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first political use of the phrase, how Tierney, the Whig leader had said: ever, was in a letter, with the heading "The duty of an Opposition is "The Jingoes in the Park," written by threefold, never to oppose, never Mr. George Jacob Holyoake, and pub- to propose, and to turn out the Gov. lished in The Daily News of March' ernment”-an excellent piece of ad13th, 1878, while the word Jingoism vice, indeed, for the political party figured in a leading article in the same which finds itself on the left of Mr. journal in 1879.
Speaker. It was George Canning, of course, "Red Tape," as a description of Dewho, as Foreign Secretary in the Liver partmental pedantry and delay, was pool Administration by recognizing the brought into circulation by Dickens. It South American republics, "called in was suggested to him, of course, by the the New World to redress the balance red tape used in tying up packages in of the old,” and likewise, of course, Government offices. In "Little Dorrit," though the conjunction may appear published in 1855, Dickens refers to strange-"three acres and a cow," the the "form-filling, corresponding, minutRadical panacea for the labor difficulty ing, memorandum-making, signing, in agricultural districts, belongs to Mr. counter-signing, counter-counter-signJesse Collings. But the origin of "De ing backwards and forwards, and refence not Defiance” is not so well ferring sideways, crosswise and zigknown. It was first suggested as the zag” business done by the Circumlocumotto of the Manchester Volunteers in tion Office. As a result of this "an in1860 by Mr. John Marsh, a local jour genious gentleman connected with the nalist, and a member of the corps. At Department" made the remarkable disthis time there was much jealousy in covery that “the sheets of foolscap it France at the existence of the Volun had devoted to the public service would teers in England, but the Emperor Na- pave the footways on both sides of Oxpoleon in a speech on military questions ford Street from end to end, and leave soon afterwards, said: "We cannot find nearly a quarter of a mile to spare for fault with a nation which has enrolled the Park (immense cheering and laughher citizens for defence, not defiance." ter), while of tape-red tape—it had The National Rifle Association after used enough to stretch in graceful feswards adopted the motto. "Peace, Re toons from Hyde Park Corner to the trenchment and Reform" is the motto General Post-Office." This mention of of the Cobden Club. “Peace and Re red tape at the time of a Commission form" was the old Liberal watchword, of Inquiry into the mismanagement of and to it Joseph Hume, the celebrated the Crimean War immortalized the economist, added the middle word, phrase. Carlyle's description of Govretrenchment. It was Mr. John Bright ernment officials, as “doleful creatures who used the expression, "The great in a jungle of red tape, deaf or nearly bulk of the nation do not live in man- so to human reason,” is well-known. sions, they live in cottages." The "Iron-bound in red tape” was an Irish phrase "masterly inactivity,” expres member's description of the condition sive of so much prudence and caution of the Chief Secretary. "Platform," and advantageous inertness in politi as a description of the program of a cal affairs, was coined by Sir James party or of a candidate, is often thought Mackintosh. "It is the duty of the to be American, but it is really of very Opposition to oppose,” said Lord Ran ancient and highly respectable English dolph Churchill some twenty years ago; origin. It is a revival of the old verb, but sixty years before Lord Randolph, platformed, meaning to lay down prin
ciples. Milton, in his controversial who remained faithful to the Stuarts work, “Reason of Church Govern during the Commonwealth. It is dement,” says that some people "Do not rived from the Gaelic words, Tar a Ri, think it for the ease of their inconse- meaning, “Come, oh King!" and was quent opinions to grant that Church constantly in the mouths of the Irish Discipline is platformed in the Bible.” Loyalists; but in the years following
"The policy of pin-pricks" is the most the Revolution, bands of outlaws who expressive and useful phrase that has, had fought for James, and were at for a long time, been added to our po- large among the mountains, were called litical currency. It arose out of the re- Rapparees or Tories, and hence the cent difference between France and term was imported to England as a England, and had a French origin. Mr. nickname for the adherents of the Chamberlain first drew attention to it Stuarts. To return the compliment, in this country in a speech at Manches- the Tories borrowed another Gaelic ter, on November 10th, 1898. He said: word, "Whig," used in Scotland to de“Let me read you one short extract scribe, first, horse and cattle thieves, from Le Matin, a French paper pub- secondly, the adherents of the Presby. lished in Paris. They say: 'We (the terian cause in the middle of the sevFrench] have inaugurated the policy of enteenth century, and bestowed it upon playing tricks on Great Britain-a pol- their opponents. Gilbert Burnet, Bishop icy which had no definite object, and of Salisbury, the Whig politician and which was bound to turn out badly. historian, writing of the period after We now find ourselves confronted by a the Revolution, says, in reference to people who have at last been exasper- the term: "From Scotland the word ated by the continual pin-pricks which was brought into England, where it is we have given them.' I venture to now one of our unhappy terms of dissay that that is absolutely true.” The union;" and Swift, in 1725, wrote: article in Le Matin, which was un- “There is hardly a Whig in Ireland signed, appeared on November 8th. who would allow a potato and butter"The policy of pin-pricks" has since milk to a reputed Tory,” which could been frequently used in the newspapers hardly be exceeded as a description of and by speakers on public platforms, strong partizan feeling. and is, indeed, a striking contribution Some years ago a controversy rose to the common stock of our political in the newspapers as to the meaning phrases.
of "Whig,” and other ingenious derivaComing to party names, we find that tions were suggested. One was that it most of them were originally terms of was a Scottish term equivalent to our derision or abuse. "Whig" and "Tory," "whey," and implied a taunt against which for generations have been proudly the "sour-milk faces" of the Western borne by the two great and permanent lowlanders. Another writer derived it political parties in the State, were at from the initials of the motto of the first contemptuous nicknames. "Tory" Scottish Covenanters, “We hope in was first applied, according to Macau- God;" but dealing with the latter suglay, to those who "refused to concur in gestion, a Tory paper unkindly asserted excluding James the Second from the that the motto of the Whig party was, throne.” It was the most approbrious “We believe in gold.” According to term which Titus Oates could apply Gilbert Burnet it was derived from a to the disbelievers in his Popish Plot. cant word, whiggam, used by the Scotch But there had been an earlier applica- peasants in driving their horses. tion of it as a description of the Irish During the negotiations in 1852 be
LIVING AGE. VOL. VIII. 404
tween Lord John Russell and the mod- Progress means in another six." The erate Whigs and Lord Aberdeen and Coalition Administration was formed, the Peelites for the formation of a Co- and was soon too engrossed in the manalition administration—that coalition agement or mismanagement of the which Disraeli prophesied England Crimean War to trouble itself about a would not love-interesting letters suitable political designation. passed between the negotiators on the There is no longer, as we know, subject of the name by which the new either a Whig party or a Tory party; party was to be known. Lord John but undoubtedly there are still Whigs Russell thought the word Whig would and Tories, for the political principles best convey the principles of the word co- expressed by these terms survive in alition; but the Duke of Newcastle, a individuals who diminish in number as supporter of Aberdeen, insisted that time progresses.
Conservative was Whig was impossible, and must be dis- first suggested by Croker in an article carded. Lord Aberdeen then wrote the in The Quarterly Review, January, following letter to Lord John Russell: 1830, as a more appropriate party name
than Tory. "Conservative,” said O'ConHaddo House, 16th Sept., 1852.
nell in the House of Commons in 1832, My dear Lord John,
"that is the fashionable term, the newIt was no doubt rather a strong fangled phrase now used in polite soproceeding on the part of the Duke of ciety to designate Tory ascendancy." Newcastle to suggest to you, of all The term was disliked by Disraeli, who men, the propriety and expediency of sinking the title Whig. It is true that
fought hard for the retention of the neither he nor I have the least desire
older name, and to the last called himor intention of assuming the appella- self a Tory. In "Coningsby," pubtion; but I presume that you would lished in 1844, occurs this sentence: never think of acting with us unless
“A sound Conservative Government,' you were persuaded that our views said Taper, musingly. 'I understandwere Liberal; and assuredly in any connection with you we should not be Tory men and Whig measures.'” But prepared to abandon a Conservative the designation caught the fancy of the policy. Although the term may appear bulk of the party, and in time Tory a little contradictory, I believe that came to be used only in its original "Conservative progress" best describes the principles which ought practically
sense, as a contemptuous nickname by to influence the conduct of any Gov
the party's opponents. Whig shared ernment of the present day. This was the same fate. Liberal, which like Peel's policy and I think, will continue Conservative, is broad and vague, and that of all his friends. For one, looking at the same time catching, may be said at the actual state of affairs, I have to have been finally adopted by the no objection that the progress should be somewhat more rapid than perhaps Whigs when Mr. Gladstone became he ever intended.
leader. “One of the most beautiful and Ever most sincerely yours, powerful words in the English lan
guage,” is Lord Rosebery's description
of it. Liberal and Conservative are Lord John Russell, as may be imag- certainly happy and expressive terms; ined, stood up for that blessed word but, unlike Whig and Tory, they are Whig. "The term Whig,” he wrote, not exclusively applicable as party de"has the convenience of expressing in nominations. one syllable what Conservative Liberal Constitutionalist was at one time sugexpresses in seven, and Whiggism in gested as an appropriate name for the two syllables means what Conservative Tory party; but it did not find favor. Reformer, once a favorite term with a a place for long. Nationalist, which wing of the Whig party, has long gone under the leadership of Mr. Parnell, out of fashion. But Radical, which was substituted for Home-Ruler, seems was first applied about 1818 to Major likely to be more enduring; so also Cartwright, Sir Francis Burdett, Henry perhaps is Liberal Unionist-the desigHuntand others, who advocated a radical nation, of course, of those Liberals who reform of Parliament, has still a strong ceded from Gladstone on the question hold on the advanced Liberals. Tory of Home-Rule—and it would now seem Democrat-an invention of Lord Ran- as if the rival party names, Imperialist dolph Churchill-is heard of no more. and Little Englander, which have been Peelite and Gladstonian have waxing and waning in popular use for known; but of course personal names some time, will take a permanent place for parties, such as these, cannot hold in political controversy. Macmillan's Magazine.
A SERVIAN LULLABY.
Little golden son, the rain is coming, coming
Little golden daughter, the sun bas set;
Flowers fold softly up from the dark and wet-
Little golden son, your bed is spread and ready
All with snowy blankets soft as silk may be;
To the shores of Dreamtown, o'er a shining sea,
To the shores of Dreamtown, little golden daughter,
Sail away and sail away till the dawn is red;
Till you wake by Marko in your own white bed.
Sail away to Dreamtown where dream-folk are keeping
Crowns set thick with rubies for gold heads of you;
And sail away to Dreamtown where the skies are blue.
MISPRISION OF FELONY.
This happened years ago, when West clumps of thorns and cactus-like Australia was still a penal colony. And growths that dotted it here and there in those days-as in other penal colo- were one exactly like the other. A man nies-grim things happened there some- might wander there till Doomsday, if times.
his strength lasted. Lethbridge gave Lethbridge--Lieutenant Lethbridge he up, for the moment, all hope of the was then-was stationed at Fremantle, game they were stalking, and only a man under authority, having sol. tried to find water. None of them knew diers, that is to say, a detachment of in what direction to look; there might the mounted police, under him. He be none for miles and miles, their only hated the place, and no wonder, if you chance was to go back the way they knew all about it; but since he was had come, or, failing that, to keep to there, and couldn't help himself, he the westward, which must, in the end, did his duty as well as he knew how, bring them back to the forest-country. and generally made the best of things. They camped at night in the scrub. He was not a genius, nor in any way The supply in their water skins had remarkable, only an honest, kindly been exhausted long before. Their Englishman, who hated with his whole horses were suffering cruelly, and three soul whatever was base, or cruel, or could be got no farther. Lethbridge unclean, and had learnt from Arnold- saw there was nothing for it but to he was an old Rugby boy—to believe shoot the poor brutes. And then they in God, and not be ashamed to say so. went on-struggling along as well as
Now it happened that a man escaped they could, between an iron earth and from the chain-gang at Rockingham, a brazen sky. About the middle of and had to be tracked down and the afternoon the sergeant, Waite, caught. They had nearly captured dropped in his tracks; he had grumbled him once already in the bush on the continuously from the time that the Upper Avon River; but he fought like tracker's desertion had been discovered; a madman, killed two men outright, and, in spite of all warnings, recklessly wounded the sergeant in command of drunk up his water while it lasted. He the party, and got away at last. And was a coarse, brutal man, whom LethLethbridge found himself detailed to bridge had never liked, but one could take command of a fresh party–a ser- not have been human and not pity him geant, six troopers and a native tracker now. But it was not all pity that sent -and follow up the poor, desperate a chill to Lethbridge's heart, as he wretch till they found him.
knelt beside him and found that he They did not succeed. They marched could not rise; it was the feeling that many a weary mile through bush and this was the beginning of the end. But swamp, and at last into the open scrub it would not do to give in; and, at any which is the thirst country. The rate, he would not be the man to do it. tracker ran away, tired of a prolonged “Two of you try to carry him," he and apparently unprofitable job, and said. not one of the party had the slightest But the sergeant was a heavy man, idea where they were. The ground was and already it was as much as they loose sand, the weird, gray, shadeless could do to keep on their feet. They