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degligence or disaffection, in time of action, withdraw from, or keep out of, battle, or shall not do his utmost to take or destroy every vessel which it is his duty to encounter, or shall not do his utmost endeavour to afford relief to ships belonging to the United States, every such offender shall, on conviction thereof by a general court martial, suffer death, or such other punishment as the said court shall adjudge.
2490. Article 7. The commanding officer of every vessel in the navy, who shall capture or seize upon any vessel as a prize, shall carefully preserve all the papers and writings found on board, and transmit the whole of the originals, unmutilated, to the judge of the district to which such prize is ordered to proceed, and shall transmit to the navy department, and to the agent appointed to pay the prize money, complete lists of the officers and men entitled to a share of the capture, inserting therein the quality of every person rating, on pain of forfeiting his whole share of the prize money resulting from such capture, and suffering sạch further punishment as a court martial shall adjudge.
2491. Article 8. No person in the navy shall take out of a prize, or vessel seized as prize, any money, plate, goods, or any part of her rigging, unless it be for the better preservation thereof, or absolutely necessary for the use of any of the vessels of the United States, before the same shall be adjudged lawful prize by a competent court; but the whole, without fraud, concealment, or embezzlement, shall be brought in, and judgment passed thereon, upon pain that every person offending herein shall forfeit his share of the capture, and suffer such further punishment as a court martial, or the court of admiralty in which the prize is adjudged, shall impose.
2492. Article 9. No person in the navy shall strip of their clothes or pillage, or in any manner maltreat, persons taken on board a prize, on pain of such punishment as a court martial shall adjudge.
2493. Article 10. No person in the navy shall give, hold, or entertain any intercourse or intelligence to or with any enemy or rebel, without leave from the president of the United States, the secretary of the navy, the commander-in-chief of the fleet, or the commander of a squadron ; or in case of a vessel acting singly, from his commanding officer, on pain of death, or suffer such other punishment as a court martial shall adjudge.
2494. Article 11. If any letter or message, from an enemy or rebel, be conveyed to any officer or private of the navy, and he shall not, within twelve hours, make the same known, having opportunity so to do, to his superior or commanding officer; or if any officer commanding a vessel, being acquainted therewith, shall not, with all convenient speed, reveal the same to the commander-in-chief of the fleet, commander of a squadron, or other proper officer whose duty it may be to take cognizance thereof, every such offender shall suffer death, or such other punishment as a court martial shall adjudge.
2495. Article 12. Spies, and all persons who shall come or be found in the capacity of spies, or who shall bring or deliver any seducing letter or message from an enemy or rebel, or endeavour to corrupt any person in the navy to betray his trust, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as a court martial shall adjudge.
2496. Article 13. If any person in the navy shall make, or attempt to make, any mutinous assembly, he shall, on conviction thereof by a court martial, suffer death; and if any person, as aforesaid, shall utter any seditious or mutinous words, or shall conceal or connive at any mutinous or seditious practices, or shall treat with contempt his superior, being in the execution of his office; or, being witness to any mutiny or sedition, shall
not do his utmost to suppress it, he shall be punished at the discretion of a court martial.
2497. Article 14. No officer or private in the navy shall disobey the lawful orders of his superior officer, or strike him, or draw, or offer to draw, or raise any weapon against him, while in the execution of the duties of his office, on pain of death, or such other punishment as a court martial shall inflict.
2498. Article 15. No person in the navy shall quarrel with any other person in the navy, nor use provoking or reproachful words, gestures, or menaces, on pain of such punishment as a court martial shall adjudge.
2499. Article 16. If any person in the navy shall desert to an enemy or rebel, he shall suffer death.
Article 17. If any person in the navy shall desert, or shall entice others to desert, he shall suffer death, or such other punishment as a court martial shall adjudge; and if any officer or other person belonging to the navy, shall receive or entertain any deserter from any other vessel of the navy, knowing him to be such, and shall not with all convenient speed, give now tice of such deserter to the commander of the vessel to which he belongs, or to the commander-in-chief, or to the commander of the squadron, he shall, on conviction thereof, be cashiered, or be punished at the discretion of the court martial. All offences committed by persons belonging to the navy, while on shore, shall be punished in the same manner as if they had been committed at sea.
2500. Article 18. If any person in the navy shall knowingly make or sign, or shall aid, abet, direct, or procure the making or signing of any false muster, or shall execute, or atte pt, countenance, any fraud against the United States, he shall, on conviction, be cashiered, and rendered for ever incapable of any future employment in the service of the United States, and shall forfeit all the pay and subsistence due him, and suffer such other punishment as a court martial shall inflict.
2501. Article 19. If any officer or other person in the navy shall, through inattention, negligence, or any other fault, suffer any vessel of the navy to be stranded, or run upon rocks or shoals, or hazarded, he shall suffer such punishment as a court martial shall adjudge.
2502. Article 20. If any person in the navy shall sleep upon his watch, or negligently perform the duty assigned him, or leave his station before regularly relieved, he shall suffer death, or such punishment as a court mar. tial shall adjudge; or if the offender be a private, he may, at the discretion of the captain, be put in irons, or flogged, not exceeding twelve lashes.
2503. Article 21. The crime of murder, when committed by any officer, seaman, or marine, belonging to any public vessel of the United States, without the territorial jurisdiction of the same, may be punished with death, by the sentence of a court martial.
2504. Article 22. The officers and privates of every vessel, appointed as convoy to merchant or other vessels, shall diligently and faithfully discharge the duties of their appointment, nor shall they demand or exact any compensation for their services, nor maltreat any of the officers or crews of such merchant or other vessels, on pain of making such reparation as a court of admiralty may award, and of suffering such further punishment as a court martial shall adjudge.
2505. Article 23. If any commander or other officer, shall receive, or permit to be received, on board his vessel, any goods or merchandise, other than for the sole use of his vessel, except gold, silver, or jewels, and except the goods or merchandise of vessels which may be in distress or shipwrecked, or in imminent danger of being shipwrecked, in order to preserve them for their owner, without orders from the president of the United States or the navy department, he shall, on conviction thereof, be cashiered, and be incapacitated, for ever afterwards, for any place or office in the navy.
2506. Article 24. If any person in the navy shall waste, embezzle, or fraudulently buy, sell, or receive, any ammunition, provisions, or other public stores; or if any officer or other person shall knowingly permit, through design, negligence, or inattention, any such waste, embezzlement, sale, or receipt, every such person shall forfeit all the pay and subsistence then due him, and suffer such further punishment as a court martial shall direct.
2507. Article 25. If any person in the navy shall unlawfully set fire to, or burn, any kind of public property, not then in the possession of an enemy, pirate, or rebel, he shall suffer death; and if any person shall, in any other manner, destroy such property, or shall not use his best exertions to prevent the destruction thereof by others, he shall be punished at the discretion of a court martial.
2508. Article 26. Any theft not exceeding twenty dollars, may be pun. ished at the discretion of the captain, and above that sum as a court martial shall direct.
2509. Article 27. If any person in the navy shall, when on shore, plunder, abuse, or maltreat any inhabitant, or injure his property in any way, he shall suffer such punishment as a court martial shall adjudge.
2510. Article 28. Every person in the navy shall use his utmost exer. tions to detect, apprehend, and bring to punishment, all offenders, and shall, at all times, aid and assist all persons appointed for this purpose, on pain of such punishment as a court martial shall adjudge.
2511. Article 29. Each commanding officer shall, whenever a seaman enters on board, cause an accurate entry to be made in the ship's books of his name, time and term of his service; and, before sailing, transmit to the secretary of the navy, a complete list or muster roll of the officers and men under his command, with the date of their entering, time and terms of their service annexed; and shall cause similar lists to be made out on the first day of every second month, to be transmitted to the secretary of the navy as opportunities shall occur; accounting in such lists or muster rolls, for any casualties which may have taken place since the last list or muster roll. He shall cause to be accurately minuted on the ship's books the names of, and times at which, any death or desertion may occur; and in case of death, shall take care that the purser secure all the property of the deceased for the benefit of his legal representative or representatives. He shall cause frequent inspections to be made into the condition of the provisions, and use every precaution for its preservation. He shall, whenever he orders officers and men to take charge of a prize, and proceed to the United States, and whenever officers or men are sent from his ship, for whatever cause, take care that each man be furnished with a complete statement of his account, specifying the date of his enlistment, and the period and terms of his service; which account shall be signed by the commanding officer and purser. He shall cause the rules for the government of the navy to be hung up in some public part of the ship, and read once a month to his ship's company. He shall cause a convenient place to be set apart for sick or disabled men, to which he shall have them removed, with their hammocks and bedding, when the surgeon shall su advise, and shall direct that some of the crew attend them and keep the place clean; and, if necessary, shall direct that cradles, and buckets with covers, be made for their use; and when his crew is
finally paid off, he shall attend in person, or appoint a proper officer, to see that justice be done to the men, and lo the United States, in the settlement of the accounts : any commanding officer offending herein, shall be punished at the discretion of a court martial.
Article 30. No commanding officer shall, of his own authority, discharge à commissioned or warrant officer, nor strike, nor punish him, otherwise than by suspension or confinement, nor shall he, of his own authority, inAlict a punishment on any private beyond twelve lashes with a cat of nine tails, nor shall he suffer any wired, or other than a plain cat of nine tails, to be used on board his ship; nor shall any officer who may command by accident, or in the absence of the commanding officer, (except such commander be absent for a time by leave,) order or inflict any other punishment than confinement, for which he shall account on the return of such absent commanding officer. Nor shall any commanding officer receive on board any petty officers or men turned over from any other vessel to him, unless each of such officers and men produce to him an account signed by the captain and purser of the vessel from which they came, specifying the date of such officer's or man's entry, the period and terms of service, the sums paid, and the balance due him, and the quality in which he was rated on board such ship. Nor shall any commanding officer, having received any petty officer or man, as aforesaid, rate him in a lower or worse station than that in which he formerly served : any commanding officer offending herein, shall be punished at the discretion of a court martial.
2512. Article 31. Any master at arms, or other person of whom the duty of master at arms is required, who shall refuse to receive such pri. soners as shall be committed to his charge, or having received them, shall suffer them to escape, or dismiss them without orders from proper anthority, shall suffer in such prisoner's stead, or be punished otherwise at the discretion of a court martial.
2513. Article 32. All crimes committed by persons belonging to the navy, which are not specified in the foregoing articles, shall be punished according to the laws and customs in such cases at sea.
2514. Article 33. All officers not holding commissions or warrants, or who are not entitled to them, except such as are temporarily appointed to the duties of a commissioned or warrant officer, are deemed petty officers.
2515. Article 34. Any person entitled to wages or prize money, may have the same paid to his assignee, provided the assignment be attested by the captain and purser; and in case of the assignment of wages, the power shall specify the precise time they commence : but the commander of every vessel is required to discourage his crew from selling any part of their wages or prize money, and never to attest any power of attorney until he is satisfied that the same is not granted in consideration of money given for the purchase of wages or prize money.
2516. Article 35. General courts martial may be convened as often as the president of the United States, the secretary of the navy, or the com. mander-in-chief of the fleet, or commander of a squadron, while acting out of the United States, shall deem it necessary: Provided, That no general court martial shall consist of more than thirteen, nor less than five members; and as many officers shall be summoned on every such court as can be convened without injury to the service, so as not to exceed thirteen, and the senior officer shall always preside, the others ranking agreeably to the date of their commissions; and in no case, where it can be avoided without injury to the service, shall more than one-half the members, exclusive of the president, be junior to the officer to be tried.
Article 36. Each member of the court, before proceeding to trial, shall take the following oath or affirmation, which the judge advocate, or person officiating as such, is hereby authorized to administer:
“I, A. B., do swear or affirm, that I will truly try, without prejudice or partiality, the case now depending, according to the evidence which shall come before the court, the rules for the government of the navy, and my own conscience; and that I will not by any means divulge or disclose the sentence of the court until it shall have been approved by the proper authority, nor will I, at any time, divulge or disclose the vote or opinion of any particular member of the court, unless required so to do before a court of justice in due course of law."
This oath or affirmation being duly administered, the president is authorized and required to administer the following oath or affirmation to the judge advocate, or person officiating as such :
“1, A. B., do swear or affirm that I will keep a true record of the evi. dence given to, and the proceedings of, this court ; nor will I divulge, or by any means disclose, the sentence of the court until it shall have been approved by the proper authority; nor will I, at any time, divulge or disclose the vote or opinion of any particular member of the court, unless required so to do before a court of justice in due course of law.
2517. Article 37. All testimony given to a general court martial shall be on oath or affirmation, which the president of the court is hereby authorized to administer; and if any person shall refuse to give his evi. dence as aforesaid, or shall prevaricate, or shall behave with contempt to the court, it shall and may be lawful for the court to imprison such offender, at their discretion : Provided, That the imprisonment in no case shall exceed two months : And every person who shall commit wilful perjury, on examination on oath or affirmation before such court, or who shall corruptly procure, or suborn, any person to commit such wilful perjury, shall and may be prosecuted by indictment or information in any court of justice of the United States, and shall suffer such penalties as are authorized by the laws of the United States in cases of perjury or the subornation thereof. And in every prosecution for perjury, or the subornation thereof, under this act, it shall be sufficient to set forth the offence charged on the defendant, without setting forth the authority by which the court was held, or the particular matters brought, or intended to be brought, before the said court.
Article 38. All charges, on which an application for a general court mar. tial is founded, shall be exhibited in writing, to the proper officer, and the person demanding the court shall take care that the person accused be furnished with a true copy of the charges, with the specifications, at the time he is put under arrest, nor shall any other charge or charges, than those so exhibited, be urged against the person to be tried before the court, unless it appear to the court that intelligence of such charge had not reached the person demanding the court, when the person so to be tried was put under arrest, or that some witness material to the support of such charge, who was at that time absent, can be produced; in which case, reasonable time shall be given to the person to be tried to make his defence against such new charge. Every officer so arrested is to deliver up his sword to his commanding officer and to confine himself to the limits assigned him, under pain of dismission from service.
Article 39. When the proceedings of any general court martial shall have commenced, they shall not be suspended or delayed on account of the absence of any of the members, provided five or more be assembled; but the court is enjoined to sit from day to day, Sundays excepted, until sen