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drilled for ninety days, than eighty battle in 1784, and who himself has thousand who had been drilled for done so much to instruct his country fifty; but that does not solve the and all Europe in gunnery. question. The point is not which is most serviceable in the field and for “What has been said above," says Sir the duties of a campaign, but, which Howard Douglas," relates only to the is most likely to render the whole protection afforded by the naval forces of regular force in the country available Great Britain ; to which alone, and irreagainst the enemy. The larger num- spective of the internal defence and secuber is indispensable for this. Eightyrity of the empire, the present work has thousand men would be little enough fully aware that it would be unsafe to
been confined. The author is, however, to garrison the fortresses, keep quiet rely solely on either the naval or the the manufacturing towns, guard the military resources of the country for the railway posts, keep up the communi. preservation of her independence, in the cations, and restrain rebellion in Ire- event of her being threatened with foreign land. If, by discharging those vari. invasion, and that it can only be by ous most important duties, they could means of both that we can, in all times enable nearly the whole of our regular and under all circumstances, maintain force to be advanced to the front to our positidn as a first-rate European power. meet the enemy, the country might be
It would be out of place, in a work saved, even if sixty or seventy thou- relating essentially to gunnery, to enter sand invaders were landed on our ciency of the military force of the nation,
at large on the consideration of the insuffi. shores. But as, at least, the whole of and the want of fortified positions, by the eighty thousand would be required which the progress of an invading army in such an event, for the duties of the might be arrested, or even retarded. fortresses or interior, any lesser force, This may be a matter for future discussion. though better disciplined, would com- But the author is induced to touch incipel the deduction of a large part of dentally upon this important subject by the regular army, and therefore more the perusal of a remarkable pamphlet than neutralise all the service it could which has just appeared, entitled De render. Every military man, every la Défense Nationale en Angleterre, man even moderately acquainted with by Baron Maurice
, 1851 ;) in which military affairs, knows that if forty service of the Swiss Confederation,) after
that writer (an officer of Engineers in the thousand regular troops are to be making an enumeration of the naval and assembled to meet the enemy in the military strength of Great Britain, and field, in defence of a country, at least comparing the
artillery of this country double that number must be stationed with that of France (pp. 58-60,) estiin garrisons or left behind to guard mates briefly the chances of success for depôts, protect convoys, and keep up France in an invasion of England, (p. 68, communications. Napoleon invaded &c.,) and gives a project for putting the Russia with five hundred thousand invasion in execution ;-disclaiming at men, but he never had more than a the same time any intention of predicting hundred and thirty thousand men in
a fatal issue for this country, for which any one field; and out of two hun- he professes the highest esteem. dred and forty thousand effective men
“Describing the fundamental principles
on which the defence of a country depends, who composed the military force of M. Maurice states, (page 115, &c.,) that Louis XIV., he never was able to if the country attacked be like France or draw together above eighty thousand England, one whose existence depends on in the field to make head against the the security of its capital, it is important armies of Eugene and Marlborough, that this metropolis should be protected who, on their side, were equally weak at least from a coup-de-main after the ened by the necessary garrisoning of loss of a battle ; and he repeats the folfortresses and detachments to their lowing observations by Napoleon in vol.ix.
of his Memoirs :'- If, in 1805, Vienna rear. We cannot conclude without quot- not have decided the issue of the war ;
had been fortified, the battle of Ulm would ing the following admirable and just the corps commanded by Kutusoff would, observations from a most able and at Vienna, have waited for the other corps experienced military officer, whose of the Russian army, which were then at father taught British seamen the Olmutz, and for the army of Prince breaking of the line in Rodney's Charles, which was advancing out of Italy.
If Berlin had been fortified in 1806, the sperity — the last interrupted only army, which was defeated at Jena, would within these few years—have inured have rallied there, and the Russian army the English to so much comfort, and would have joined it. If, in 1808, Madrid such good living, that no one could be had been a fortified place, the French got to enter the army who was put army, after the victories of Espinosa, Tudela, Burgos, and Sommosierra, would
on the Continental pay and fare. A not have marched upon that capital, Cossack gets 8s. 6d. a-year of pay, leaving in its rear Salamanca and Valla- out of which he is obliged to furnish dolid, the English army of Sir John himself with white-starched neck. Moore, and the Spanish army of Romana :
cloths. A French soldier's pay is and these Anglo-Spanish armies might, under 5d. a-day, and, after deducting under the fortifications of Madrid, have what is stopped off for rations, &c., united themselves to the armies of Aragon he has somewhat about jd. a-day to and Valencia ;'-and the author might enjoy himself! What a temptation have added what had been the fate of to such brave disciplined starving Lisbon as well as Madrid, and what, men, London with its £20,000,000 in consequently, the issue of that
righteous the bank in solid gold! When Free and retributive war in the Peninsula, Trade has made us as poor as the which Great Britain undertook for the independence of the nations in that part French,
and money, in consequence, of the world, had not the Great Duke goes as far, we shall be able to raise our ordered the construction of the lines of armies as cheaply, because our people Torres Vedras. Lastly, if Paris, in 1814 will be reduced like them to the lowand 1815, had been fortified, so as to est point consistent with existence; have been capable of holding out but one but we cannot hope for a similar reweek, what an influence would it not have duction till it has worked that melanhad on the destiny of Europe ! And what choly change upon our people. is now the state of the French metropolis
Let it not be supposed that there is in that respect ?
any danger, in stating the facts we "In conclusion, M. Maurice tells the world that England has reason to place to our unprepared state, of making the
have now brought forward in regard confidence in her good fortune, and in the maritime supremacy which along struggle French acquainted with them. They bas given her ; but that it would be wise know them perfectly already, as well in her to consider that she is not invul. as any of our officers at the Horse nerable. Steam-navigation, railroads, Guards or Ordnance Office. There and the electrical telegraph, he continues, is not a gun mounted, nor a battery have powerfully increased her defensive traced out, nor a ditch cleared, nor a resources ; but at the same time they glacis levelled at Portsmouth, Plyincrease the means of attacking her, and mouth, or Sheerness, that information prepare the way that leads to her shores. is not immediately forwarded to Paris England, trusting the prospect of a
by French officers or agents on the long peace, has enormously extended her commercial enterprises ; but thirty-five spot. The only people who are ignoyears of peace have passed, and if a war
rant of, or rather, though aware, inshould suddenly break out, is she pre
sensible to them, are Mr Cobden and pared to meet it? Such, he adds, is the the Manchester school of politicians. thought which has presented itself to the They are so infatuated with the belief minds of some of the most eminent men of universal peace that nothing will of Great Britain.”—(P. 138.)
open their eyes till London is taken,
or Plymouth in flames. Our real It is often asked in Parliament, how danger is not in Paris, but in Manit happens that, with the large sums chester; it is not the strength of our annually voted in Parliament for the neighbours, but our delusive idea of army, we have so few efficient men security, which is our real danger. to produce; and how does it hap- The nation has within itself ample pen that, wbile a French soldier costs
means of averting all danger, if it £38 per annum, an English one would only make use of them; if it is costs, taking everything into view, ruined, it will not be from its want £82? We answer in one word, be- of strength, but from its want of cause we are twice as rich as they, and foresight. therefore money will only go half as To conclude, let the people of Engfar. Long ages of peace and pro- land reflect, and reflect 'deeply, on
this consideration. If Lord Derby's have done in Asia to the tender merAdministration is driven from the cies of the Sikhs, in Africa to the helm by the results of the next elec- tender mercies of the Caffres. Untion, this country may see what awaits deterred by the calamitous result of them. A more vital interest than the principles of the Peace Congress that of Free Trade, a more terrible in these two quarters of the globe, fate than the re-establishment of Ro- and which the resolution of our chiefs manism, is involved in the issue of and heroism of our soldiers alone prethe contest. It will not be the vented from involving our Colonial Whigs and Lord John Russell who Empire in ruin, they are prepared will in that event be called to the to pursue the same system in Europe helm. The family clique of the Rus- in presence of Louis Napoleon, the sells and the Mintos is worn out. recollection of Waterloo, and five hunTheir journals tells us what must dred thousand men. Like all fanatics, be done. The new administration whether in religion of politics, they must be framed on an extended basis, are inaccessible to reason, and deaf and we know where the extension is to all arguments drawn from facts, to be sought. The Chesham Place how clear and convincing soever. Be meeting has prefigured it in the it so. We have done our duty in clearest colours. It is Mr Cobden, unfolding the stake at issue in the Mr Bright, and the Manchester next election, and the irreparable ruin school, who are to be taken into the which will threaten, and probably Cabinet, and we know what their overtake the nation, if, from a passion principles are— they have told us for Free Trade, it loses all the wealth themselves repeatedly. They are to which that system is said to have sell our ships of the line, disband created. Let it take its decision; but our troops, cut off twelve millions of it cannot say it has done so unwarned taxes, and trust in Europe to the or uninstructed as to the dangers tender mercies of the French, as we which threaten it.
A TRUE STORY,
this consideration. If Lord Derby's have done in Asia to the tender mer. Administration is driven from the cies of the Sikhs, in Africa to the helm by the results of the next elec- tender mercies of the Caffres. Un. tion, this country may see what awaits deterred by the calamitous result of them. A more vital interest than the principles of the Peace Congress that of Free Trade, a more terrible in these two quarters of the globe, fate than the re-establishment of Ro- and which the resolution of our chiefs manism, is involved in the issue of and heroism of our soldiers alone prethe contest. It will not be the vented from involving our Colonial Whigs and Lord John Russell who Empire in ruin, they are prepared will in that event be called to the to pursue the same system in Europe helm. The family clique of the Rus- in presence of Louis Napoleon, the lls and the Mintos is worn out. recollection of Waterloo, and five huneir journals tells us what must dred thousand men. Like all fanatics,
done. The new administration whether in religion of politics, they ist be framed on an extended basis, are inaccessible to reason, and deaf Lad we know where the extension is to all arguments drawn from facts, to be sought. The Chesliam Place how clear and convincing soever. Be meeting has prefigured it in the it so. We have done our duty in clearest colours. It is Mr Cobden, unfolding the stake at issue in the Mr Bright, and the Manchester next election, and the irreparable ruin school, who are to be taken into the which will threaten, and probably Cabinet, and we know what their overtake the nation, if, from a passion principles are- they have told us for Free Trade, it loses all the wealth themselves repeatedly. They are to which that system is said to have sell our ships of the line, disband created. Let it take its decision; but our troops, cut off twelve millions of it cannot say it has done so unwarned taxes, and trust in Europe to the or uninstructed as to the dangers tender mercies of the French, as we which threaten it.
"Eu Lady Anne! The like of you art at the mill door—ask him to let yammering morning and night about Katie up." wee Katie at the mill. What's John " But what will Lady Betty say?" Stewart? Naething but a common
asked the nurse. man, and you the Earl's dochter. I Betty said I might get her if I wonder ye dinna think shame." liked. She'll no be angry. See, Nelly,
" Whisht, Nelly," said the little John Stewart's standing at the door." Lady Anne.
With reluctance the nurse obeyed; " I'll no whisht. Didna Banby and, leaving Lady Anne on the burnRodger speak for me to Lady Betty side, advanced to John Stewart. bersel to make me bairn's-maid; and The mill lay at the opening of a am I to give you your ain gate now little uncultivated primitive-looking that I've gotten the place? I'll do valley, through which the burn wound no such thing; and ye shanna demean in many a silvery link, between banks yoursel as lang as I can help it. I've of bare grass, browned here and there been in as grand houses as Kellie with the full sunshine, which fell over Castle. I've had wee ladies and it all the summer through, unshaded wee gentlemen to keep before now; by a single tree. There was little of and there's plenty o'them, no that the beautiful in this view of Kellie far off, to haud ye in company: Mill. A grey thatched house, placed what would ye do wi' Katie Stew on a little eminence, down the side of art?"
which descended the garden-a very “I dinna like them; and eh, Nelly, unpretending garden, in which a few she's bonnie!" answered little Anné bushes of southernwood, and one or Erskine.
two great old rose-trees, were the "She's bonnie! Lady Anne, ye're only ornamental features-was the enough to gar onybody think shame. miller's dwelling; and just beyond What's ony lady's business wi' folk was the mill itself, interposing its being bonnie ?- no to say that it's a' droning musical wheel and little rush in your ain een, and she's just like of water between the two buildings : itber folk."
while farther on, the bare grassy "Maybe, Nelly. She has rosy slopes, among which the burn lost cheeks, and bonnie blue een, like you; itself, shut out the prospect--very but I like to look at her,” said Lady rural, very still, giving you an idea Anne.
of something remote and isolatedThe despotic Nelly was mollified. " the world forgetting, by the world " It's a' wi' guid wholesome diet, and forgot”—but with scarcely any beauty rising in the morning. Ye ken your- except what was in the clear skies sel how I have to fleech ye wi' cream over it, and the clear running water before ye'll take your parritch ; and which mirrored the skies. cream's no guid for the like of you.
And on the barnside sits the little If ye were brought up like common Lady Anne Erskine, the Earl of Kelfolk's bairns, ye would have as rosy lie's youngest daughter. She says cheeks as Katie Stewart."
well that she will never be pretty ; The little Lady Anne bent down but you like the quiet little face, by the burnside, to look at her own though its features are small and inpale face in the clear narrow stream. significant, and its expression does "I'll never be like Katie,” said Anne not at all strike you, further than to Erskine with a sigh ; and Janet's kindness for the gentle owner, as she no like Isabell Stewart : we're no so sits under the hot September sun, bonnie as them. Bring Katie up to with her feet almost touching the the castle, Nelly ; there's John Stew- water, pulling handfuls of grass, and
looking wistfully towards the mill. in the deep soft grass, which presses A dress of some fine woollen stuff, round her on every side, with its long, shapeless and ungraceful, distin. bending, elastic blades, sits a child of guishes her rank only very slightly ; some eight years, with the soft cherub for the time is 1735, when fashions face which one sometimes sees in rural travel slowly, and the household of places, delicately tinted, beautifully Kellie practises economy. Like the formed. Round the little clear forescene is the little lady; without much head clusters hair paler than gold, of even the natural beauty of child not in curls, but in soft circlets, like hood, but with a clear, soft, uncloud- rings. Just a little darker as yet are ed face, contented and gentle, think the long eyelashes and finely marked ing of everything but herself.
brows; and the eyes are sunny blue, Turn round the paling of the gar- running over with light, so that they den to the other side of this grey dazzle you. It is considerably brownhouse, and the scene is changed. For ed, the little face, with the sun of this the background you have a thick whole summer, and, with perhaps just clump of wood, already brilliant in a shade too much of rosy colour, has its autumn tints. Immediately strik a slightly petulant, wilful expression ; ing your eye is a gorgeous horse. but when you look at Katie Stewart, chestnut, embosomed among greener you can understand the admiratiou of foliage--a bit of colour for an artist Lady Anne. to study. The trees grow on an ab Only a little taller is that staid sisrupt green mound, one of the slopes ter Isabell, who sits knitting a great of the little glen—the only one so blue woollen stocking by Katie's side. becomingly sheltered ; and from its Isabell is twelve, and her hair las steep elevation a little silvery stream grown a little darker, and she herself of water falls down, with a continual looks womanly, as she sits and knits tinkling, to the small pebbly bed be- with painful industry, counting the low. Between this minstrel and the loops as she turns the heel, and paushouse spreads a green" of soft thick ing now and then to calculate how grass, with poppies gleaming in the much she has to do before she may long fringes of its margin, and blue- escape from her task. The stocking eyed forget-me-nots looking up from is for her father : he has an immense the sod. One step up from the green, heel, Isabell thinks secretly, as she on the steep ascent, which has been almost wishes that some such process cut into primitive steps, brings you as that severe one adopted by the sison a level with the milldam, and its ters of Cinderella, could be put in bordering willows ; and beyond shows operation with honest John Stewart. you a wider horizon, bounded by the But yonder he stands, good man, his green swelling summit of Kellie Law, ruddy face wbitened over, and his the presiding hill of the district, from fourteen stone of comfortable subwhich a range of low hills extends stance fully needing all the foundation westward, until they conclude in the it has to stand upon : so Isabell resteep wooded front of Balcarras Craig, turns to her knitting with such energy striking a bold perpendicular line that the sound of her “wires " is across the sky. Rich fields and scat- audible at the mill-door, and John tered farm-houses lie between you Stewart, turning round, looks proudly and the hills, and some of the fields at his bairns. are populous with merry companies Janet stands on the threshold of of " shearers," whose voices, softened the house, peeping out; and Janet by by the distance, touch the ear plea no means looks so well as her sisters. santly now and then. These lands She has a heavier, darker face, a were well cultivated and productive thick, ungainly figure, and looks anyeven at that time ; and on this side of thing but good-humoured. They are Kellie Mill, you could believe you all dressed in a very primitive style, were within the fertile bounds of the in home-made linen, with broad blue kingdom of Fife.
and white stripes ; and their frocks And the little figures on the green are made in much the same form as contrast strikingly with the young the modern pinafore. But simple as matcher without. Foremost, seated its material is, Janet has the skirt of