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tuation, alone prevented the appear would be pressed into the service to ance of fifty-four ships of the line in transport troops from France into the Channel, and the landing within this country? Four or five guarda week of Napoleon, at the head of ships half-manned, and twice or thrice 130,000 men, on the shores of Sussex. as many war-steamers, that could be We had then 120,000 regular troops, immediately fitted out! How could - 180,000 admirable militia, with 200 they instantly withstand forces three gans ready for the field in the British times as great, which France at the islands, besides 300,000 volunteers. moment could array against us? And With such means of defence the final if they got the command of the Chanissue of the contest at that time could nel by this sudden start for one week, not be considered as doubtful, with what would avail us our fifty sail of whatever damage, loss, and anxiety, the line lying unmanned in ordinary, it would unquestionably have been our noble Mediterranean squadron, attended in the mean time. But what our 280,000 sable warriors in Hindocould be expected if the French, by stan, our magnificent colonial settlethe adoption of a similar plan for de- ments which encircle the globe ? coying our fleets away, or from having 150,000 admirably disciplined troops their naval forces better in hand and would be landed on our shores, Lonmore ready, effected a landing with a don taken, Woolwich captured, our similar force, or even one of half its credit ruined, the Queen and Governamount, at this time, and we, without ment flying into Scotland, and the denuding our naval depôts, could not nation in unutterable consternamuster 10,000 men to oppose them, and tion-in sackcloth and ashes lamentpreserve London from capture, and ing its former supineness, and, it Woolwich, with the stores of an would almost seem, judicial blindempire, from devastation ?

ness. But it would all be in vain :. Everything in such an emergency the thing has been done, and cannot would depend, not upon the amount be undone; our empire has been taken of force ultimately and in a prolonged from us, and given to another people. contest at the disposal of either of the If 30,000 or 40,000 French only, contending powers, but on the amount with seventy guns, were to be landed which either could immediately bring to-morrow on the coast of Sussex, it to bear upon the point of attack. may be asserted, without the fear of Now, in this respect, there cannot be contradiction, by any man capable of a doubt that the French, though in- judging on the subject, that they ferior upon the whole in naval re- might within a few days reach Lonsources, would at first be greatly and don, with or without a battle, and be to a most alarming degree our superi- come masters of the seat of governors. It is the maritime conscription ment, our treasuries and arsenals. which secures to them this great ad- Our generals, how determined and able vantage ; and till we have some soever, our soldiers, however resolute corresponding maritime reserve force, and patriotic, would be constrained to of somewhat equal amount, to fall abandon the capital, as Kutusoff did back upon in the event of a war sud- Moscow, to preserve the nucleus of denly breaking out with France, we an army wherewith to contend, by the never can be considered as in any de- aid of the country, with the enemy in gree secure from invasion, Louis the interior. The Duke of Wellington Napoleon has 54,000 men on the and Lord Hardinge—the victors of coast of France enrolled in maritime Waterloo and Ferozeshah-the men corps, trained to gunnery and naval whom nothing can daunt, would be war, innred to the sea, and capable forced to do this to save the empire of being assembled in twenty-four from subjugation. The victors of hours, by orders sent down from Paris, Cressy and Azincour, those of Talaat their different rallying points, from vera and Vitoria if still alive, would be Bayonne to Dunkirk.

What' force constrained, weeping and gnashing have we, ready and at hand, to meet their teeth, to obey the terrible orders. the ten or twelve sail of the line, Inferiority of force, produced by fortwice as many war-steamers, and mer blindness and the sway of pacific seventy ordinary steamers which ideas, would compel the grievous VOL. LXXII.-NO. CCCCXLI.


alternative. And let any man, and fifteen sail of the line and thirty warmost of all the members of the Peace steamers, perfectly manned, sailing in Congress, figure to themselves the the Channel, and an army of 60,000 state of the country, with London regular troops, and 140,000 regular mitaken, the Thames blockaded, Ports- litia, ready in the south of England to mouth besieged, Woolwich plundered, march to any point which might be the Bank pillaged, the Queen and seriously menaced, this would be by Government taken to flight, and a far the most effectual way of providwar contribution of £20,000,000 laid ing for our safety. And if Mr Cobden and levied by the threat of military and the Peace Congress can persuade execution on the metropolis !

their friends in Parliament to adopt What then is to be done in this these really efficient means to prevent emergency, exposed to this frightful the flames of war breaking out, we danger, and with these slender and have no doubt the Duke of Northumwholly inadequate means to ward it berland, the Duke of Wellington, and off ? France has troops enough on Lord Hardinge, will be too happy to her seaboard, or within twelve hours' adopt their plans, and abandon their transport of it, to embark 100,000 men. own designs now and for ever. But if She has steam vessels in plenty to bring this is impossible, and if it is notorious them over : one single night would that a majority in Parliament cannot suffice for the passage--a day for dis- be prevailed on by any consideration, embarkation. At Boulogne, in 1805, however urgent, or any danger, howMarshal Ney repeatedly embarked ever pressing, to vote an addition of bis corps of 25,000 men, with all their more than £400,000, or £500,000 for horses and artillery, in ten minutes and additions to our national defencesa-half.* Our navy, on its present and since, despite all our boasted reduced Peace Establishment, can- riches derived from Free Trade, we not be relied on to prevent the are constantly told that more cannot enemy eluding their vigilance, or be afforded by 28,000,000 of British to resist them, in the first instance subjects, though during the war at least, (and there is no second in- 18,000,000 provided funds for the stance here,) with success if their army and navy to three times the approach is descried. The risk of amount now annually voted-the the most dreadful loss and suffering, only question that remains is, What in such an event, is certain : ultimate is next best? We do not hesitate to ruin to the empire, in the most say, in answer to this all-important favourable view for us, by no means question, that the next best is the improbable. What then is to be Militia Bill which Government, on done to avert a calamity so dread- the advice of the Duke of Wellington ful, and menacing, not only incalcul- and Lord Hardinge, have brought forable loss, if not total destruction, to ward ; and that, unless the constithe British empire, but irreparable tuencies return such a Parliament as injury to the interests of humanity in will enable them to carry that meaevery part of the globe ?

sure into full operation, our days as a No man of sense, or even in his people are numbered, and our empire senses, can make but one reply: A is given over to the Medes and large addition to our armed force, Persians. capable of being brought immediately Much is said by persons unacinto action, both by sea and land, is quainted with military matters, (but the one thing needful. Without this very little by such as are,) of the all our resources, how great soever, nation rising up en masse to crush an are useless, or worse than useless, for invader, if he should audaciously apthey only invite seizure without giving pear amongst us; and of the needlesstis the means of averting it. Doubt- ness, in consequence, of making any less, if Parliament could be prevailed preparations, or being at any expenso on to vote the necessary supplies, and in the mean time. We will answer we could get money enough to raise this idea of the nation rising en masse

Mémoires du Maréchal Wey, ii. 274.

and crushing the invader if unprepared. Tirailleurs or Chasseurs de VinThey would rise up and most of them cennes, as individually brave, armed run away. They would do so, though with as good rifles, at least as good possessing each individually, the marksmen, and far more experienced courage of Wellington or Hardinge, in their military duties. Supposing simply from being unacquainted with that our rifle clubs neutralised, by fighting, and destitute of the confidence their fire, that of an equal number of which conscious skill and training in French light troops—and that is that art can alone confer. A few of surely the most favourable view to the bravest would stand and be shot take of the case—what would remain or cut down-the immense majority to stop the advance of the main army would seek to save themselves by of 80,000 men and 120 guns, which flight. The first round of cannister, would advance under cover of the the first biting fire of Tirailleurs, the cloud of sharpshooters who preceded first thundering charge of horse, would its columns ? Nothing could do so send them, with the exception of a few but regular troops, nearly as numergallant men, to the right about. It ous and as well disciplined as is no imputation on the courage of themselves. our countrymen to say they would, There is no doubt that the militia while unskilled, do this : all mankind whom the bill of Lord Derby proposes in similar circumstances would do the to embody would be very different same. The Romans of the Tenth from regular soldiers, and could by Legion, the Old Guard of Napoleon, no means be relied on to move under when undisciplined, would have acted fire, or in presence of the enemy in in exactly the same manner. Self-con- the field. But the great advantage fidence is the foundation of resolution with which their organisation would be in every crisis, civil or military, and attended, would be that they might, it can only be acquired by conscious like the Prussian Landwehr, be inskill and prowess. Look how a mob trusted with the garrison duty with of men, especially Englishmen, indi- the aid of a few regulars, and thus vidually brave, stand the onset of a liberate the troops of the line now handful of disciplined soldiers. absorbed in that service. Three good

Sharpshooters or riflemen trained artillerymen, with five militia moderto the use of the Minié rifle, and ately instructed in their duties, could practised in firing at the target, would work each gun. Twenty-five thoube much more efficient than any levée sand men would be liberated from the en masse, and, as auxiliaries of regular fortresses by the marching an equal troops, might be of considerable ser- number of militia into them.

For vice; but it requires no serious argu THE COST OF FIVE THOUSAND REment to show that it is as auxiliaries only they could be trusted to; they THIRTY THOUSAND TO OUR EFFECnever could be trusted to stand the

This is an immense, shock of regular troops in the field. in fact an incalculable, advantage. In truth, although, if accumulated in It would raise the force available to sufficient numbers, they would, in a cover London at once from ten thouprotracted campaign, prove a great sand to forty thousand men;-a small impediment to the movements of an force indeed to be turned out by so invading army, and might inflict a great an empire to defend its existconsiderable loss upon him in desul- ence, its glory, its wealth, its possestory skirmishes; yet to withstand a sions, but still as much as in the sudden forced march from the coast to present sapine and infatuated state London, which is the thing to be of the public mind it is possible to dreaded, they would be of little real get Parliament to agree to. Certain service. Suppose ten or fifteen thou it is, that in no other way than this sand of them could be assembled by bill proposes would it be possible, at beat of drum in the metropolis and so little a cost, to produce so great counties immediately adjoining, to an addition to our effective force. aid in repelling the invader, they There is no soldier will doubt that would be immediately encountered he would rather, in the field, have by an equal number of the French fifty thousand nien who had been



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If Berlin had been fortified in 1806, the sperity — the last interrupted only army, which was defeated at Jena, would within these few years—have inured have rallied there, and the Russian army the English to so much comfort, and would have joined it. If, in 1808, Madrid such good living, that no one could be had been a fortified place, the French got to enter the army who was put army, after the victories of Espinosa, Tudela, Burgos, and Sommosierra, would

on the Continental pay and fare. A not have marched upon that capital, out of which he is obliged to furnish

Cossack gets 8s. 6d. a-year of pay, leaving in its rear Salamanca and Valladolid, the English army of Sir John himself with white-starched neckMoore, and the Spanish army of Romana : cloths. A French soldier's pay is and these Anglo-Spanish armies might, under 5d. a-day, and, after deducting under the fortifications of Madrid, have what is stopped off for rations, &c., united themselves to the armies of Aragon he has somewhat about jd. a-day to and Valencia ;'-and the author might enjoy himself! What a temptation have added what had been the fate of to such brave disciplined starving Lisbon as well as Madrid, and what, men, London with its £20,000,000 in consequently, the issue of that righteous the bank in solid gold! When Free and retributive war in the Peninsula, Trade has made us as poor as the which Great Britain undertook for the independence of the nations in that part

French, and money, in consequence, of the world, had not the Great Duke

goes as far, we shall be able to raise our ordered the construction of the lines of armies as cheaply, because our people Torres Vedras. Lastly, if Paris, in 1814 will be reduced like them to the lowand 1815, had been fortified, so as to est point consistent with existence; have been capable of holding out but one but we cannot hope for a similar reweek, what an influence would it not have duction till it has worked that melanhad on the destiny of Europe ! And what choly change upon our people. is now the state of the French metropolis

Let it not be supposed that there is in that respect ? "In conclusion, M. Maurice tells the have now brought forward in regard

any danger, in stating the facts we world that England has reason to place to our unprepared state, of making the confidence in her good fortune, and in the maritime supremacy which a long struggle French acquainted with them. They has given her ; but that it would be wise know them perfectly already, as well in her to consider that she is not invul- as any of our officers at the Horse nerable. Steam-navigation, railroads, Guards or Ordnance Office. There and the electrical telegraph, he continues, is not a gun mounted, nor a battery have powerfully increased her defensive traced out, nor a ditch cleared, nor a resources; but at the same time they glacis levelled at Portsmouth, Plyincrease the means of attacking her, and mouth, or Sheerness, that information prepare the way that leads to her shores. is not immediately forwarded to Paris England, trustir to the prospect of a

by French officers or agents on the long peace, has 1v extended her commercial e

t thirty-five

spot. The only people who are ignoyears of pes

rant of, or rather, though aware, in

ind if a war should sud

is she pre

sensible to them, are Mr Cobden and pared to

adds, is the the Manchester school of politicians. thought

itself to the They are so infatuated with the belief minds o

minent men of universal peace that nothing will of Grer


open their eyes till London is taken,

or Plymouth in flames. Our real liament, how danger is not in Paris, but in Manle large sums chester; it is not the strength of our ament for the neighbours, but our delusive idea of efficient men security, which is our real danger.

does it hap- The nation has within itself ample .ch soldier costs means of averting all danger, if it

English one would only make use of them ; if it is bing into view, ruined, it will not be from its want in one word, be- of strength, but from its want of is rich as they, and foresight. ll only go half as To conclude, let the people of Engof peace and pro- land reflect, and reflect "deeply, ou

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