantages can be improved, with greater benefit to all parties.
There is more excitement and activity in the minds of people living in masses, and if this expends itself in any of the thousand vicious indulgences with which they are sure to be tempted, the road to destruction is travelled over with a speed exactly corresponding to the power employed.
Letter from H. Bartlett, Esq., Lowell. I have been engaged, for nearly ten years, in manufacturing, and have had the constant charge of from 400 to 900 persons, during that time. The greater part of them have been Americans; but there have always been more or less foreigners. During this time, I have had charge of two different establishments, in different parts of the State.
In answering your second interrogatory, I can say, that I have come in contact with a very great variety of character and dispusition, and have seen mind applied to production in the mechanic and manufacturing arts, possessing different degrees of intelligence, from gross ignorance to a high degree of cultivation ;
and I have no hesitation in affirining that I have found the best educated, to be the most profita. ble help; even those females who merely tend machinery, give a result somewhat in proportion to the advantages enjoyed in early life for education, -those who have a good Common Schoul cducation giving, as a class, invariably
, a better production than those brought up in ignorance.
The former make the best wages. If any one should doubt the fact, let him examine the pay-roll of any establishment in New England, and ascertain the character of the girls who get the most money, and he will be satisfied that I am correct. I am equally clear that, as a class, they do their work better. There are many reasons why it should be so. They have more order, and system; they not only keep their persons neater, but their machinery in better condition.
But there are other advantages, besides mere knowledge growing out of a Common School education. Such an education is calculated to strengthen the whole system, intellecual, moral and physical. It educates the whole man or woman, and gives him or her more energy and greater capacity for production in all de partments of labor. Minds formed by such an education are superior in the combination and arrangement of what is already known, and more frequently devise new methods of operation.
Your third inquiry relates to the effect of education upon the domestic and social habits of persons in my employ. I have never considered mere knowledge, valuable as it is in itself to the laborer, as the only advantage derived from a good Common School education. I have uniformly found the better educated, as a class, possessing a higher and better state of morals, more orderly and respectful in their deportment, and more ready to comply with the wholesome and necessary regulations of an establishment. And in times of agitation, on account of some change in regulations or wages, I have always looked to the most intelligent, best educated, and the most moral for support, and have seldom been disappointed. For, while they are the last to submit to imposition, they reason, and if youş requirements are reasonable, they will generally acquiesce, and exert a salutary influence upon their associates. But the ignorant and uneducated I have generally found the most turbulent and troublesome, acting under the impulse of excited passion and jealousy.
The former appear to have an interest in sustaining good order, while the latter seem more reckless of consequences.
And, to my mind, all this is perfectly natural. The better educated have more, and stronger attachments binding them to the place where they are. They are generally neater, as I have before said, in their persons, dress and houses ; sur. rounded with more comforts, with fewer of