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merchandise, and shall afterwards want to unload, or ship them on board of another vessel, we shall not permit him until the matter is determined by a reference of merchants, who shall decide upon the case, and, after the decision, the determination shall be conformed to.
No captain shall be detained in port against his consent, except when our ports are shut for the vessels of all other nations, which may take place with respect to merchant vessels, but not to those of war.
The subjects and citizens of the two nations, respectively, Tunisians and Americans, shall be protected in the places where they may be by the officers of the government there existing; but, on failure of such protection, and for redress of every injury, the party may resort to the chief authority in each country, by whom adequate protection and complete justice shall be rendered. In case the government of Tunis shall have need of an American vessel for its service, such vessel being within the regency, and not previously engaged, the government shall have the preference, on its paying the same freight as other merchants usually pay for the same service, or at the like rate, if the service be without a customary precedent.(1)
919. If, among the crews of merchant vessels of the United States, there shall be found subjects of our enemies, they shall not be made slaves, on condition that they do not exceed a third of the crew; and when they do exceed a third, they shall be made slaves: the present article only concerns the sailors, and not the passengers, who shall not be in any manner molested.(2)
920. All vessels belonging to the citizens and inhabitants of the United States shall be permitted to enter the ports of the kingdom of Tunis, and freely trade with the subjects and inhabitants thereof, on paying the usual duties which are paid by other most favoured nations at peace with the regency. In like manner, all vessels belonging to the subjects and inhabitants of the kingdom of Tunis shall be permitted to enter the different ports of the United States, and freely trade with the citizens and inhabitants thereof, on paying the usual duties which are paid by other most favoured nations at peace with the United States.(3)
921. It shall be free for the citizens of the United States to carry on what commerce they please in the kingdom of Tunis, without any opposition, and they shall be treated like the merchants of other nations; but they shall not carry on commerce in wine, nor in prohibited articles: and if any one shall be detected in a contraband trade, he shall be punished according to the laws of the country. The commandants of ports and castles shall take care that the captains and sailors shall not load prohibited articles; but if this should happen, those who shall not have contributed to the smuggling shall not be molested nor searched, no more than shall the vessel and cargo; but only the offender, who shall be demanded to be punished. No captain shall be obliged to receive merchandise on board of his vessel, nor to unlade the same against his will, until the freight shall be paid.(4)
922. The merchant vessels of the United States, which shall cast anchor in the road of the Gouletta, or any other port of the kingdom of Tunis, shall be obliged to pay the same anchorage, for entry and departure, which French vessels pay, to wit: seventeen piasters and an half, money of Tunis, for entry, if they import merchandise; and the same for departure, if they take away a cargo; but they shall not be obliged to pay anchorage if they arrive in ballast, and depart in the same manner.(5)
(1) Treaty of 1799, sec. 12, as modified in 1824.
(2) Ibid. sec. 13.
(3) Ibid. sec. 14, as amended in 1824. (4) Ibid. sec. 15.
(5) Ibid. sec. 16.
923. Each of the contracting parties shall be at liberty to establish a consul in the dependencies of the other; and if such consul does not act in conformity with the usages of the country, like others, the government of the place shall inform his government of it, to the end that he may be changed and replaced; but he shall enjoy, as well for himself as his family and suite, the protection of the government; and he may import for his own use all his provisions and furniture, without paying any duty; and if he shall import merchandise, (which it shall be lawful for him to do,) he shall pay duty for it.(1)
924. If the subjects or citizens of either of the contracting parties, being within the possessions of the other, contract debts, or enter into obligations, neither the consul nor the nation, nor any subjects or citizens thereof, shall be in any manner responsible, except they or the consul shall have previously become bound in writing. And without this obligation in writing, they cannot be called upon for indemnity or satisfaction.(2)
925. In case of a citizen or subject of either of the contracting parties dying within the possessions of the other, the consul or the vekil shall take possession of his effects, (if he does not leave a will,) of which he shall make an inventory; and the government of the place shall have nothing to do therewith. And if there shall be no consul, the effects shall be deposited in the hands of a confidential person of the place, taking an inventory of the whole, that they may eventually be delivered to those to whom they of right belong.(3)
926. The consul shall be the judge in all disputes between his fellow citizens or subjects, as also between all other persons who may be immediately under his protection; and in all cases wherein he shall require the assistance of the government where he resides to sanction his decisions, it shall be granted to him.(4)
927. If a citizen or subject of one of the parties shall kill, wound, or strike, a citizen or subject of the other, justice shall be done according to the laws of the country where the offence shall be committed: the consul shall be present at the trial; but if any offender shall escape, the consul shall be in no manner responsible for it.(5)
928. If a dispute or lawsuit, on commercial or other civil matters, shall happen, the trial shall be had in the presence of the consul, or of a confidential person of his choice, who shall represent him, and endeavour to accommodate the difference which may have happened between the citizens or subjects of the two nations.(6)
929. If any difference of dispute shall take place concerning the infraction of any article of the present treaty, on either side, peace and good harmony shall not be interrupted, until a friendly application shall have been made for satisfaction; and resort shall not be had to arms therefor, except where such application shall have been rejected; and if war be then declared, the term of one year shall be allowed to the citizens or subjects of the contracting parties to arrange their affairs, and to withdraw themselves, with their property.(7)
(1) Treaty of 1799, sec. 17.
(2) Ibid. sec. 18.
(3) Ibid. sec. 19.
(4) Ibid. sec. 20.
(5) Ibid. sec. 21.
RELATIONS WITH MOROCCO.
Neither party to take commissions
Vessels of one party to be defended
Ships of war not to be examined in
Protection of vessel of U. S. to ports of Morocco
ART. 930. If either of the parties shall be at war with any nation whatever, the other party shall not take a commission from the enemy, nor fight under their colours.(1)*
931. If either of the parties shall be at war with any nation whatever, and take a prize belonging to that nation, and there shall be found on board subjects or effects belonging to either of the parties, the subjects shall be set at liberty, and the effects returned to the owners. And if any goods, belong. ing to any nation, with whom either of the parties shall be at war, shall be loaded on vessels belonging to the other party, they shall pass free and unmolested, without any attempt being made to take or detain them.(2)
932. A signal, or pass, shall be given to all vessels belonging to both parties, by which they are to be known when they meet at sea; and if the commander of a ship of war of either party shall have other ships under his convoy, the declaration of the commander shall alone be sufficient to exempt any of them from examination.(3)
933. If either of the parties shall be at war, and shall meet a vessel at sea belonging to the other, it is agreed, that if an examination is to be made, it shall be done by sending a boat with two or three men only; and if any gun shall be fired, and injury done, without reason, the offending party shall make good all damages.(4)
934. If any Moor shall bring citizens of the United States, or their effects, to his majesty, the citizens shall immediately be set at liberty, and the effects restored; and, in like manner, if any Moor, not a subject of
The preamble to the treaty declares it to be a treaty of peace and friendship; and the first article simply declares the assent of the parties to the treaty.
these dominions, shall make prize of any of the citizens of America, or their effects, and bring them into any of the ports of his majesty, they shall be immediately released, as they will then be considered as under his majesty's protection.(1)
935. If any vessel of either party shall put into a port of the other, and have occasion for provisions, or other supplies, they shall be furnished without any interruption or molestation.(2)
936. If any vessel of the United States shall meet with a disaster at sea, and put into one of our ports to repair, she shall be at liberty to land and` reload her cargo, without paying any duty whatever.(3)
937. If any vessel of the United States shall be cast on shore on any part of our coasts, she shall remain at the disposition of the owners, and no one shall attempt going near her without their approbation, as she is then considered particularly under our protection; and if any vessel of the United States shall be forced to put into our ports by stress of weather, or otherwise, she shall not be compelled to land her cargo, but shall remain in tranquillity until the commander shall think proper to proceed on his voyage.(4)
938. If any vessel of either of the parties shall have an engagement with a vessel belonging to any of the christian powers, within gunshot of the forts of the other, the vessel so engaged shall be defended and protected as much as possible, until she is in safety; and if any American vessel shall be cast on shore on the coast of Wadnoon, or any coast thereabout, the people belonging to her shall be protected and assisted, until, by the help of God, they shall be sent to their country.(5)
939. If we shall be at war with any christian power, and any of our vessels sail from the ports of the United States, no vessel belonging to the enemy shall follow, until twenty-four hours after the departure of our vessels; and the same regulation shall be observed towards the American vessels sailing from our ports, be their enemies Moors or christians.(6)
940. If any ship of war belonging to the United States, shall put into any of our ports, she shall not be examined on any pretence whatever, even though she should have fugitive slaves on board, nor shall the governor or commander of the place compel them to be brought on shore on any pretext, nor require any payment for them.(7)
941. If a ship of war of either party shall put into a port of the other, and salute, it shall be returned from the fort with an equal number of guns, not with more or less.(8)
942. The commerce with the United States shall be on the same footing as is the commerce with Spain, or as that with the most favoured nation, for the time being; and their citizens shall be respected and esteemed, and have full liberty to pass and repass our country and sea ports, whenever they please, without interruption.(9)
943. Merchants of both countries shall employ only such interpreters, and such other persons to assist them in their business, as they shall think proper. No commander of a vessel shall transport his cargo on board another vessel; he shall not be detained in port longer than he may think proper; and all persons employed in loading or unloading goods, or in any
(1) Treaty of 1787, sec. 6.
(2) Ibid. sec. 7. (3) Ibid. sec. 8.
(4) Ibid. sec. 9.
(5) Ibid. sec. 10.
(6) Ibid. sec. 11.
other labour whatever, shall be paid at the customary rates, not more and not less.(1)
944. In case of a war between the parties, the prisoners are not to be made slaves, but to be exchanged one for another, captain for captain, officer for officer, and one private man for another; and if there shall prove a deficiency on either side, it shall be made up by the payment of one hundred Mexican dollars for each person wanting. And it is agreed, that all prisoners shall be exchanged in twelve months from the time of their being taken, and that this exchange may be effected by a merchant, or any other person, authorized by either of the parties.(2)
945. Merchants shall not be compelled to buy or sell any kind of goods but such as they shall think proper; and may buy and sell all sorts of merchandise but such as are prohibited to the other christian nations.(3)
946. All goods shall be weighed and examined before they are sent on board; and to avoid all detention of vessels, no examination shall afterwards be made, unless it shall first be proved that contraband goods have been sent on board; in which case, the persons who took the contraband goods on board, shall be punished according to the usage and custom of the country, and no other person whatever shall be injured, nor shall the ship or cargo incur any penalty or damage whatever.(4)
947. No vessel shall be detained in port on any pretence whatever, nor be obliged to take on board any article without the consent of the commander, who shall be at full liberty to agree for the freight of any goods he takes on board.(5)
948. If any of the citizens of the United States, or any persons under their protection, shall have any disputes with each other, the consul shall decide between the parties; and whenever the consul shall require any aid or assistance from our government, to enforce his decisions, it shall be immediately granted to him.(6)
949. If a citizen of the United States should kill or wound a Moor, or, on the contrary, if a Moor shall kill or wound a citizen of the United States, the law of the country shall take place, and equal justice shall be rendered, the consul assisting at the trial; and if any delinquent shall make his escape, the consul shall not be answerable for him in any manner whatever.(7)
950. If any American citizen shall die in our country, and no will shall appear, the consul shall take possession of his effects; and if there shall be no consul, the effects shall be deposited in the hands of some person worthy of trust, until the party shall appear who has a right to demand them; but if the heir to the person deceased be present, the property shall be delivered to him without interruption; and if a will shall appear, the property shall descend agreeable to that will, as soon as the consul shall declare the validity thereof.(8)
951. The consuls of the United States of America, shall reside in any sea port of our dominions that they shall think proper; and they shall be respected, and enjoy all the privileges which the consuls of any other nation enjoy; and if any of the citizens of the United States shall contract any debts or engagements, the consul shall not be in any manner accounta ble for them, unless he shall have given a promise in writing for the pay
(1) Treaty of 1787, sec. 15.
(2) Ibid. sec. 16. (3) Ibid. sec. 17.
(4) Ibid. sec. 18.
(5) Ibid. sec. 19.