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itself were then. At that time more which led to General de Galliffet's than 32 per cent of the newly-married resignation. It showed
more could not sign their names namely, 26 what dangers are lurking under the per cent of the bridegrooms, and 37 parliamentary surface. Not from inper cent of the brides. In some Eng- creased ill-health did the pitiless slaughlish counties the number of the un- terer of the Commune resign, but belettered was over 56 per cent. Such cause he would not go to the full dewas the result of the hypocritical fear sirable length against former military of “pauperizing" the people by gratui. comrades, even though, for a while, he tous instruction.
had acted with a firm hand against The still backward state of the some of the worst offenders. large rural population in France is al. I may say that when General Gallit. ways a menace to the Republic. When fet was first appointed by President Paris also goes wrong politically, that Loubet as a sort of terrifying Sarlour danger becomes great indeed. The of the imperilled Republic, I expressed "City of Light,” to use Victor Hugo's strong apprehensions to an old friend, phrase, lost its head at Boulanger's a well-known scientist, who had gone time completely. Had the "brave Gen- through the Revolution of 1848 and the eral” not been kept back (in truly coup d'état of 1851, and who thus beFrench manner), from action at the came, for a time, a prisoner and an last moment, and persuaded to fly exile. I thought Galliffet himself bad by his paramour, over whose grave he to be watched very closely. This view afterwards shot himself at Brussels was held by my French friend to be when he had become penniless, the fate one of unnecessary alarm. Now, howof the Republic would have been ever, both he and another old associate sealed.
practically acknowledge that Galliffet Now, in the last municipal elections could not be trusted any longer in his Paris has once more gone wrong. From dealing with the military clique. Or being formerly Red it has this time General André, who has been put in his voted Black, at the beck and call of place, I am informed that “he is of no the military anti-Dreyfus gang. Such importance whatever, but devoted to the is the explanation given in letters from Republic—which is a point not to be French friends.
neglected.” Whilst we were at Paris, shortly be- My personal experience, strangely fore those elections, the friends with
enough, has been for years to this whom I discussed the situation did not effect, that otherwise careful and perforesee any coming trouble either in spicacious French politicians often municipal affairs, which were on the seem to lose the power of correct judg. point of being decided, or in Parlia- ment shortly before a fatal event or a ment, which was not then in session. I highly critical contingency. Fortuexpressed a different view. So little nately the Republic has had a great did a distinguished member of the deal of luck in her many troublous comHouse of Deputies apprehend a coming plications, which are marked by the row in that rather turbulent Assembly,
names of Marshal MacMahon; Gamthat when I asked him on what day the
betta, the demagogic Cæsarist; Boulan. sittings would begin again, he actually ger; and the conspiratory group of deepconfessed that he did not know; and he ly-tainted military men of recent date. seemed to care very little. Yet, no
It must, however, not be forgotten that sooner was the Chamber opened than
if a considerable section of the Parisian there followed a terribly stormy scene,
masses goes wrong, the public peril
becomes such that only an ambitious good connections in high social circles general, who can draw a few regiments here, has for years been such an adafter him, is required for undoing the mirer of the institutions of this country Republic.
that he generally spoke of it as his Since Napoleon III rebuilt Paris on “home." In a "Farewell to London" a plan he had already formed as an he said, years ago: exile-that is, by cutting large, straight streets across the town for the effective “On my return, I shall carry with me operation of ordnance-resistance by many lively recollections, and a deep building barricades has become well
and inexpressible sense of gratitude
towards those with whom I have come nigh impossible. Let us hope that a
in contact, and of respect and honor coming man is not hidden somewhere
for the English race in general, inwho will one day suddenly and dicta- finitely exceeding that which I felt torially make an end of a state of when I first landed in England.” things which so frequently verges upon a collapse. Were a coup d'état carried
In a pamphlet, “The Bulwark of Inout, it would inevitably lead to war
dia,” the same author strongly took as a means of escaping from internal sides with England as against Russia's difficulties created by the distracting
designs on Afghanistan. Wise words condition of Opposition parties. This
of warning were also uttered by him ever-recurring cycle of revolution, re
on the bad treatment of Indians by action, war and revolution again, has
English officials and residents. marked the history of France since
The alarm pervading the palace at 1789. And a similar possibility has to
Kabul just now, owing to Russian probe reckoned with.
cedure, has had its significant echo in The gathering clouds in the Far East communications recently made to me are another evil omen of coming con
by the former Chief Secretary of the flicts which may tax the whole strength
Ameer. Under such circumstances, I of England. The Czar, with all his
believe the letter of the Indian friend dulcet profession of humane care for
mentioned, who has hitherto been so the peace of the world, has quickly
warm an admirer of England, and enough made use of the South African
whose continued loyalty is not to be entanglement—first, by impressing the
doubted, is a noteworthy sign. He now Ameer of Afghanistan through a show
feels indescribably disappointed and of military force at the frontier; sec
shocked. I pass over what he says ondly, by putting Persia under Mus- approvingly of what I have written covite financial control; thirdly, by
on South African affairs. He then harrying Turkey in the matter of rail- goes on :ways in northern Asia Minor. These three feats are indicative of well-known
“In my opinion, those who have read ulterior designs of Czardom.
Sir Edward Clarke's speeches, Mr.
Frederic Harrison's Open Letter to I have before me a letter of twelve
Lord Salisbury, Mr. John Morley's pages, with large additional enclosures, speeches, etc., cannot but come to any from an Indian friend, who dwells on conclusion other than that this war is the great discontent prevailing in his
one of the most cruel, unjust, and inhunative country. He belongs to an an
ipan wars. It is difficult to believe cient Mohammedan family,
that a country like England, the nurwhose
sery of freedom and independence, members have been often in native
should wage it against a people so weak Government service. He himself hav- and insignificant as the Boers. Say ing studied in England and formed whatever Lord Salisbury and his associates may say, it is clear that gold- whole communication, including his fields and diamonds are the cause. Is
name, the writer says that I can make this the fruit of civilization? Civiliza
any use I like. Remembering the laws tion sometimes, perhaps often, does
or rather ordinances, under which Intbings which barbarism will be ashamed to do. Pride and wealth appear to have
dia is governed, this suggestion is cerblinded and spoilt Englishmen. ...I tainly a proof of courage and, it seems am following events with much anxi
to me, a serious sign of the times. ety and interest, and pray for an early
Summing up the whole situation, I termination of the war."
hold that there are great perils ahead The writer refers to the collections for England. Friendly warning may of money made in India for present be unwelcome to those heedlessly and war purposes, though millions and mil- headlessly bent upon a course which lions of people there know nothing was formerly denounced by its own about this war, and famine and plague originator as the most risky and the decimate vast districts. "Englishmen most baneful imaginable. But for the in this country," he continues, "are calm observer there can be no doubt very keen about what they call their that the conscience of the civilized prestige. They are determined to main. world has, in this South African war, tain it at any price. It seems to me been as much shocked as if some Constrange, very strange indeed, that in tinental Power were to destroy by money matters they should forget it." force of arms the independence and He then pleads for "spending such col- the Republican institutions of Switzerlected money in the relief of the famine land, or the independence and the which has been ravaging India." In somewhat Conservative institutions of an exposition comprising six folio pages the Netherlands. An outcry of indig. he points out the mistakes committed nation at such a deed would ring all by Government in its ordinances con- over the world. Such an outcry has cerning the plague. He does not do so rung, in the present instance, from Eufrom any religious prejudice. In his rope to America, and it is being taken letter he sympathetically mentions up even by cultured Indians of the most Huxley and Herbert Spencer. But he loyal character. The friends of Eng. cannot conceal his apprehension about land abroad are angered and sad at the opinions of the hundreds of millions heart. Her enemies are reckoning upon who are subject to English rule having what may befall her some day, when often been unnecessarily offended. This
she will be assailed by a variety of combined with the heavy taxation of complications. More than one stormthe suffering masses and the offensive cloud is already in course of formation. social treatment of the higher-class The time may not be too far when those natives by Englishmen in India, con- answerable for what is done now will stitutes, in his view, a danger not to appear before History, not as the Mak. be lightly disregarded.
ers of new Imperial Glories, but as the Of his ideas about the war, and his
thoughtless Unmakers of England.
Karl Blind. The Fortnightly Review.
CONVERSATIONS WITH GOUNOD.
The following notes of conversation used a French one, and then he would with Charles Gounod seem so charac- go on talking in his own tongue. If he teristic of the man and of the artist was speaking of something that interthat, on reading them over after the ested him he was carried away by his lapse of many years, I have thought it subject, and seemed to irradiate an a pity to reconsign them to oblivion in enthusiasm which it was impossible to the old desk where they lay hidden. I resist. give them to the public, therefore, just One of his favorite themes was Palas they are, because if I began to take estrina. “Palestrina's music,” he said, out all reference to myself, they would "Is holy music. I do not say sacred no longer have the merit of showing music, because God knows what is not the kind and affectionate disposition brought out as such in these days. But of the Master who did not care what it is holy; it is the music of worship, trouble he took to please people whom passionless, calm, pure,
majestic, he liked.
strong as the Faith! It is outside of I was passionately fond of music, earth and its passions; it swells and and I had the intense desire to see falls like the waves of the sea; it is something of a life for and in art which the music of the supernatural." And takes hold of most young folks who again, another day, he said: “Paleshave heard operas and read books trina's music is immense, it is like the about musicians, but whom a cruel sea. A gentleman said to me, 'What fate has kept hitherto afar from what was that tedious piece by Palestrina ?' seems to them a world of enchantment. I answered him by a little story. When I endorsed upon taith the saying of my mother-in-law, who is a very exGeorge Sand: “To be an artist,--only citable, enthusiastic person, first saw that makes life worth living!"
the sea, she exclaimed, 'Oh, my friend, In this state of mind my happiness how magnificent, how sublime!' My may be imagined when a friend asked father-in-law answered, "There is cer. my mother and me to accompany her tainly a great deal of water. Yet, you to one of Gounod's Sunday afternoon see, a great deal of water makes somereceptions. It was at the time when thing, it makes the ocean. But Paleshe was living in London after the trina's music requires a long training French war. I felt a little alarmed and tradition [to execute). I can aswhen I was introduced to the Master, sure you that when I heard that piece but he at once placed me at my ease, in St. Peter's at Rome, it filled me; it and thus began one of the pleasantest took away my breath with its granfriendships of my life. For three or deur." four months I saw Gounod frequently, I set down now some of his stray reand after some of these interviews I marks. wrote down what he said, exactly in “I believe that Mozart was neither his own words. As a rule, he spoke to more nor less than Raphael in another us in English, which he had not learned form. His genius is the same, is idenvery long, but which he spoke with a tical, in another art." command and felicity of language rare "Singing is expression, singing is among foreigners. Sometimes, how. painting. The voice should interpret ever, he was at a loss for a word and every thought and feeling differently.
So is music altogether. Should I make And then, look at Beethoven! Look an angel speak as Faust would speak at him after the long martyrdom of to Margaret, or should I address a his life dying with the words on his Pagan goddess as I should address a lips, 'And yet I thought that I had Christian saint?"
something here! Placing his hand on "I am now writing something, some- his head a little while before he died thing of the Annunciation. And the and saying, “And yet I thought that I other night I was thinking of the had something here! Ah, it is terrible! words: "The Angel Gabriel was sent But you will find it always; like Jesus, from God into a city of Galilee named the greatest and the best live among Nazareth to a virgin espoused to a robbers to die among robbers." man whose name was Joseph of the “The beautiful in art is the calm, the House of David, and the Virgin's name deep. Go to the British Museum and was Mary. And the Angel came unto see the statues of Phidias; they are a her and said “Hail!" ' and then at the school for every art, for art is one; words, 'He shall be great and shall be there is no separate rule. They are called the Son of the Highest, and the calm and restful. Nothing contorted, Lord God shall give unto Him the nothing convulsionnaire is artistic.” throne of His father David,' I heard “Against the perfectly Righteous such chords, such music, as I never there were found two false witnesses. heard before. I wrote it all down." One of the most magnificent words in
If I were only twenty, I would go the Gospel in which all the words are into a convent for ten years. I would magnificent is, where it is written, after be there alone with my God like Moses Jesus had been persecuted by all the on Sinai; I would work towards my wretched busybodies and slanderers, ideal. But there is no faith in the 'But he was going,'-going away from world; people can hear but one word, the barking of dogs, the sneers of the money, money, money, money."
Pharisees, the turmoil and toil of life.” "I do not gain, I lose by hearing my “Il n'y a pas de grand homme; ce qui works performed. I cannot let my est grand dans l'homme, ce n'est pas 'Polyeucte' come out for there are no l'homme, c'est Dieu." tenors (1873). I could not bear, as I “Beethoven sold his Ninth Symphony have borne, to hear my work destroyed for £20!" and murdered; I could not endure that “Quand je travaille c'est que je suis suffering; it would kill me. Now, you en paradis. Je me dis toujours que know, the greatest, perhaps the only, quand je mourrai je verrai ce que je pleasure of art is the conception. What cherche. I shall see what I search for! I hear can never be adequately inter- On ne parle pas de l'art dans le ciel preted. I think the second act, the mais il est dit qu'on chantera." baptism of Polyeucte, is the finest I Once when advised to take rest he ever wrote."
answered: "Qu'est ce que je puis faire "Music is the most beautiful art, but si je ne travaille pas? Work is life.” it is the most detestable profession. "I have a conviction that my 'ReBut is that not right? That which be- demption' will be my last work. What longs most to heaven should fare worst can I do after that?
And in opera, on earth."
what can I do now? There are Mire. “People will run after all that is ille, Marguerite and Juliette; these are superficial and frivolous, the plaisan- my three women. But if we put on terie de l'art. Yes, after Offenbach and one side Mireille, and say, Marguerite, his kind. I hate that sort of music! Juliette and Polyeucte-what more can