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IMPORT DUTIES REDUCED TO PER-CENTAGE AD VALOREM.

(TAKEN FROM THE TARIFES OF ALL COUNTRIES, COLLECTED AND PUBLISHED IN 1852 BY THE PRUSSIAN GOVERNMENT.

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not nearly completed, a compendium' manufactures. the tardy movements of those emcated by the Prussian Government; Economist, it was not necessary to years in collecting, and have as yet increase and prosperity of British This country, who have been five send us so much corn, take in the ployed by the official departments of which our Continental neighbours, who and thus by some years anticipate Mr Newdegate's Appendix, which from documents, officially authenti- of the abandonment of reciprocity as foreign tariffs, translated into English those who wish to know the effects give us, “a compendium of the In the mean time, for the benefit of degate, however, promises shortly to lication will supply a great blank. refer to any other oracle. Mr New- the English language.” This pub

will serve to illustrate the interest a principle, we subjoin a table from of the tariffs of foreign countries in

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Cotton Yarn, (No.

6 Do. Calico printed (middle quality)

4
Ditto ditto plain
(Shirtings)

7 10
Wool Manufac-

ture-Common 15 0
Fine

30 0
Hardware

7 0
Iron (bar and
bolt)

9
Linen

18 0
Wheat

0 10
Ditto, Flour

0 13
Silk Manufacture

(plain, coloured) 224 0

267 to 2816 2176

Prohibited 25
2616 to 2870 6

6140

91%
12 15
25

35
521%
70

25

261%

20
131%

100 to 200
154 to 270
74 to 87

212

OL

30

9

100

104

0

Free

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20

3

661 to 73
16 to 24
25 to 31
46 to 52

95

91%
67%
61%
28

50
161%
51%
331%

104 to 127

46 to 55
Prohibited

Ditto

20

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Free

24
3

31

20

10

311%

1316

15

35

15

30

21 to 35

14

7

11%

3673

501%

211%

40 to 50

60

The Double Figures in some of the columns denote the Differential Duties maintained in favour of the ships

of the countries imposing them.

The perusal of this table is very fess that we look to the decision of suggestive, for it clearly shows that, the commercial towns, as contradisby pursuing Free Trade, we have tinguished from the pure seats of failed in gaining increased access for manufacture, with much anxiety. our manufactures to the markets of Their verdict, at such a time, is the civilised world. Free Trade in most valuable, and will so be recorn may be defended on other ceived; because any error in comgrounds, but not on the plea that it mercial policy which may be comhas induced reciprocity on the part mitted by a government, necessarily of the nations who furnish us with exhibits its effects, in the first inlarge cereal supplies. Our present stance, amongst them, and is later in practice is opposed to that of every reaching other classes of the comother country; a fact which, of itself, munity. And we would implore the ought surely to temper the confidence electors to remember how much deof our political economists, who pos- pends upon the decided expression sibly may be right in their views of their opinions just now. Great but who certainly have the misfor- difficulties are in the way of Governtune to be opposed in this matter by ment; and those difficulties can only the convictions and experience of be obviated by the frank and hearty statesmen in all other countries of adhesion of all those who are conthe world. No people have studied vinced that the commercial experiPolitical Economy more anxiously ment is not working well for the true than the Germans, who are, though interests of the people. Let them it is the fashion to call them vision- remember that an opportunity such as aries, upon such points more prac- the present, for repairing the bad tical than ourselves. The Germans effects of hasty legislation, may not openly deny and impagn the sound soon occur again; and let them deliness of our commercial doctrines. berately consider what the conseFew doubt the sagacity of Russia quences would be, if such losses as in all that concerns her own aggran were experienced last year became disement, and yet the Russian states of frequent occurrence. Without remen regard our policy as absolutely ciprocity it is plain that we are throwsuicidal. France, though invited to ing away all our other advantages. reciprocate, has refused the offer; We are met, and will still continue to and the acute Americans pronounce be met, with high import duties us to be commercially insane !

less on account of the revenue which We do not expect that considera- these bring to the states which tions such as these will weigh much impose them, than for the direct with the electors in the inland encouragement of their own domesboroughs throughout the kingdom. tic manufactures. With imports Retail dealers are usually bad judges greatly exceeding the exports in of political economy; and they will value, prices have declined materiseldom reason or act upon anything ally in this country; and in many which is beyond the scope of their own most important branches of industry immediate observation. The balance the wages of labour have been lowerof trade is a subject beyond the reach ed. This is not a state of things of municipal intellect, as now which ought to, or can, continue ; and bibited in our civic assemblies. But it is so far fortunate that, at the prein the great commercial towns, such sent time, no external disturbing questions are well understood and causes can be held out as specious eagerly canvassed. Upon their solu- reasons for the decline. To whatever tion depends the wellbeing of the extent that decline may prevail, it merchant-and under him, of all those arises solely from our own system ; in his employment; and, consequently, and it is the imperative duty of the arguments which might be overlooked electors interested in commerce, to in a city like Edinburgh, where Sec- declare whether or not that system tarianism and Dissent are held to be has received their approbation. the proper tests of Parliamentary We do not feel inclined to speculate ability, tell, with the utmost force, in on the result of the contest, which, such a place as Liverpool. We con- before another number of the Maga

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zine can be issued, must be brought with the superior elegance of his manto an end. We know that Conserva ners, He knows that he can speak tive principles have been steadily ad- quite as well as nine-tenths of the vancing; and that the Liberal party honourable members who make it an is greatly disunited and divided. invariable practice to object to the Since the commencement of 1848, the estimates; and he flatters bimself that scenes which have been enacted on he is not at all the sort of man whom the continent of Europe have given anybody can succeed in putting down. fearful warning against democratic In order to achieve the object of his change; and even those who are ambition, he organises a clique or democratically inclined might profit junta, composed of men who are enby the example, since, in almost every tirely devoted to his interests; and of case, military despotism has succeed this mystic body, which, in every ed to unlicensed anarchy. What this large town is regarded with supersticountry requires, and what all good tious terror, he becomes the leading men should pray for, and do their spirit. Not the Old Man of the Mounutmost to promote, is stability, not tain had more power over his fanatical change. But the activity of the age followers, than has the civic ruler over develops itself in political as well as the Dissenting fathers of their tribe. in other forms; and there are always But, as it is not supposed that the to be found men who, rather than more respectable part of the commuremain content in their native respec- nity will view his pretensions with a table obscurity, will attempt to enter favourable eye, our acute functionary the Legislature, and clamber into does not come forward at once, but power, by espousing violent doctrines. adopts the Fabian policy. By himIn our larger cities and towns the self, or through his agents, he throws progress of the tribune is sufficiently obstacles in the way of every other well known. Some aspiring dealer candidate ; amuses rival committees in the hard line, who is gifted with with the prospect of a common undermore brass than his neighbours, and standing, and persuades them to make who is proportionally conceited, fixes proposals to men who, as he knows upon the Established churches as a

very well, can never become his rivals. grievance, and so becomes a kind of After this has gone on for some time, leader among the acrid champions and the constituency have become imof Dissent. By the votes of the Seced- patient, some faithful satellite rises in ing myrmidons he is returned to the his place, and declares that he can no town council, where he is great longer stifle in his bosom the impulse upon all questions of economy, which urges him to suggest docking salaries, criticising accounts, excellent first magistrate" as by far the and cutting down estimates, in a man fittest man to represent the borough in ner that might do credit to the stin- Parliament. At the word, up rise the giest purser of an emigrant vessel. clique, and the pawkie proposal is Having thus founded his character as straightway raucously ratified. After an economist, he naturally aspires to a faint protest, like that of the ancient higher things; and, being of a schem- bishops, or the Speaker of the House ing turn of mind, he effects such a of Commons, whom it was established combination of divers interests among etiquette to force into the chair, the the municipal councillors, that, in excellent first magistrate accepts the due course of time, he is elevated to trust; and, in all probability, after bethe civic chair. Even in that high ing proposed and seconded by a couple eminence he will not remain content. of subordinate Gracchi, is elected. Although reasonably deficient in li But he had much better have remained terature, and not remarkable for his at home. Local reputations, however high breeding, he gradually conceives bright they may appear in the eyes of the notion that his proper arena lies a clique, fade rapidly in the House of within the walls of St Stephen's. He Commons; and the aspiring senator does not think that, in point of arith very soon begins to find that there is metic, he is one whit inferior to Mr some difference between Parliament, Joseph Hume. He has dined with Mr wherein he is a cipher, and the motley Cobden, and has failed to be impressed assemblage in which he once presided

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as supreme. His manners, dialect, and district of united burghs, as in Scotstyle of oratory are all strange to the land, it is not uncommon to see a nogentlemen of England. His minute- torious Radical acting in the capacity ness wearies, his pertinacity disgusts of a sleuth-hound. His business is to them; and he is speedily set down as follow the candidate from place to that most insufferable of all characters, place, and insult bim by a repetition a bore, and is universally avoided. of precisely the same questions. No Of course, this is gall and wormwood matter how absurd the question may to his naturally jaundiced disposition. be, the candidate is expected to anAlways Radically inclined, he becomes swer it; and let him answer it as ten times more democratic than be- fairly and clearly as language will fore, and continually transgresses the allow, the odds are that the querist scriptural precept, by speaking evil of sits down with an intimation that he digoities. At every general election is not satisfied, and accuses the canthere is a fresh crop of these represen- didate of quibbling. Really this is a tatives, neither doing credit to them- practice which ought to be ended at selves, nor conferring any honour on In every town there are men, the places which send them to Parlia- known by head-mark, who attend to ment; and it is very remarkable that put questions, not for the purpose of most of these men are returned by the eliciting information as to the prinlarger constituencies. We remember ciples of the candidate—which is quite to have been, a good while ago, very legitimate, provided these are not much struck by the leading article in distinctly set forth in his addressthe Times, which incontestably proved but for that of indulging their own that the very worst members of the vulgar appetite for insolence; and House of Commons represented the such fellows ought at once to be largest number of electors. The rea- ejected from the meeting by the comson of it we take to be this : Few mon concurrence of every respectable men of education and delicacy of feel- elector. But, independently of this, ing can bring themselves to submit to which is, after all, but a temporary the ordeal, which is now passing into nuisance, a large urban constituency a custom—at least it is so in Scotland is invariably fickle, and not much -of being catechised and questioned more to be relied upon, in the matter by every elector and non-elector who of impulse, than a mob. Let a man has grammar enough to make himself slave as he may, his seat is never intelligible. A very amusing and also secure. Whilst he is doing his duty instructive catalogue of such questions to the utmost of his ability in Parliamight be preserved. “What div ye ment, some wily competitor is engaged think o' preemygeniture and the Irish in undermining him at home. Therebishops ?" was a query put not long fore it is that the best qualified men ago to one candidate. “Wha pit oot rather shrink from than court the Lord John Russell ?" was an intended honour of representing large constiposer put to a Conservative; but the tuencies in Parliament; and therefore prompt reply—“Lord Palmerston," it is that so many of these seats are made the Liberal inquirer resume his virtually ceded to the democracy. A seat in a greater hurry than he rose. mayor or provost, if he has his wits "Wull ye vote for the aboleetion o' about him, may contrive, through his Church and State?” was the inquiry municipal connection and influence, to of one Seceding cobbler, who consi- unseat and supplant the wisest man dered the State to be an institution at that ever sat in the House of Comleast as objectionable as the Church. mons. Sometimes the audience are facetious, We wish it were possible to impress and in a playful mood. “Ma freends, the electors generally with the consaid a western asthmatical bailie, viction that a man may make an exrising with the evident intention of cellent civic ruler, without possessing beckling a candidate—“ ma freends, that judgment, intelligence, or sagaye a' ken I've got a weak voice." city which ought to be considered the “ We a' ken ye are a weak body indispensable requisites for a member a'thegither!" was the candid response of the British Parliament. There are of the electors. Where there is a many scales of vision. A man may

YOL. LXXII.-NO, CCCCXLI.

I

be able very well to conduct the con- —very foolishly, as we think—affect tracted affairs of a municipality, with- to undervalue the dignity. There out having the education or expansion may be something in the two first of mind necessary to enable him to reasons; but we would beg our friends form a sound opinion apon matters to remember, that, without some involving the dearest interests of the trouble and inconvenience, nothing in Empire. We shall concede at once this world that is worth having can that the members of the Manchester be gained. And surely it is a poor school are competent to the conside- compliment, and, at the same time, a ration of questions of local economy. sad discouragement, to the few who They are quite able to look sharply manfully persevere in the attempt to after civic funds, and can detect, maintain at least some appearance of through a kind of instinct, any attempt Conservative representation at these at peculation. But put them in a boards, that others, who have their higher sphere, and what do we find ? time even more at their own disposal,

They would rather see the country should shrink from undertaking what invaded, than pay for a standing army is actually a public duty. As for the or maintain an effective militia. They last view, it is simply childish and are for cutting down everything which absurd. To be a member of council is expensive, irrespective altogether of implies an honourable trust, which its utility. They would rather see the any man, be his position what it may, Colonies abandoned, than incur any should be proud to hold. In former charge for the support of their estab- days, for example, the provostship lishments; and they are utterly indif- of the metropolis of Scotland was ferent to the national position or held by the first nobles of the land; renown. They make idiots of them- and, though times have since altered, selves at peace congresses, talk trash as well as the methods of election, it about fraternity, and believe in their is a scandal and a disgrace to find our hearts that Free Trade is a nobler most eminent citizens recoiling from thing than Christianity. In short, the management of municipal affairs, they have simply the accomplishment as if these were beneath their notice. of pedlars, and nothing more. They We speak plainly, because we feel estimate literature and learning as that this is just matter of reproach; they would measure tape; and consi- and it is full time that the error which der a new taking pattern for a calico has prevailed for many years should print as the highest achievement of be amended. Municipal institutions the fine arts. These men are not of must exist, and municipal representhe stuff from which efficient legisla- tatives have, in many ways, a vast tors are made. They are entirely deal in their power; in especial, their incapable of comprehending the duties example and influence is most powerof the trust which they seek; and it ful on the occasion of any election. would indeed be a black day for Bri- And yet what do we find, too genetain when the majority of the senate rally, to be the case? Those citizens was composed of such narrow-minded who from talent, education, position, chafferers.

and wealth, ought to take the lead in Undoubtedly, had the Conservative municipal affairs, are rarely members tactics in the larger towns been wiser of the town councils. They might and more decided, the number of such be elected if they chose to offer themmen who are now pressing forward selves, but they will not; and conto Parliament would have been mate- sequently, the trust devolves, in many rially diminished. The great mistake, cases, upon brawling demagogues of lies in the apathy which prevails the coarsest stamp, or upon virulent regarding the municipal elections—it Dissenters, who bid fair, in the process being exceedingly difficult to find of time, to monopolise the whole of respectable Conservative candidates our municipal representation. Now, willing to offer themselves for seats when it is considered that in Scotland at these council-boards. Some men some of the municipalities have large will not take the trouble; others dis- powers — such as those of electing like the society to which they neces- clergymen of the Established Church, sarily must be introduced; and some and professors in the universities

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