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his abilities, before he write; if he ever write, to submit his writings to faithful critics, and to beware of hasty publication (to 390); then, to awaken in him a just sense of the sacred dignity of poetry (see lines 406, 407), he passes to an enumeration of the ancient and noble offices of the art (to 407). 385. Invita-Minerva. Cicero, in de Off. i., 31, explains this expression; invita ut aiunt, Minerva, id est, adversante et repugnante natura. 386. Est. The true reading. Esto is a mere conjecture. -387. Meti. See n. Sat. i., 10, 38. 388. Nonum—in

annum; indefinite; = "in aliquod tempus," which is the expression of Quinctilian in a parallel passage, 10, 4, 2: "Nec dubium est, optimum esse emendandi genus, si scripta in aliquod tempus reponuntur, ut ad ea, post intervallum, velut nova atque aliena redeamus." 389. Intus;

- 390. Nes

i. e. in the scrinium. On membranis, see n. Sat. ii., 3, 2. cit, etc. See Epist. i., 18, 71. 391. Horace draws his fire, illustrations from the bards of the mythic period, Orpheus, Amphion, whose poetry he describes (to 1. 401) as the parent of civilization, the source of religion, laws, and the useful arts. Silvestres homines; i. e. living in the woods; "the barbarous natives of the wood." Colman. Comp. n. O. i., 10, 2. - Sacer. Virg. Aen. vi., 645, uses of Orpheus the expres sion Threicius Sacerdos. Deorum; i. e. of their will. 394. Dietus ob hoc. Comp. O. i., 12, 9-12. Thus Horace beautifully explains the stories of the magical sway of Orpheus over nature and the beasts of the field; it is the wondrous influence of music and poetry in promoting human civilization. 394. Amphion. See n. O. iii., 11, 1.

396. Sapientia quondam; i. e. the office of the ancient sages or poets. Haec points to what follows, publica, etc. 401. Post hos, etc. He now mentions briefly the different kinds of poetry, and the ends they aimed at. -402. Tyrtaeus. The poet-warrior, who inspired, by his songs, the courage of the Lacedemonians in the 2d Messenian war. The commentators quote the words of Justin, 3, 5, concerning him: Carmina exercitui pro concione recitavit; in quibus hortamenta virtutis, damnorum solatia, belli consilia conscripserat. 403. Sortes. The lots or responses of oracles, which were in verse. See Dict. Antiqq. under the word. 404. Vitae-via; in allusion to instructive or didactic poetry, e. g. the writings of Hesiod, Theognis, and others, see Manual Class. Lit., p. 168. Gratia regum. This expres sion is illustrated by the lyric songs of Pindar, in praise of the exploits and victories of kings. 405. Ludusque repertus; dramatic poetry, which originated in the festivals (Dionysia) of the people, held at the time of vintage. See n. above on 193-201; and Dict. Antiqq. Dionysia -408-415. The poet must unite with genius the laborious culture o irt. 409. Nec studium. On this question Cicero expresses the same opinion, pro Archia, 7: Atque idem ego contendo, cum ad naturam eximium atque illustrem accesserit ratio quaedam conformatioque doctrinae


tum illud nescio quid praeclarum ac singulare solere existere. -412. Qui studet. The necessity of art is illustrated in the case of the competitor in the foot-race (at the Olympian Games), and of the fluteplayer at the Pythian Games. Metam. See n. O. i., 1, 4; and the illustration on p. 309. -414. Pythia; acc., sc. certamina. Comp. n. Epist. i., 1, 50. The Pythian Games were celebrated at Delphi; see Dict. Antiqq. The poet refers to the musical contests at the Games. 416-452. He who would be a true poet, must not be self-complacent (to L 418); nor give heed to selfish flatterers, to whom he will be especially ex• posed, if he happen to be rich (to 1. 437); but submit to the guidance of the nonest and faithful critic (to 1. 452). - 417. Occnpet-scabies; plague take the hindmost; an expression, borrowed (according to the Scholiast) from the sports of boys, as it was the usual cry of the boy who outstripped his fellows in running. -421. Dives agris, etc. Tuis line is repeated from Sat. i., 2, 13. - -422. Unetum; sc. cibum or convivium; a savory," (Osborne) sumptuous banquet. 423. Levi; light, who has no credit. -430. Saliet; i. e. for joy. Tundet pede; = saltabit; comp. O. iii., 18, 15. So Orelli, who thus explains the connection of saliet with tundet: "exsiliet, quin etiam saltabit."- 431. Conducti; used for all who were hired to mourn at a funeral; more general than pracficae, on which see n. O. ii., 20, 21. -433. Derisor; as the opposite of vero laudatore, = falsus laudator, flatterer. 435. Torquere mero; to put to the wine-torture; i. e. to make wine (as a quasi tormentum), a test, or means of extorting, character. See n. O. iii., 21, 13.– 435. Perspexisse. See n. O. i., 1, 4. ·


–437. Vulpe; i. e. pelle vulpina.

438. Quinctilio. He now draws, in contrast to the flatterer, a picture of an honest and faithful critic, selecting for the purpose the example of Quinctilius Varus (the literary and personal friend, whose death he had mourned in O. i., 24). · 439. Aiebat; the indic. although si-recitares precedes; instead of si-recitabas,—aiebat (or dicebat) or sirecitares, diceret. See Z. 519, b. Negares; sc. si. -441. Tornatos incudi. An instance of a mixed metaphor; drawn from the turner's lathe, and the smith's anvil. The text-books of rhetoric furnish similar instances from the poets, ancient and modern. 444. Quinamares; subjunctive, because it is oratio obliqua ; Quinctilius would have said, in oratio recta, quin amas. So Orelli; and the explanation is better than that which makes the subj. dependent upon the idea of hindering supposed to be involved in nullum—insumebat. 447. Signum} the obelus (†), or the Greek Theta, put to a line by the ancient critics, tshow that it was bad or spurious. Comp. Pers. iv., 13; "Et potis es nigrum vitio praefigere theta." - 450. Aristarchus; an Aristarchus ; in allusion to the famous Alexandrian critic of that name. So Cic. ad Att. i., 11: mearum orationem tu Aristarchus es.' 453-476. In conclusion, to illustrate the last point he had proposed to himself as a

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critic, viz., quo fer at error (1. 308), Horace draws the picture of a bad poet; who, despising all study and counsel, and infatuated by self-love, is an object of universul contempt and aversion. Dillenburger well says: Respondet exitus initio, imago insani poetae imagini monstruosae figurae."- -453. Morbus regius, also called arquatus, means the jaundice; so called, according to Pliny and Celsus, from its requiring costly remedies and constant amusement. Yet our expression, king's evil, is used of scrofula. -455. Tetigisse; see n. O. i., 1, 4. - 457. Sublimis; "with head erect." Colman. -460. Non sit; non is here used for ne; and the subj. has an imperative force. 465. Empedocles; the philosopher of Agrigentum (see n. Epist. i., 12, 18), who flourished about 450 B. C. Horace humorously quotes one of the fables, told about his death; the time and manner of which were unknown. -467. Occidenti; dat. depending upon idem; see Hark. Lat. Gram., 391, N. 1.-470. Nec satis apparet, etc. Horace adds a satirical ground for not trying to save such a poet: perhaps this madness of versomaking is a visitation from heaven for some act of impiety.·

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keeps making. 471. Bidental; a name given to a place which had been struck by lightning, and on which, therefore, a two-year-old sheep (bidens) was offered up as an expiatory sacrifice. It was customary to build an altar on the spot, and surround it with a fence, and to venture into it was deemed sacrilege. 472. Certe; in connection with utrum―an, etc., but certainly (at any rate) he is raging mad; whatever the cause, the fact is certain.

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[C. stands fo. Odes, Sat. for Satires, Ep. for Epodes, and E. for Er istles.]


Academus; inter silvas Academi quaerere
erum, E. 2, 2, 45.

Accius. Nil comis tragici mutat Lucilius
Acci? Sat. 1 10, 53; aufert famam senis
Accius alti, E. 2, 1, 56; iambus in Acci no.
bilibus trimetris apparet rarus, A. P. 258.
Achaemenes. Č. 2, 12, 21.

Achaemenius. Achaemenium costum, C.
3, 1. 44. Achaemenio perfundi nardo, Ep.
13, 8.

Achaicus ignis, C. 1, 15, 35; curru Achai-
co, C. 4, 3, 5.

Acheron. Perrupit Acheronta Herculeus
labor, C. 1, 3, 36. Quirinus Martis equis
Acheronta fugit, C. 3, 3, 16.

Acherontia. C. 3, 4, 14.

Aemilius. Art. poet. 32.

Aeneas; rebus Aeneae, C. 4, 6, 23 ; { iuc
Aeneas, C. 4, 7, 15. Castus Aeneas, Carm.
sec. 42. (Caesar) ab alto demissum genus
Aenea, Sat. 2, 5, 63.

Aeolides. C. 2, 14, 20.

Aeolius. Aeolius fidibus, C. 2, 13, 24.
Aeolium carmen, C. 3, 30, 13. Aeolio car-
mine nobilem, C. 4. 3, 12; adhuc vivunt
commissi calores Aeoliae fidibus puellae, C.
4, 9, 12.

Aeschylus. Sophocles et Thespis et Aes-
chylus Ě. 2, 1. 163; personae pallaeque re-
pertor honestae Aeschylus, Art. poet. 279.

Aesopus tragicarum fabularum actor; gra.
vis Aesopus, E. 2, 1, 82. Filius Aesopi, ho-
mo prodigus, Sat. 2, 3, 239.

Aesula. C. 3, 29, 6.
Aethiops. C. 3. 6, 14.

Achilles. Pelidae stomachum, C. 1, 6, 6;|
marinae filium Thetidis, C. 1,8, 14; insolen- Aetna; impositam Aetnam, C. 3, 4, 76;
tem Achillem, C. 2, 4, 4. Abstulit clarum fervida in Aetna, Ep. 17, 33; ardentem fri
cita mors Achillem, C. 2, 16, 29. Phthius gidus Aetnam insiluit Empedocles, Art. poet.
Achilles, C. 4, 6, 4. Filius Thetidis marinae, 465.

ib. v. 6. Invicte, mortalis dea nate Thetide, Aetolus. E. 1, 18, 46.

Ep. 13, 12; nepotem Nereium, Ep. 17, 8; Afer, Afri; deorum quisquis amicior Afris,
pervicacis ad pedes Achillei, ib. v. 14; ani. C. 2, 1, 26. Afro murice, C. 2, 16, 33; qua
mosum Achillem, Sat. 1, 7, 12; Aiax, heros medius liquor secernit Europen ab Afro, C.
ab Achille secundus, Sat. 2, 3, 193. Peliden, 3, 3, 47; dirus Afer. C. 4, 4, 42. Afra avis,
E. 1, 2, 12.; iratus Graiis quantum nocuisset Ep. 2, 53. Afra cochlea, Sat. 2, 4, 58. Ca-
Achilles, E. 2, 2, 42; honoratum si forte re- nidia peior serpentibus Afris, Sat. 2, 8, 92.
ponis Achillem cet, Ae. 120.
Afranius. Dicitur Afrani toga convenisse
Menandro, E. 2, 1, 57.

Achivi; pugnaces Achivi, C. 3, 3, 27; Achi-
vis flaminis, C. 4, 6. 18; toties servatis cla-
rus Achivis, Sat. 2, 3. 194; quidquid delirant
reges, plectuntur Achivi, E. 1, 2, 14. Achi
vis unctis, E. 2, 1, 33.

Acrisius. Acrisium Danaae custodem pa
vidum, C. 3, 16, 5.

Acroceraunia. C. 1, 3, 20.
Actius. E. 1, 18, 61.
Aeacus; judicantem Aeacum, C. 2, 13, 22;
genus Aeaci, C. 3, 19, 3; ereptum Stygiis
fluctibus Aeacum, C. 4, 8, 25.

Aegaeum in patenti Aegaeo, C. 2, 16, 2.
Aegaeos tumultus, C. 3, 29, 63. Aegaeum
mare, E. 1, 11, 16.

Aelius (L.) Lamia. Vide Lamia. C. 1,
C, 8. Ae'i vetuste nobilis ab Lamo, C. 3,
7, 1.

Africa; ultima Africa, C. 2, 18, 5; fertilis
Africae, C. 3, 16,31; domita Africa, C. 4, 8,
18. Frumenti quantum metit Africa, Sat 2,
3, 87.

Africanus (Scipio minor.) Ep. 9, 25.
Africus; luctantem Icariis fluctibus Afri
cum, Carm. i, 1, 15; praecipitem Africum
decertantem Aquilonibus, C. 1, 3, 12; celeri
Africo, C. 1, 14,5; pestilentem Africum, C.
3, 23, 5; Africis procellis, C. 3, 29, 57; pro
tervus Africus. Ep. 16, 22.

Agamemnon. C. 4, 9, 25.
Agave; caput abscissum manibus cum
portat Agave gnati infelicis, sibi tum furiosa
videtur? Sat. 2, 3, 303.

Agrippa. C. 1, 6, totum; plausus, quos
fert Agrippa, Sat. 2, 3, 185; porticis Agrip

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