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America, the United States of. Their internal sovereignty complete from the

Declaration of Independence, 30, 670, a; a supreme federal government,
77; constitution, 72; legislature, 76; treaty-making power, 77, 75, a, 330;
judiciary, 77; executive, 76 ; power of the federal government of the United
States to acquire new territory, 78, a; all negotiations with foreign States
conducted by the federal government, 79, a, 672, a; their relations with the
Indian tribes of North America, 53, 54, a ; different effects of foreign judg-
ments and of judgments in the different States of the Union, 206 ; foreign
divorces, 208; treaty of extradition with England, 177 ; with France, 178;
with Prussia, and other German States, 180, a; with Bavaria, cxiv.; with
Hanover, clxxxiii., note; difference between the extradition treaties with
the German powers and those with England and France, 180, a; causes of
the difference, cxiii.; treaties for the abolition of the droit d'aubaine and of
the droit de détraction, cx., 118, 119, a; discussions between the United
States and Russia, on the subject of the North-West Coast of America, 221;
claims of the government of the United States to the territory of Oregon,
228; discussion between the American and Prussian governments respecting
free ships free goods, 517; between the same powers respecting the exemp-
tion of a public minister from the local jurisdiction, 287 ; controversy be-
tween the American and English governments relative to the right of
fishery on the coasts of the English possessions in North America, 236, 238, 4,
240, a, 334 ; discussions between the United States and Great Britain as to
the ravaging of the American territory, 421 ; treaties respecting free ships
free goods, 515, 537, a; conventions of 1778, 1800, and 1803, with France,
490, 612, a; treaty of 1794 with England, 516, 535, a; convention, consular,
of 1853, with France, 167, a; conventions respecting consuls, with other
powers, 171, a; convention, commercial, with Great Britain, xcv.; conven-
tion with Great Britain as to the trade with the British American Prov-
inces, the fisheries, and the navigation of the St. Lawrence, 239, a, 266, a;
reciprocity acts, xcvi.; convention with Russia with regard to neutral rights,
543, a; with Mexico and the Two Sicilies, clxxxi.; international law of
Europe adopted, and modified by treaties, 514; neutrality act, 500; Admi-
ralty Courts, system of, compared with those of England and France,
xxxvii.; decisions of courts of, as to prizes of war, xxxv., xxxviž., 400,
407, a, 456, a ; decisions on questions of constitutional law, xli.; rule of
reciprocity applied, as to property of friendly nations recaptured from the
enemy, 447; war with England, 1812, xxvi. ; proffer by, for the abolition of
discriminating duties on navigation, xxxiii., xcviii., note; naturalization laws

of, 626, a; marriages by consuls of, abroad, 305, a.
America, South. England and the United States protest against the right of the

allied powers to interfere with force in the wars between the colonies in,

and Spain, 97; navigation of the rivers of, 267, a; President Pierce's message
• respecting, 268, a.
American Jurist, 175.
American, North, Review, lvi., 431.
American State Papers, xx., xxii., xxvi., 160, 165, a, 235, 261, 337, 339, 342, 490,

497, 504, 515, 517, 530, 554.
American Annual Register, 106, a.

Annales Maritimes et Coloniales, 236.
Annual Register, 42, a, 49, a, 72, a, 82, a, 96, 97, 180, a, 221, 223, 245, 257,

331, a, 417, 475, 490, 503, 512, 535, a, 537, a, 573, 612, a.
Annuaire des Deux Mondes, 49, a, 55, a, 56, a, 74, a, 82, a, 373, a, 374, a, 608, a.
Arbitration. Reference of the North-east Boundary Question to the King of the

Netherlands, case of, 106, a; Secretary Clay's instructions respecting, lxxvii.
Armaments. Illegality of arming vessels or enlisting men in a neutral State,

Arendt, Essai sur la Neutralité de la Belgique, 488.
Ariny, of foreign sovereign, in another State, 143.
Armistice, or truce, 470; power to conclude, 471; period of its operation, 471 ;

rules for interpreting, 472; recommencement of hostilities, 473.
Asylum, right of, in neutral ports, dependent on consent of the neutral State,

Attorneys-General, opinions of, 26, a, 79, a, 299, a, 305, a, 497.
Aubaine, Droit d', 117; treaties for the abolition of, 119, a, cx., clxxxiii., note.
Auckland and Holland, Lords, negotiations with Messrs. Monroe and Pinkney,

xxi., 165, a.
Austin. Province of Jurisprudence determined, 19.
Austria presides in the Germanic Diet, 60; refused to take part in the Ger-

manic Empire in 1848, 72, a; intervention in the affairs of the Ottoman
Porte, in 1840, 103; unity of the empire established, 56, a; discussions with
the United States respecting Hungary, 36, a; respecting Koszta, 126, a;
intervention in the war between Russia and Turkey, and England and

France, clxxvi.
Ayala, De Jure Belli ac Pacis, 443.
Azuni, Droit Maritime, 234, 371, a, 450, 451, 493, 504.


Baltic Sea, whether it is mare clausum, 245.
Bankrupt. Discharge and title of assignees, effect of in another country, 138;

transfer of property under foreign bankrupt proceedings, 198 ; whether
extra-territorial operation of law of, 203; as regards personal property,

199, a; as respects real, 199, a, 203.
Barbeyrac, Histoire des Anciens Traités, 323, 333, 356, 394; notes on Grotius,

438, 470, 505.
Barnewall & Alderson's Rep. 194:
Barnewall & Adolphus's Rep. 206.
Barbour's S. C. Courts, 307 a.
Bathurst, Earl, correspondence with J. Q. Adams, 337.
Bays. Maritime territory of State extends to, 233; extent of neutral jurisdic-

tion within, 496.
Belgium. Intervention of the five powers in the revolution of, 105; neutrality

of, 486.
Bell's Commentaries on the Law of Scotland, 139.
Belts. Sovereignty of Denmark over, 242.
Bentham. Morals and Legislation, 18, 19; Principles of International Law, 5;

author of the term international law, 19, a.

Benton's Thirty Years in the Senate, lxx., 612, a.
Binney's Reports, 307, a.
Bishop, on Marriage, 308, a.
Black Sea, whether mare clausum, 241. See Bosphorus.
Blackstone's Commentaries, 286.
Bligh's Reports, 208.
Blockade, breach of, 575; what must be proved to constitute a violation of,

577; actual presence of the blockading force, 577; knowledge of the party,
578; act of violation, 582; cases of, excepted from immunity of neutral trade
in the present war, 539, a, 586, a; effective, how defined, cxix., 586, a;
provision in the treaty of 1801, between Great Britain and Russia, respect-
ing, 586, a; principles of, according to the French publicists, 586, a; appli-
cation to ships of war, 587, a; in time of peace, invalidity of, as regards

third parties, 587, a.
Bohier, Observations sur la coutume de Bourgogne, 115.
Borel, Des Consuls, 307, a.
Bosanquet & Puller, 130, 204, 379, 208.
Bosphorus, whether Turkey has a right to control, 241; Convention of 1841, be-

tween the five great powers of Europe in reference to, 241.
Brazil, treaty with Peru as to the navigation of the Amazon, 268, a.
Britain, Great. Intervention of, in the affairs of the French Revolution, 94; of

Europe generally, 94 ; of Portugal, 98; treaty with the United States relative
to the extradition of criminals, 177; law of, relative to extent of judicial
power over foreigners residing within the territory, 200; law of, relative
to the conclusiveness of foreign judgments in personal actions, 206; dispute
with Spain relative to Nootka Sound, 220; convention of 1825, with Russia,
respecting North-western America, 224; convention with France respecting
the right of fishery, 236; controversy with the American government re-
specting the right of fishing on the coasts of her dominions in North Amer-
ica, 236, 334, 238, a, 240, a; commercial treaty with the United States, xcv.;
alterations in the navigation laws of, xcv.; convention of June 5, 1854, as to
fishery and other matters, 238, a, 266, a; alliances of, with Holland previous
to war of 1756, 347; with Portugal, 351; coast lights, correspondence between
Mr. Abbott Lawrence and Viscount Palmerston, respecting, cxvii.; droits of
admiralty, 370; discussion with the American government relative to ravag-
ing its territory during the last war, 421 ; law of, respecting reciprocity as to
the restitution of the property of friendly nations recaptured from an enemy,
448; foreign enlistment act of, 500; provision order of, in 1795, 555; treaty
by, with the American government respecting contraband, in 1794, 559;
maritime convention of 1801 with Russia, 550; rules of maritime warfare,
hów modified in the present war by, 389, a, 434, a, 534, a, 561, a, 567, a,

571, a, 575, a, 586, a, 643, a; naturalization laws of, 122, a, 629, a.
Brown. Civil and Admiralty Law, 431, 438.
Buchanan, Mr. Treaty with Bavaria, cxv.; instructions on the Sound duties,

244, a ;, instructions to Mr. Saunders respecting Cuba, 680, a; joint despatch
respecting Cuba, 685, a; conference with Lord Clarendon respecting pri-

vate war on the ocean, 435, a.
Bulow, Baron de, to Mr. Wheaton, ci., 299.

Bulwer. Interoceanic treaty, 328, a.
Burge. Colonial and foreign laws, 309, a.
Burlamaqui. Droit Naturel, 27, 176.
Burrows's Reports, 479.
Bynkershoek. Origin of the law of nations according to, 8; Quæstiones Juris

Publici, 8, 23, 53, 180, 184, 185, 234, 285, 320, 321, 346, 362, 365, 367, 375,
382, 392,416, 444, 452, 456, 458, 461, 470, 480, 481, 482, 489, 491,493, 498,
504, 546, 558, 576; De Dominio Maris, 215, 234, 247; De Foro Legatorum,
9, 16, 144, 152, 276, 281, 284, 286, 287, 291, 294, 307, a.

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Calhoun, Secretary, letters to Mr. Wheaton, cvi., clxiii., 75, a.
Callières, De la Manière de Négocier avec les Souverains, 356.
Camden, Lord, judgment of, 344.
Canning, Secretary, letter to Sir Charles Stewart, 97; speech, December 11,

1826, 100; letter to Mr. Monroe, 160; speech on foreign enlistment act,

501 ; speeches, 503.
Capitulation, for the surrender of troops and fortresses, 473.
Captures, 492; how far enemy's property liable to, 419; by non-commissioned

captors, 430; by privateers, 431; title to property captured in war, 432;
validity of maritime, determined by the courts of the captor's country, 456 ;
condemnations of, by prize courts in California during war between United
States and Mexico, invalid, 456, a; jurisdiction of the courts of the captor's
country, how far exclusive, 458; condemnation of, by consular tribunal, in
neutral territory invalid, 460; decisions by competent tribunals on, final as
to the title, but not as to a claim for indemnity as between governments,
469; responsibility of the captor's government for the acts of its commissioned
cruisers, 460; within the maritime territorial jurisdiction of a neutral, or by
vessels stationed within it, or hovering on the coasts, 492; vessels chased into
the neutral territory and there captured, 493; claim on account of the viola-
tion of neutrality must be sanctioned by the neutral State, 494; whether
enemy's property in neutral vessels is subject to, 504; whether neutral pro-
perty in enemy's vessels subject to, 505; whether neutral vessels under ene-

my's convoy subject to, 594.
Cardwell, Mr., on the policy of England as to neutrals, clxxxii., note.
Cartels, 318, 418, a.
Casaregis. Discursus legalis de Commercio, 144.
Cass, General, note to Mr. Guizot, on the right of search, 188, a; Mr. Guizot's

answer to, cxxi.; letter to Mr. Wheaton, cxxi. ; Examen de la Question
aujourd'hui pendante entre le Gouvernement des États Unis et celui de

la Grande Bretagne, concernant le Droit de Visite, 188, a.
Castlereagh, Lord. Circular despatch, 96; minute on the affairs of Spain, 97.
Cavalario. Derecho Canonico, 314, a.
Ceremonials, Maritime, 215.
Chargés d'Affaires, official relation of, to the government, where accredited, 280,

a; of Moldavia and Wallachia, their relation to the Porte, 274.
China, treaty with, 166; act of Congress vesting judicial powers in the commis-

sioner and consuls in, 172, a.

Christians, extra-territoriality of, in countries not Christian, 312, a.
Clay, Mr., Minister at Lima, to Minister of Foreign Affairs, respecting the navi-

gation of the Amazon, 269, a.
Clay, Secretary, correspondence with Mr. Gallatin, 266, 286, a; instructions to

Mr. Lawrence respecting arbitration of North-east Boundary, lxxvii., lxxviii.
Clayton, Secretary. Interoceanic treaty, 328, a.
Chitly's Law of Nations, 370, 476.
Cicero de Republica, 27.
Citizenship, or droit de cité, 627, a; Thorbeck's view of, 627, a; law of France,

630, a; in the United States, not practically connected with the exercise of

the elective franchise, 627, a. See, further, Naturalization.
Coal, whether contraband of war, 564, a.
Coasts. Extent of the terms, coast or shore, 234 ; extent of jurisdiction along,

Cocceius. De Jure Belli inter Amicos, 393.
Code Civil, 207, 310, a.
Code de Commerce, 201.
Colonial and coasting trade, xcv.; rule of the war of 1756 respecting, xix., 572 ;

no longer applicable, 575, a.
Colonies, war between Spain and her American, 122.
Colony, asserting its independence, how considered by other States, 34; recogni-

tion of its independence by foreign States, 35.
Commissions Rogatoires, 116, a.
Confiscation. Enemy's property found in the territory at the commencement of

a war how far liable to, 366.
Congressional Documents, 36, a, 55, a, 74, a, 79, a, 88, a, 126, a, 164, a, 228, a,

232, a, 245, a, 270, a, 275, a, 328, a, 469, a, 494, a, 612, a, 615, a.
Congressional Globe, 42, a, 55, a, 79, a, 180, a, 351, a, 373, a, 537, a, 542, 4,

612, a.
Conquest, title by, confirmed by time, 218.
Consolato del Mare, 504.
Consuls. Jurisdiction of, 165; not entitled to diplomatic privileges, 304; con-

sular convention of the United States with France, 167, a; treaty arrange-
ments respecting, with Great Britain, 167, a; reciprocal conventions of
United States, authorizing the arrest of deserters from vessels, 171, a; to act
as arbitrators in disputes between captains and their crews, 172, a; power of,
in Mohammedan countries generally, 166 ; in the Levant, 172, a; judicial
powers of United States' ministers and consuls in China and Turkey, 167,
173, a; in Muscat, 174, a; marriages by, in foreign countries, 305, a; sys-
tem, consular, of the United States, 634, a; condemnation of prizes by con-

sular tribunal in neutral territory, 460.
Contraband of war, 535; naval stores, how far, 546; provisions and naval stores,

when, 551 ; articles of promiscuous use becoming, when destined to a port
of naval equipment, 553; provisions becoming, under certain circumstances,
553; British provision order of April, 1795, 555; excepted in the present
war from immunity to neutral trade, 561, a; how far definition of, affected
by change in the munitions of war, 562 a; transportation of military per
sons and despatches in the enemy's service, 562; penalty for the carrying of,

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