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we are a most happy family, daily-I of two offices he held under the Crown, may say hourly--increasing in number the Lord Lieutenancy of the West Ridand strength, where we shall remain ing of Yorkshire and the command of until we go forth to deliver Israel from a Militia regiment, and was also struck oppression." The bill was defeated off the list of the Privy Council. Carand the Government resigned, only to lyle, on the other hand, thought the be replaced by Lord Derby's Adminis- people were “mostly fools.” It has tration, which pased the Household been stated that this declaration occurs Suffrage Act. "The Ministry," said in Carlyle's appeal (printed in The Lord Granville in the House of Lords, Spectator) to Lord John Russell, then referring to that Administration, "have Premier, to do something for the indusdished the Whigs,” thereby making trial improvement of Ireland. In that an important contribution to our polit- appeal, Carlyle merely speaks of his ical hraseology; and Mr. Robert countrymen as “twenty-seven millions, Lowe (subsequently Lord Sherbrooke), many of whom are fools;" but in the who had joined Mr. Horsman in the “Latter-Day Pamphlets,” in the chapCave of Adullam, invented the happy ter on Parliament, he says: phrase, “We must now, at least, educate our Masters" (à propos of the new

Consider in fact, a body of six hun

dred and fifty-eight miscellaneous perelectorate) in a speech expressive of his

sons set to consult about business, with amazement at this surrender of the

twenty-seven millions, mostly fools, Conservative Government on the ques- assiduously listening to them, and tion of Reform.

checking and criticising them,-was "The greatest happiness of the great

there ever since the world began, will est number" first appeared (according

there ever be till the world ends, any

business accomplished in these circumto Jeremy Bentham, in his “Liberty of

stances? the People") in one of the innumerable pamphlets written by Dr. Joseph Priest. It is plain that it was from the latter, ley, in reply to Edmund Burke's "Re and not from the former, passage that flections on the French Revolution.” the celebrated phrase came into popu"He rose like a rocket and fell like the lar use. stick,” was first used by Tom Paine, Among the political sayings, for the notorious Republican writer, in ref which we are indebted to Disraeli areerence to Burke. "One half the world “Reaction is the consequence of a naknows not how the other lives" tion waking from its illusions" (1848), will be found in "Holy Observations," "A tu quoque should always be goodby Dr. Joseph Hall, Bishop of Exeter humored, for it has nothing else to recand of Norwich, in the seventeenth ommend it" (1855),—"Finality is not the century. “The Majesty of the people” language of politics" (1859),—“To assist was coined by Charles Fox. In 1798 a progress to resist revolution is the polpolitical dinner was given at the Crown icy of the Conservative party" (1859),– and Anchor tavern, in celebration of "Party is organized opinion” (1864). Fox's birthday, with the Duke of Nor- "England does not love coalitions" is folk in the chair. Concluding his another saying of that great political speech in reply to the toast of his phrase-maker. On that night, in 1852, health, the great Whig leader said: when Lord Derby's first Ministry, in "Give me leave, before I sit down, to which Disraeli filled the office of Chancall on you to drink our Sovereign's cellor of the Exchequer, was defeated health,—the Majesty of the people.” on an amendment by Gladstone to the For this sentiment Fox was deprived Budget,-an amendment which united

Whigs, Radicals and Peelites-Disraeli, and acknowledged force,” he said, "is in a defiant speech before the fatal di- not impaired either in effect or in opinvision, said: "I know that I have to ion by an unwillingness to exert itself. face a coalition. The combination may The superior force may offer peace be successful,-combination has before with honor and with safety." Yet it this been successful—but coalitions, is to poetry and not to politics that we though they may be successful, have are really indebted for the phrase. always found that their triumphs have Shakespeare uses it in "Coriolanus," been brief. This I know, that England iii, 2: does not love coalitions.” That particular coalition under Lord 'Aberdeen and If it be honor in your wars to seem Lord John Russell was certainly not

The same you are not, which, for your successful. “There is one indisputable You adopt your policy, how is it less,

best ends, element of a Coalition Government,"

or worse, said Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, “and That it shall hold companionship in that it is that its members should coa- peace lesce.” In this case they drifted widely With honor, as in war, since that to

both apart.

It stands in like request? · But Disraeli's most popular phrase was “Peace with Honor.” The occa- An amusing story is told in connecsion on which the words were used is tion with the phrase. In the course of well known. On the return of the two a political lecture, illustrated with a British plenipotentiaries at the Berlin magic-lantern, in a country village, porCongress in 1878, Lord Beaconsfield traits of Lord Beaconsfield and Lord and Lord Salisbury, an enthusiastic re- Salisbury, with the words Peace with ception was given them in London; and Honor were thrown upon the screen. speaking, on July 16, the former said; An old lady among the audience, whose "Lord Salisbury and myself have head was full of recollections of a nobrought you back peace, but peace, I torious criminal, innocently inquired, hope, with honor, which may satisfy amid great laughter, “Which is peace ?" our Sovereign and tend to the welfare “Every man has his price;" this cyniof the country.” The phrase, however, cal saying is generally ascribed to Sir like so many of his epigrammatic ut- Robert Walpole; "yet," writes Mr. John terances, was not Lord Beaconsfield's Morley, “he never delivered himself own invention. It had been used before of that famous slander on mankind." by two eminent statesmen, but it was One night in the House of Commons Lord Beaconsfield's fine and apt appli- he insisted that self-interest, or familycation of it on a dramatic occasion that interest, was at the bottom of the fine fixed it forever on the public memory and virtuous declamation of the Opand made it a current coin of everyday position: "All these men," he said, political speech and writing. Lord "have their price." It was, therefore, John Russell, in the course of a speech not a general, but a political proposiat Dundee in 1865, said, "As Secretary tion. “Mend it or end it,” was used for Foreign Affairs it has been my ob- . by Mr. John Morley in reference to the ject to preserve peace with honor.” The House of Lords, in a speech made at phrase is also to be found in one of the St. James's Hall, on July 30th, 1884. best known of Burke's speeches,-that Mr. Morley was much praised by the imperishable oration on Conciliation Radical newspapers for his happy with America, delivered in the House jingle. They did not know, though we of Commons, March 22nd, 1775. “Great may be sure so staunch a lover of good literature as Mr. Morley did not forget, recent years, Sir William Harcourt that the speaker was only borrowing a used the phrase in the House of Comphrase from Sir Walter. “My fate calls mons in reference to a prominent Libme elsewhere,” says Halbert Glenden- eral Unionist. He was comically ning, in The Monastery, "to


made, by one reporter, to say, "I'll unwhere I shall end it or mend it." wig the gentleman for the rest of his "Property has its duties as well as its life." Sir Francis Burdett began his rights,” first appeared in a public letter fifty years of Parliamentary life as a addressed by Thomas Drummond, Un- Radical and ended it as a Conservative. der Secretary for Ireland in the Mel. In the course of an attack which he bourne Administration, to the Tipper- made on a bill of the Liberal Governary landlords in 1838, in reply to their ment in his Conservative days, he stigapplication to the Government for the matized "the cant of patriotism;" the aid of the military in the collection of phrase was happy, but it left its author, their rents. One of the most quoted of the whilom patriot, open to as clever a all sayings, "The schoolmaster is retort as the House of Commons has abroad,” we owe to Brougham. In a ever heard. “There is something worse speech on education, delivered in 1820, than the cant of patriotism,” said Lord he used the following eloquent passage: John Russell, in reply, "and that is the "Let the soldier be abroad if he will; recant of patriotism." The readiness he can do nothing in this age. There of the retort, and its personal appositeis another personage abroad, a person ness greatly excited the House, which less imposing, in the eyes of some, rang with cheers and laughter for sevperhaps insignificant. The schoolmas- eral minutes. Mr. Gladstone is said to ter is abroad, and I trust to him, have declared that no cleverer retort armed with his primer, against the than this was ever made. soldier in full military array.” Broug- Mr. Gladstone himself has enriched ham was also the originator of the our political colloquialisms with such phrase, "The pursuit of knowledge un- useful and striking phrases as “The der difficulties." "A revolution by due flowing tide is with us," "Political econcourse of law" was Wellington's happy omy is banished to Saturn,” “It addescription of the Reform Act of 1832. vances by leaps and bounds," "Within “I'll un-Whig that gentleman" is one measurable distance," "Within the of Pitt's sayings. During the mental range of practical politics," "Our incapacity of George the Third the friends across the seas," "The ringing Whigs maintained that the Prince of of the Chapel bell” (a rather unfortuWales had the absolute right to assume nate reference to the attempt of the the Regency, having every reason to Fenians to blow up Clerkenwell prison), believe that one of his earliest actions and "a Nation rightly struggling to be in the exercise of the royal prerogative free" (applied, strange to say, to the would be the substitution of a Whig Mahdists). His also was the happy for a Tory Administration. When Fox phrase, “Greater freedom and less repropounded in the House of Commons sponsibility.” On being called to acthis theory which, to say the least, was count in the Parliament of 1880-85 for not quite in accord with Whig prin- some uncomplimentary expressions he ciples, Pitt slapped his thigh trium- had used towards Austria before he phantly, and, turning to a colleague came into office, he pleaded in extenuwho sat beside him on the Treasury ation that when he uttered the words Bench, he exclaimed, "I'll un-Whig the he occupied "a position of greater freegentleman for the rest of his life." In dom and less responsibility." The fa

mous watchword, "the Masses against Man was first used by the Emperor the Classes,” was first uttered by Glad Nicholas of Russia, when discussing stone in a speech at Liverpool, on June Turkish affairs in January, 1853, with 28th, 1896. “I will venture to say,” he Sir Hamilton Seymour, the English amcried, "that upon one great class of bassador. "We have on our hands," subjects, the largest and most weighty said Nicholas, "a sick man, a very sick of all, when the determining considera man; it will be, I tell you frankly, a tions that ought to lead to a conclusion great misfortune if, one of these days, are truth, justice and humanity,-upon he should slip away from us, especially these, gentlemen, all the world over, I before all necessary arrangements are will back the Masses against the made." But perhaps the most strikClasses." The celebrated phrase "an ing phrase coined in this connection is old Parliamentary Hand" was happily Carlyle's "unspeakable Turk.” applied by Mr. Gladstone to himself in "I may say that I have myself been the House of Commons, January 22nd, credited with the invention of the 1886, on the opening of a new Parlia phrase 'Home-Rule,'” writes the Hon. ment. "I stand here," he said, "as a George Brodrick (Warden of Merton member of the House where there are College) in his “Memories and Impresmany who have taken their seats for sions:" "nor is it easy to find authorthe first time upon these benches, and ity for it earlier than an article of mine where there may be some to whom, speaking of a 'Home-Rule Party,' which possibly, I may avail myself of the appeared in The Times on February privilege of old age to offer a recom 9th, 1871, and another article of mine mendation. I would tell them of my on the past and future relations of Ire. own intention to keep my counsel and land to Great Britain, which appeared i reserve my own freedom, until I see in Macmillan's Magazine for the fol-1 the occasion when there may be a lowing May.” Mr. Brodrick, however, prospect of public benefit in endeavor does not believe that he coined the ing to make a movement forward, and phrase, the context of the aforesaid I will venture to recommend them, as articles showing, indeed, that he was an old Parliamentary hand, to do the using a term “almost current" at the same." The authorship of "bag and time. The phrase has also been attribbaggage" has also been imputed to Mr. uted to Isaac Butt. It really owes its Gladstone. But with him, in this case, origin to the Reverend Joseph Allen it was simply the apt application of an Galbraith, a distinguished Fellow of old phrase, expressing what his follow- Trinity College, and Professor in the ers wanted to express, with the utmost University of Dublin, who was, with force and in a way that everybody Butt, one of the founders of the Irish could understand. He called for the Home Government association in 1971. expulsion from Europe of the official Mr. Galbraith used the words at a Turk "bag and baggage," thus giving meeting of that association in Wicklow the phrase an extensive currency in Street, Dublin, for the first time in the world of politics. The phrase has, 1870. Butt, in a speech at the Home however, been in existence for ages. Rule Conference in Dublin, in NovemTouchstone, for instance, says to Corin ber, 1873, referred to the expression in (“As You Like It,” iii, 2): "Come, shep- terms which show that he had no claim herd, let us make an honorable re to be its inventor. "Over a torn and treat; though not with bag and bag distracted country," he said, “a coungage, yet with scrip and scrippage.” try agitated with dissension, weakThe description of Turkey as the Sick ened by distrust, is raised the banner

on which were emblazoned the magic and the settlement of Ireland, having words Home-Rule. Wherever the legend been often heard to say, before he was we had emblazoned in its folds was judge, that he would drive a coach and seen the heart of the people moved to six horses through the Act of Settleits words, and the soul of the nation ment." Popular agitation which was felt their power and their spell." It is happily described by Peel—the first curious that the phrase has now be- English statesman to yield to its prescome the accepted description of auton- sure-as “the marshalling of the conomy all over the world. "Found salva- science of a nation to mould its laws," tion" was used by Sir Henry Campbell- was the invention of O'Connell; and Bannerman as a humorous explanation here are three sayings of the great of his adoption of Mr. Gladstone's Irish tribune, which contain practically Home-Rule policy in 1885, on being his whole political philosophy as a offered the post of Secretary for War. constitutional agitator: "Nothing is poHe is also the author of the happy litically right which is morally wrong," term Ulsteria as a description of the "He who commits a crime gives Orange demonstrations against Home- strength to the enemy,” “No political Rule in the North of Ireland. The reform is worth a drop of human term "Nonconformist Conscience" was blood." "Repeal the Union! Restore first used in the letter of "A Wesleyan the Heptarchy as soon!” exclaimed Minister” to The Times, on November George Canning in the House of Com28th, 1890, demanding the uncondi- mons in 1812, during a speech supporttional abdication of Mr. Parnell, and ing Catholic Emancipation. his immediate retirement from Parlia

The evolution of the word Jingoism, mentary life. “Nothing less will satisfy to express strong, warlike feelings or the Nonconformist Conscience now," ultra-patriotic sentiments, for which said the writer. The Times in the same Chauvinism does duty in France, is issue referred in its leading columns to

in these times peculiarly interesting. "what a correspondent calls the Non- The popular derivation, of course, is conformist Conscience," and after- from a couplet in a song which was wards repeated the phrase on many oc

a great favorite at the music-halls in casions. Other papers followed suit, 1877, when some trouble seemed likely and the expression soon passed into the

to arise with Russia over her war with list of current political colloquialisms. Turkey. Another useful phrase, arising out of the Irish Controversy, is the “Killing We don't want to fight, but by Jingo, Home-Rule by kindness” by Mr. Gerald We have the 'men, we have the ships,

if we do, Balfour. Daniel O'Connell used to

we have the money too. boast that he would "drive a coach and six through any Act of Parliament." But according to an explanation in The origin of the phrase is in the "Me The Times, which appeared while this moirs of Ireland," published anony- song was in vogue, Jingo was a direct mously in 1718, but commonly attrib- descendant of the Persian Jang, meanuted to Oldmixon. In speaking of ing war, and the phrase "By Jingo" an Stephen Rice, who was made Chief equivalent for "By Mars.” According Baron of the Irish Exchequer by James to that erudite poet, Thomas Ingoldsby, the Second in 1686, and was removed Jingo is no more than a popular corrupby William in 1690, Oldmixon says: tion of the name of the worthy saint “He distinguished himself by his invet. Gengulphus; but I have also seen it eracy against the Protestant interest explained as the Basuto for evil. The

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